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CHESTER-CHESTERFIELD.

of the lymphatic system of vessels, by which the crumbling sandstone, 375 by 200 feet, with a chyle and lymph are discharged into the blood. tower of 127 feet. It was formerly the church of The very great importance of these parts to life, the abbey of St. Werburgh, and for 650 years was and their great liability to deranged action, renders one of the richest in England. St. John's Church, the C. the seat of a large proportion of the diseases now partially in ruins, is supposed to have been which afflict humanity, and especially of those founded by Ethelred in 698. The Dee is crossed which end in death. Indeed, of the three organs by a stone arch of 200 feet span, the largest stone which the great physiologist, Bichat, called the arch that has been built. The barracks contain

tripod of life'-viz., the brain, heart, and lungs- nearly 30,000 stand of arms. The C. railway the C. contains two; hence its condition in almost station is the centre of six important railways, and all diseases, and especially in fatal diseases, is an is one of the largest and finest in the kingdom. object of the utmost solicitude to the physician. c. has manufactures of white-lead, sheet-lead,

The diseases of the C. depend in some cases on lead-pipes, and patent-shot. The chief exports alterations in its form, as by Rickets (q. v.) and are checse, copper, cast iron, and coal. C. has other diseases affecting the bones in early child- many charitable and religious institutions, is the hood or in youth, as by too tight lacing in girls. abode of many wealthy families, and has long The lungs and air-tubes are subject to a great been noted for its races. Pop. 27,756. C. returns variety of diseases, among which the principal are two members to parliament. In 1859, 3090 vessels, consumption or phthisis pulmonalis, pneumonia, of 157,834 tons, entered and cleared the port, but pleurisy, bronchitis or pulmonary catarrh. The the silting up of the mouth of the Dee is against the heart is subject to pericarditis, endocarditis, and shipping trade. chronic organic disease of the valves, as well as to C. was Derana Castra, or Colonia Devana, an enlargement (hypertrophy), dilatation, and degen. important Roman station, and has yielded many erations of its muscular texture. The aorta, or Roman remains-as masonry, coins, inscriptions, great artery, is often affected with degeneration fibulæ, altars, a hypocaust, and a statue of Pallas. of its walls, and occasionally with aneurism. The C. was only in 828 taken by the Saxons from the great veins are liable to over-distention, and to Britons. Its strength made it a refuge against obstruction by tumours or by coagulation of the the descents of the Danes and Northmen, but the contained blood. The thoracic duct is also some. Danes took it in 894. Ethelfrida retook it in 904, times obstructed by external pressure ; and the and rebuilt the walls. From the Norman Conquest esophagus has a number of diseases usually to the time of Henry III., the Earls of Chester described in connection with the alimentary canal. had their own courts and parliaments at C., with Most of the diseases here referred to are described 8 subfeudatories and the superiors of the great cither under special articles, or under LUNGS and religious houses, Cheshire being then a county HEART.

palatine. Henry III. made his eldest son Earl The examination of the C. by physicians is of Chester, a title held since by the Prince of now conducted not only by an investigation of Wales. Llewelyn ravaged C. in 1256. The 25 the symptoms or obvious characters of the disease, famous C. mysteries or religious plays by Randle but by a minute and elaborate examination into the a monk (1250-1260), were acted in the church. physical condition of the contained organs by means After a long siege, the parliamentary forces of Auscultation (q..v.), Percussion (q. v.), Measure. | defeated those of Charles I. at C., and took the ment, &c. The application of these methods is too city. Pearson and Porteus were bishops of Chester. complicated and technical for explanation in detail, Trinity Church contains the remains of Matthew but their results will be shortly alluded to incident- Henry, the biblical commentator. The comally in the articles above referred to on the diseases merce of C. has steadily declined since the rise of of the chest. The name of Laennec (q. v.) will be Liverpool. long remembered in medicine as that of a great |

CHE'STERFIELD, a municipal borough in original observer, who has contributed more than

Derbyshire, near the Hipper and Rother rivulets, any other to the progress of knowledge in this de.

24 miles north-north-east of Derby by rail. There partment.

are manufactures of leather, silk, lace, earthenware, CHE'STER, an ancient and episcopal city, muni- |

and machinery; and there are several blastingcipal and parliamentary borough, and river-port,

furnaces in the neighbourhood. The manufactures the capital of Cheshire, on the right bank of the

are increasing rapidly, and the minerals in the Dee, 22 miles from the mouth of its estuary, 16

neighbourhood, including coal, iron, potters' and miles south-east of Liverpool. It stands on a

brick clay, slates, and lead, are being greatly rocky sandstone height, and is mostly enclosed

developed. The population, which in 1851 was in an oblong quadrangle of ancient walls, 7 or 8 7100, is growing fast. Trade is facilitated by feet thick, nearly 2 miles in circuit, and with 4

a canal connecting C. with the Trent, and by the gates, and now forming a promenade with parapets, | main line of the Midland Railway. where two persons can walk abreast. The two main streets cross each other at right angles, CHESTERFIELD, EARL or (Philip DORNER and were cut out of the rock by the Romans STANHOPE), an English statesman and author, eldest 4 to 10 feet below the level of the houses. The son of the third Earl of Chesterfield, was born in houses in these streets are curiously arranged : London, September 22, 1694, and studied at Camthe front parts. of their second stories, as far back bridge.' In 1714, he made the tour of Europe, and :as :16 feet, form a continuons paved promen: de or the following year was appointed a gentleman of the covered gallery, open in front where there are bedchamber to the Prince of Wales. About the įpillars and steps up from the street below, with same time, he was elected M.P. for St. Germans, in private houses above, inferior shops and warehouses Cornwall. In 1726, on his father's death, he became below, and the .chief siops of the town within. Earl of C., and in 1727 was sworn a privy councillor. · "This arrangement, called the 'rows,' together In 1728, he was appointed ambassador extraordinary with the ancient :walls, and the half-timbered to Holland, and in 1730 was made a knight of the construction of many of the houses, with quaintly Garter and Lord Steward of the Household, but soon -carved ornamented gables of the 16th C., render resigned that office. An eloquent and frequent

C. perhaps the most picturesque city in England. speaker, he took an active part in all the important (C. cathedral is an irregular massive structure of business in the House of Lords, and was for several

CHESTERFIELD INLET-CHEVREUIL

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years the strenuous opponent of Sir Robert Walpole, assisted Mr. Cobden in carrying out the treaty beo then premier. In 1744, he connected himself with tween France and G. Britain, and in 1861 was made the administration, and in 1745 was re-appointed & grand officer of the Legion of Honour, ambassador to the Hague, but was soon nominated CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE, in Fortification, is a Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, where he rendered hastily constructed substitute for a regular abattis himself exceedingly popular. In October 1746, he to stay the progress of an advancing enemy. It becanje one of the principal secretaries of state, but may be constructed in any way of wood or two years after, decliuing health caused him to iron, provided it presents an array of sharp or resign office, and in 1752 he was seized with deafness.

I 1702 he was seized with dearbess ragged points towards the enemy. Sometimes it Distinguished by brilliancy of wit, polished grace of is made of barrels or centres of timber, with spears manners, and elegance of conversation, he lived in springing out from all sides, in such a way as to intimacy with Pope, Swift, Bolingbroke, and other constitute both a support and a defence. Among eminent men of the day. Dr. Johnson, whose Dictionary, on its appearance, he affected to recommend, called him a wit among lords, and a lord among wits.' He wrote several papers, on temporary subjects, in The Craftsman, The World, periodicals of the time; but he is now best known by his Letters to his Son, Philip Dormer, written for the improvement of his manners. These letters have been often republished, and they afford a good idea of the mental and moral calibre of the author.

Cheval-de-Frise. Lord C. died March 24th, 1773.

CHESTERFIELD INLET, a long and narrow | the matériel of an army under the care of the gulf, penetrating to the westward from the north-engineers, are sometimes comprised C. formed of west of Hudson's Bay. Its extreme dimensions are cylindrical iron barrels, about 6 feet long, each 250 and 25 miles; and the lat, and long. of its having 12 holes to receive as many spears; the mouth are 63° 30' N., and 90° 40' W. C. I. is stud- spears can be packed away in the barrel, when not ded nearly throughout with islands.

in use. Each such piece constitutes a cheval ; CHEVALIEʻR (Fr. cheval, a horse), in Heraldry,

and many such, ranged end to end, form chevaux, a horseman armed at all points. In its more general

to be used in ditches around a fortification, on acceptation in signifies a Knight (q. v.). See also

the berme beneath the parapet, behind the glacis, BANNERET and CHIVALRY.

across a breach in the rampart, or in any spot

where a check to the storming-party is needed. At CHEVALIER, MICHEL, an eminent. French

Badajoz, during the Peninsular war, great service economist, born at Limoges, January 13, 1806, was,

was rendered by a C. formed of sword-blades fixed at the age of 18, admitted a pupil of the Polytechnic into beams of wood. The name is said to have been School. Thence he went to the School of Mines, derived from "Friesland horse,' and to have been and some days before the revolution of July, he first applied by the French during the wars of the was attached as an engineer to the departinent dú 17th century Nord. Led away by the theories of the St. Simonians,

CHE’VIOT HILLS, a mountain-range occupyhe was for two years editor of the Globe, the organ of that sects Joining the schism of M, Enfantin, he

ing contiguous parts of the counties of Northumtook an active part in the compilation of the Livre

berland and Roxburgh, on the English and Scotch Nouveau, the standard of their doctrines, and in

borders, and running 35 miles from near the

junction of the Till and Tweed, in the north-east, to 1832 suffered six months' in prisonment, on account

the sources of the Liddel, in the south-west. The of his free speculations in regard to religious and social questions, being regarded as an outrage on

highest points are C. Hill, 2684 feet, and Carter public morals. On his liberation, he at once

Fell, 2020. West of Carter Fell, these hills chiefly l'etracted all that he had written in the Globe

| consist of carboniferous sandstone and limestone, contrary to Christianity, and against marriage, and

with protrusions of trap. The east portion of the obtained from M. Thiers a special mission to the

ärange is porphyritic, and includes higher and United States, to inquire into the systems of water

more or less conical bills. In the C. É, are the

| sources of the Liddel, Tyne, Coquet, and some of and railway communication there. The results were published in his Letters from North America

the branches of the Tweed. Grouse abound, and (1836, 2 vols. 8vo). After a visit to England,

the golden eagle is seen. These hills afford pasture he issued a work, entitled Material Interests in

for the Cheviots, a superior breed of sheep. They Tirance: Public Works, Roads, Canals, Railways

have been the scene of many bloody contests (1838, 8vo). He was named, successively, Chevalier

between the English and Scotch. of the Legion of Honour, Councillor of State (1838),

CHEVREʻTTE. See Gyn. il member of the Superior Council of Commerce, and CHEVREUIL, MICHEL EUGÈNE, a distinguished of the Royal Council of the University; and, in French chemist, born August 31, 1786, at Angers, 1840, Professor of Political Economy in the College in the department of Maine-et-Loire. In 1820, he of France. In 1840, he was re-established in the was made an examiner in the Polytechnic School; Corps of Mines as engineer of the first-class; and in and in 1824, director of the dyeing department 1845-1846, was elected a member of the Chamber | in the manufactory of the Gobelins. This last of Deputies. Under the Republic, he lost his position led him to institute a series of accurate various employments, and was thrown into the researches on colours, the results of which he made ranks of the counter-revolutionists. In opposition known in a series of Mémoires of the Academy of to the different Socialist writers of the day, he Sciences. Previous to this, C. had made himself published, in 1848, Letters on the Organisation of known in the scientific world by a variety of Labour and the Question of the Labourers; and researches and writings. In 1826, he was made a after the coup d'état of December 2, was restored member of the Academy; and in 1830, Professor of to lis professorship, and named councillor of state, Applied Chemistry in the Museum of Natural He is the author of various works on industrial History. Besides a great number of articles in policy in the interest of Free Trade. In 1860 he | the Journal des Savants, beginning with 1820, the CHEVRON-CHIANA.

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following works of C. deserve mention : Leçons de , exclaimed: "Tell him he will find one day more Chiinie appliquée à la Teinture (2 vols., Par. 1828 than enough. Accordingly, at the time of the -1831): De la Loi du Contraste simultané des hay-harvest, Percy, with stag-hounds and archers, ('ouleurs et de l'Assortiment des Objets coloriés passed into the domains of his foe, and slewa (Par. 1839); and his Théorie des Effets Optiques hundred fallow-deer and harts of grice.' When the que presentent les Etoffes de Soie (Lyon, 1846). Des English had hastily cooked their game, and were Couleurs et de leur application aux Arts Industriels about to retire, Earl Douglas, clad in armour, and a l'aide des cercles chromatique in 1854, and contribu- heading his Scottish spears, came on the scene. tions to the proceedings of scientific societies. He is Haughty challenge and defiance passed between also the author of Lettres adressees a M. Villemain the potentates, and the battle joined. In the centre sur la Methode en General (1855).

of the fray the two leaders met : ‘Yield thee, Percy!' CHE'VRON, in Heraldry, an ordinary represent- cried Douglas. "I will yield to no Scot that ever was ing the couples or rafters of a house, and supposed born of woman!' cried Percy. During this coll to betoken the accomplishment of some memorable an English arrow struck Douglas to the heart. work, or the completion of some business of import 'Fight on, my merry men !' cried he, as he died. ance, generally the foundation of his own family by Percy, with all the chivalrous feeling of his race, the bearer. The C. is formed of two lines placed took the dead man by the hand, and vowed that

he would have given all his lands to save him, for a braver knight never fell by such a chance. Sir Hugh Montgomery, having seen the fall of Douglas, clapped spurs to his horse, dashed on Percy, and struck his spear through his body a long cloth-yard and more. Although the leaders on both sides had

fallen, the battle, which had begun at break of day, Chevron. Chevronel. Per Chevron.

continued till the ringing of the curfew-bell. Scots

men and English men claim the victory. When the pyramidically, i. c., joined together at the top, and battle ended, representatives of every noble family descending to the extremities of the shield in the on either side of the border lay on the bloody form of a pair of compasses. Chevronel, a diminutive / greensward. -half the size of the chevron. Per chevron, or CHEYNE, GEORGE, an eminent Scottish physiparty per chevron, is where the shield is divided by cian, born in Aberdeenshire in 1671, was at first a line in the form of the chevron.

| intended for the church, but preferring the medical CHEVRON, in Architecture, a moulding in the profession, studied at Edinburgh, under the celeform of a succession of chevrons, otherwise called a brated Dr. Pitcairn. u 1700, after taking the zigzag moulding. In general, it is cbaracteristic of degree of M.D., he repaired to London, where he

practised in winter, and in Bath in summer. From

full living he became enormously fat, as well as IN CONTE

asthmatic, and resolved on strictly adhering to a milk and vegetable diet, from which he derived so much benefit that he recommended it in all his principal medical treatises. In 1702, he published

A New Theory of Fevers, and, in 1703, a work

| On Fluxions, which procured him admission into Chevron, or Zigzag :

the Royal Society. Among his other works are : Andover, Hants.

| Philosophical Principles of Natural Religion, 1705 ;

Observations on Gorit, 1722; Essay on Health and Norman architecture, but is also found with the Long Life, 1725; The English Malady, a Treatise pointed arch, during the transition period from on Nervous Disorders, 1733; Essay on Regimen, Norman to Early English.

1739; Account of Himself and of his various Cures, CHEVRONS are braids or bands of lace, worn

| 1743. Dr. C. died at Bath, April 12, 1743. as distinguishing marks by the non-commissioned CHIABRERA, GABRIELLO, an Italian poet. born officers of regiments. The corporals, and the various at Savona, 8th June 1552. He was educated at grades of sergeant, have C. varying from one to four Romė under the care of his uncle, after whose death in number, either of white or of gold lace. In most he entered the service of Cardinal Cornaro, but was corps, they are worn on the right arm only; but in obliged to leave it in consequence of the revenge the Guards, the Fusiliers, the Light Infantry, and he had taken on an Italian nobleman who had the Grenadier and Light Infantry companies of the done him an injury. In his 50th year he married, ordinary regiments, on both arms.

and remained independent for the rest of his life. CHEVY CHASE, the name of perhaps the most

He died 14th October 1637. C.'s poetical faculty famous of British ballads. In its present form, the

developed itself late. Having commenced to read piece does not seem to be older than about the

the Greek writers at home, he conceived a great beginning of the 17th century. But more ancient

admiration of Pindar, and strove successfully to versions, doubtless, existed ; and Bishop Percy has

imitate him. He was not less happy in catching published a poem of the 16th C., which has

the naive and pleasant spirit of Anacreon; his obviously suggested passages in the more recent

canzonetti being distinguished for their ease and composition. It is impossible to reconcile its inci

elegance, while his Lettere Famigliari was the first dents with history, but the event which is meant

attempt to introduce the poetical epistle into Italian to be commemorated appears to have been the literature. C. also wrote several epics, bucolics, and battle of Otterburn, in August 1388-a fight which

t. 1388-a ficht which dramatic poems. His Opere appeared at Venice, in Froissart declares to have been the bravest and 6 vols., 1768. most chivalrous which was fought in his day. CHIANA (in ancient times, Clanis), a river in According to the ballad, Percy vowed that he Tuscany, formed by several streams from the would enter Scotland, and take his pleasure for three Apennines, and falling into the Arno a few miles days in the woods of his rival, and slay the deer below Arezzo. Along with another river of the therein at will. Douglas, when he heard the vaunt, / same name, which, flowing in the opposite direction,

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CHIAPA-CHICAGO.

enters the Paglia at Orvieto, it waters the perfectly, the place is also noted for its light, handsome, cheap level Val di Chiana, which its overflow rendered furniture, made chiefly of cherry-wood. The anchoonce the most pestilential district of Italy. Ferdi- vy fishery is important; and in the vicinity are ex nand III. and his minister, Fossombroni, undertook tensive slate-quarries. Pop. 10,900.-The provinoe extensive hydraulic works for improving the bed of C., of which the above town is the capital, has an of the river, which they led through the lakes of area of 155 square miles, with a population in 1857 Montepulciano and Chiusi, and employed for the of 109,212. Its surface is generally mountainous, artificial irrigation of the whole valley. The district but it has valleys of great fertility, yielding grain, has since become the most fruitful, perhaps, of all grapes, olives, &c. Cattle, sheep, goats, and silkItaly—a perfect garden, supporting a population of worms are reared. more than 100,000.

CHIAVE'NNA, a town of Lombardy, beautifully CHIA'PA, or CHIAPAS a state in the south-east situated in the midst of vineyards, at the junction of the Mexican confederation, lying to the south- of the valley of St Giacomo and Val Bregaglia, 38 west of Yucatan, and extending in lat. between miles north-north-west of Bergamo. It is over 16° and 18° N., and in long. between 90° 30' and looked by the Rhetian Alps; and its position on 94° W. It contains about 19,000 square miles, and the Splügen road secures it considerable traffic. about 44,000 inhabitants, chiefly aborigines. Near Silk, cotton, and a coarse ware, cut out of a soft Palenque, one of the towns of C., are some of the stone found in the neighbourhood, are the chief most extensive and magnificent ruins in Central manufactures. Pop. about 4000. America.

CHICA, a red feculent substance, valuable as a CHIARAMO'NTË, a town of Sicily, about 32 dye-stuff, giving an orange-red colour to cotton. It miles west-south-west of Syracuse. It is situated is obtained by boiling the leaves of a species of on a hill, and has well-built, regular streets. Wine Bignonia (B. Chica), a native of the banks of the of good quality is produced in the district. Pop. Cassiquiare and the Orinoco. The Indians use it about 8000.

for painting their bodies. The C. plant is a climber, CHIA'RI, a town of Lombardy, 14 miles west with abruptly bipinnate leaves, smooth, heart-shaped of Brescia, on the railway between that place and leaflets, and flowers in pendulous axillary panicles. Milan. It is an ancient place, many Roman remains See BIGNONIACEÆ. being still found here; and at one tiine it was CHICA, PITO, POSO, or MAIZE BEER, is a strongly fortified, but its walls are now ruinous. fermented liquor made from maize or Indian corn. Silk is the staple manufacture. Pop. 10,000. It is much used in some parts of South America,

CHIAR OSCU'RO (Ital.), an artistic term, and is made in a similar manner to ordinary beer; composed of two Italian words, the one of whicii į but the Indians sometimes prepare it by chewing signifies light, the other darkness or shadow. But instead of crushing the grains; and that which is so C. signifies neither light nor shadow; neither is it prepared (Chicha mascada, or chewed C.) is most adequately described by saying that it is the art of highly esteemed by them. When they wish to disposing of both the lights and shadows in a picture, make this liquor particularly strong and well so long as either is regarded apart from the other. It flavoured, they have also a practice of pouring it is rather the art of representing light in shadow and into an earthen jar which contains soine pounds of shadow in light, so that the parts represented in beef; and having made the jar perfectly air-tight, shadow shall still have the clearness and warmth of they bury it several feet deep in the ground, where those in light, and those in light the depth and soft- it is left for several years. On the birth of a child, ness of those in shadow. It is not the making of it is their custom thus to bury a jar of C., to be the one die softly and gradually away into the drunk at the same child's marriage. C. has an other, but the preservation of both in combiation, I agreeable flavour, and is very strong and intoxias we constantly see it in nature, when the light is cating. A spirituous liquor is obtained from it by not the mere glare of the sun striking on a parti- distillation; vinegar is also made from it. cular object, nor the shadow the entire absence of CHICACO'LE, a town of the district of Ganjam, the influence of light. That the skilful treatment in the presidency of Madras, being in lat, 18° 18' N., of C. is a matter of extreme difficulty, is plain and long. 83° 58' E., and lying 415 miles to the enough from the very small number of artists south-west of Calcutta, and 435 to the morth-east of who ever attain to it. Still, it is a branch of art | Madras. It stands on the left or north bank of the without the mastery of which no painting can be Naglaudee, not far from the Bay of Bengal. It is successful in any department. It is as indispen- a military station, and contains, besides its garrieon, sable in portrait-painting as in the highest depart- about 50,000 native inhabitants. The place has a ments of ideal art; and though a just and even reputation for its richly worked muslins. a lofty conception of the subject may be dis- CHICAGO (pronounced She-kaw-go), the princitinctly indicated by attention to form alone, it is pal city of Illinois and seat of Cook Co., is situated on impossible that its realisation can ever be satis- the s. w. shore of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of factorily accomplished by anyone who has not Chicago river, lat. 41° 50'20" N., long. 87° 37' W., mastered this most subtle mode of handling and 591 feet above the level of the Atlantic ocean. colours. The only mode by which a knowledge The name is of Indian origin, signifying wild of C. can be attained, so as to apply it to onion, and was first mentioned by Perrot, a Frenchpractice, is by studying it, as exhibited by such man, who visited it in 1671. In 1803 a stockade fort painters as Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt, and, above was erected near the month of the C. river, and all, Correggio.

named Fort Dearborn. This was destroyed by the CHIAVARI. a maritime town of Piedmont. | Indians in 1812, rebuilt in 1816, and finally removed situated on the Gulf of Rapallo, at the mouth of | in 1857. the Sturla, 21 miles east-south-east of Genoa. The Cook county was settled in 1831, and in 1832 houses in general are well built, with open arcades contained about twelve families besides the garrison skirting the narrow streets, c. has several fine of Ft. Dearborn. The town of C. was organized Aug. churches, the principal of which is the Madonna | 10, 1833, and became a city March 4, 1837. In 1833 del' Orto. Numerous picturesque old towers, one of it was the scene of an Indian treaty, at which 7000 them of considerable size, are scattered over the Pottowatomies ceded their lands preparatory to retown. Lace and silk are manufactured here: and moval west of the Mississippi.

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CHICHEN-CHICK PEA.

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The following table exhibits the rapid growth of C./ CHICHEN, a town of Central America, in the trom 1835 to 1870:

north-east of the peninsula of Yucatan, which sepaPopula

Assessed rates the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea, tion. valuation.

18 miles to the south-west of Valladolid. It is one 1835, .

3,265 4,470

$ 94,437 of the principal towns of the state, and is worthy 1845,

12088

3,065,022 of notice chiefly for the remains of an ancient city, 1850,

28,259

7,220 219

comprising a ruined temple 450 feet long, a pyramid 1855,

80,023

26,992,893 • 109,263

37,053,512

with a base of 550 feet square, and a domed edifice, 1865,

187,416

64,709,177 ornamented with sculpture. 1870 . . . 208,977 266,022,180

CHI'CHESTER, a municipal and parliamentary C. is built upon a prairie which originally was elen

borough and episcopal city in Sussex, 177 mills east- i vated but from 5 to 27 feet above the surface of the

north-east of Portsmouth. It stands on a plain lake. The principal streets and the older business

between an arm of the sea and the South Downs, houses have, within 14 years, been raised from 6 to 12 feet in order to obtain a better drainage. C. con-|

which rise gently on the north. It is well built, tains 48,300 houses, of which 6584 are constructed of

and has wide streets. The two main streets cross stone or brick, also 148 churches, which possess prop

at right angles, and meet in an elaborately worked erty valued at $10,500,000. It is supplied with

eight-sided cross. Within the suburbs the city is water by means of a tunnel extending 10.485 ft. be

surrounded by an ancient wall, 11 mile in circuit, neath Lake Michigan, and completed in 1868 at a

with some semicircular bastions, and now a procost of about $458,000. C. river and its branches

menade under the shade of elms. The cathedral, divide the city into three parts, which are connected erected in the 12th and 13th centuries, on the site by two tunnels beneath the river, each 300 feet long, 101

of a wooden one founded 1108, and burned 1114, with inclined approaches, and costing about $900,000. I mea

measures 410 by 227 feet, with a spire 300 feet high. Thirty bridges, turning on pivots to admit the pas-17h

The aisles are double-a mode of construction to sage of vessels, span the river., which is about 300 l be seen nowhere else in Britain. The cathedral feet wide, and forms, with its branches, a commodions has a rich choir, and portraits of the English harbour, with nearly 19 miles of wharfagre, of which sovereigns from the Conquest to George l., and of 13 miles are already improved.

the bishops down to the Reformation. The chief The Illinois and Michigan canal, completed in 1848. | trade is in agricultural produce and live-stock. connects Lake Michigan at Chicago with the Illinois. There are malting, brewing, and tanning estabiishand consequently with the Mississippi river. This ments. Pop. 8662. C. returns two members to canal is now being deepened six feet, and affords ac- parliament. The harbour, 2 miles to the south-west cess to 60,000 square miles of coal beds and to the of the city, is a deep inlet of the English Channel, vast quarries of Athens marble,' a superior building of about 8 square miles; has several creeks and material found 20 miles from C., and much resemb Thorney Isle; and is connected with C. by a canal. ling the Caen stone of Normandy (q. v.). C. commu- C. was the Roman Regnum, and has afforded Roman nicates by railroads with all parts of the U. States, remains--as a mosaic pavement, coins, urns, and an and is on one of the great lines of travel by which inscription of the dedication of a temple to Neptune the Atlantic seaboard is connected with the Pacific. and Minerva. C. was taken and partly destroyed, Twelve separate lines of railroads enter the city, and in 491, by the South Saxons. It was soon after about 280 trains arrive and depart daily.

| rebuilt by Cissa, their king, and called CissanSince 1854 C. has been the largest primary grain caster, or Cissa's Camp It was for some time the market, and since 1853 pork-packing has been con capital of the kingdom of Sussex. In 1642, the ducted on a larger scale than elsewhere. In 1869, royalists of C. surrendered to the parliamentarians, 403,102 head of cattle were received, and about after a siege of ten days. 100,000 head packed as beef; 1,661,869 hogs were CHICK PEA (Cicer), a genus of plants of the received, and about 550,000 packed as pork. The natural order Leguminose, sub-order Papilionaceus, sales of cattle, sheep, and swine in 1868 amounted to nearly $65,000,000. In 1869, 64,526,930 bushels of breadstuffs were received, and 56,759,719 bushels were shipped. C. is also the largest lumber market in the world. In 1868, 992,000,000 feet were received, and about 563,000,000 shipped, besides 537,000,000 shingles received and 456,000,000 shipped. In 1869, 991,000,000 feet were received, and 3810 houses erected at a cost of $16,000,000. The basiness ope rations of her citizens are enormous. In 1869, the goods received were valued at $416,650,000, and the wholesale sales at $471,283,300; estimated incomes at $73,000,000. The pumber of sheets of daily and weekly newspapers issued was 37,194,000. Fourteen national and scveral private banks are located in C., having an aggregate capital of $11,500,000, and a circulation of $4,630,730.

The 36 public schools of C. afford the means of education, free of charge, to every child in the city. A high school receives graduates from the public schools, wherein the children of the poorest may aspire to the highest honours in the classics and mod ern languages. There are also numerons private seminaries, five universities, four medical colleges, besides theological and scientific institutions, and an observatory furnished with the largest refracting telescope in the world, its object-glass being 184 inches

Chick Pean in diameter. The mean annual temperature of C. is 46.7°, and the mean annual rain-fall about 30.5 inches. I having pinnate leaves; solitary, axillary, stalked

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