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flowers; and two-seeded pods, inflated like bladders. varieties in dry sunny situations sometimes puzzling The common C. P. (C. arietinum) grows wild in the young botanists, from having only five or three cornfields of the countries around the Mediter- instead of ten stamens; but always characterised ranean Sea, and in many parts of the east. It is by having the stem curiously marked with a line an annual, 11-2 feet high, of a stiff upright habit, of hairs, which at each pair of leaves changes covered with glandular hairs. The seeds abound in from oue side to another, and in four changes comfarina, and have a slightly bitterish taste. They pletes the circuit of the stem. The leaves of C. are about the size of common peas, curiously afford a fine instance of the sleep of plants, closing wrinkled, so that they have been thought to up on the young shoots at night. C. is a good resemble a rani's (arietis) head. They are used as substitute for spinach or greens, although generally food, either boiled or roasted, and are the most little regarded except as a troublesome weed, or common parched pulse of the East. They are an gathered only by the poor to make poultices, for important article in French cookery. They have which it is very useful, or for feeding cage-birds, been in general use from the earliest times, and which are very fond both of its leaves and seeds. the plant is extensively cultivated in Egypt, Syria, A number of species of a nearly allied genus, India, the south of Europe, &c. Its cultivation ex. Cerastium, natives of Britain, also bear the name tends as far north as the southern parts of Germany; of C., or MOUSE-EAR C., and the name is occasionally but in the climate of Britain it is found too tender given to other plants, either botanically allied, or of to be a profitable crop. It is the Gram of India, and somewhat similar appearance. the Garvance of the French, whence the English name Caravances. The herbage affords a nutritious

CHICLA'NA, a town of Andalusia, Spain, about

12 miles south-east of Cadiz. food for cattle, and the seeds are one of the occa

It is pleasantly sional substitutes for coffee. In great summer heats, situated on a plain between two bills, and its houses drops erude from this plant, which, on drying, leave being all built of white stone, present a cheerful crystals of almost pure oxalid acid.

appearance. It has a splendid hospital. The manu

factures are linen, earthenware, and brandy. Its CHI’CKEN-POX, a contagious febrile disease, mineral baths are much frequented by the inhabitchiefly of children, and bearing some resemblance to ants of Cadiz. Population variously estimated, but a very mild form of sınall-pox (4. v.). C. is distin. probably about 5000. guished by an eruption of vesicles or blebs, which rarely become pustular or yellow, and leave only a CHI'CORY, or SU'CCORY (Cichorixon), a genus very slight incrustatiou, which falls off in a few of plants of the natural order Compositæ, sub-order days, without any permanent mark or pit, as in Cichoracev, distinguished by bracts in two unequal small-pox.

From its vesicular character, it has rows, the outer always reflexed; the inner latterly been called the crystal pock. It has been argued becoming so, a nearly naked receptacle, obovate that C. is, in fact, only small-pox modified by previ- striated achenia, and a pappus of two rows of ous vaccination; but this opinion, though maintained minute scales. The species are few in number, on good authority, is not generally received by herbaceous plants, full of milky juice, natives chiefly medical men. It is a disease of little or no danger, of the warmer temperate regions of the eastern the fever being often hardly perceptible, and never hemisphere. The common C. or SUCCORY (C. lasting long.

Intybus) is a perenCHI'CKWEED (Stellaria media), one of the

nial plaut, found wild most common weeds of gardens and cultivated

in England and most
parts of Europe,
growing in waysides,
borders of fields, &c.
It has a long carrot-
like root, externally
of a dirty or brown-
ish yellow colour, and
white within. The
stem rises to the
height of 2-5 feet,
branching, the leaves
are runcinate, resem-
bling those of the dan-
delion; the flowers
sessile, axillary, in
pairs, rather large,
beautiful, generally
blue, more rarely
pink or white. C.
is pretty extensively
cultivated, both in
England and on the
continent of Europe,
for its roots. It is

also cultivated for
Chickweed (Stellaria media):

feeding cattle with its Our branch with leaves and flowers, reduced; b, a flower;

leaves. The blanched C, parts of fructification.

leaves are sometimes

used as a salad, and fields, is a species of STITCHWORT (q. v.). It is a they are readily pronative of most parts of Europe and of Asia, appear- cured in winter by Chicory Root. ing during the colder months even on the plains of placing the roots in India; an annual, with a weak procumbent stem a box with a little earth in a cellar.-To this genus and ovate leaves, very variable; some of the smaller I belongs also the ENDIVE (9. v.).

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C. has been used as a substitute for coffee, or to , with a breadth of 9, and its greatest depth 480 feet. mix with coffee, for at least 80 years. The roots are Its shape is irregular, and its coast much indented. pulled up, washed, cut into small pieces, and dried | It has three islands; the Achen and Prien flow into on a kiln, which leaves a shrivelled mass not more it, and its surplus water is discharged by the Alz than one-fourth the weight of the original root. It into the Inn. The C. is famous for its fish ; and a is then roasted in heated iron cylinders, which are small steamer which plies ou it, enables travellers to kept revolving as in coffee-roasting, during which view its fine scenery. it loses about 25 to 30 per cent. of its weight, and evolves at the same time a disagreeable odour, situated on the slope of a hill 9 miles south-east of

CHIE'RI, a town of Piedmont, Northern Italy, resembling burned gingerbread. An improvement Turin. C. is an ancient place. By the later Romans to the C. during roasting is the addition of 2 lbs. it was called Carea. The church of St. Dominico, of lard or butter for every cwt. of C., which com- built in 1260, has some good paintings; and that of municates to it much of the lustre and general Santa Maria della Scala, built in 1405, is one of the appearance of coffee. It is then hand-picked, to largest Gothic structures in Piedmont. C. is one of remove chips of wood, stones, &c., and is reduced the oldest manufacturing towns in Europe, its manuto powder, and sold separately as C. powder or facture of fustians and cotton stuffs dating from C. coffee, or is added to ordinary ground-coffee, and 1422. Silk, cotton, and linen are still important

C. contains a good deal of manufactures. Pop. 13,000. sugar, but otherwise does not serve to supply the animal economy with any useful ingredient. It gives

CHIETI, an archiepiscopal city of Naples, off a deep brown colour to water, when an infusion capital of the province of Abruzzo Citra, is situated is made, and hence its main use in coffee. Some

on a hill near the Pescara, about 100 miles north of people 'dislike the taste of C., and when largely Naples. It is a well-built and flourishing place,

with some imposing public edifices, including a cathedral, lyceum, and theatre; and its agreeable situation has made it the residence of numerous wealthy families. The district around is fertile and well cultivated, and in the city, the cloth and silk manufactures afford employment for a considerable number of people. Pop. 16,000. C. is a very old place, being built on the site of the ancient Teate of the Romans, many of the remains of which are still visible. In the year 1524, St. Gaetano founded here the order of the Theatines.

CHIGNE'CTO BAY, the more westerly of the two inlets at the head or north end of the Bay of Fundy, in British North America. It separates Nova Scotia from New Brunswick, is 30 miles long and 8 broad, and has an isthmus of only 14 miles in width between it and Northumberland Strait, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

CHI'GOE, or JIÄGGER (Pulex, or Sarcopsylla penetrans), a species of Flea (q. v.), rather smaller than the common flea, and with less powerful limbs,

found in the West Indies and South America, where Chicory.

it is excessively troublesome, attacking any exposed uscd, it has a tendency to produce diarrhoea; but part of the human body, and effecting a lodgment many people prefer to use "coffeo mixed with C., between the skin and flesh, often under the skin

At first, its owing partly to the taste it communicates, but of the foot or the nails of the toes. mainly to the appearance of strength which it gives to the coffee. The C. is liable to adulteration; and roasted beans, pease, carrots, parsnips, mangold-wurzel, acorns, horse-chestnuts, biscuit, Oak-bark tan, logwood and mahogany dust, and even the livers of horses and bullocks, are said to be employed in its adulteration. CHIEF, in Heraldry, an ordinary formed by a

horizontal line, and occupying the
upper part of the escutcheon. Like
the other honourable ordinaries, the

Chigoe (Pulex penetrans):
C. ought properly to take up a

a, male; 6, gravid female.
third part of the shield; but when
the other charges are numerous, the
C. is frequently diminished in 'size presence is indicated only by a slight itching

or tingling; but an ulceration is likely soon to be In Chief. -Any object borne in the upper or

chief part of the shield is said to be the result, which is not only very painful, but even in chief, though the C. be not divided off from the dangerous, when the female C. is allowed to remain

and to deposit her numerous eggs. Before these rest of the field, as a separate portion.-On a Chief :

are deposited, her abdomen becomes distended in an is when the object is represented on the C., divided extraordinary manner, as a membranous bag, to off as above described.

the size of a pea. The ulcer speedily contains a CHIEF-JUSTICE. See JUSTICE COURTS.

great colony of chigoes. The negresses of the West CHIE'M-SEE, a lake of Upper Bavaria, the Indies are very expert in extracting the C., which largest in the country, lies about 42 miles south-east is also removed hy washing with tobacco-juice. of Munich. It is situated at an elevation of more Rubbing with tobacco leaves is also employed as a than 1500 feet above the sea; its length is 12 miles, preventive of its attacks.

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CHIH-LE, or PECHIH-LE, one of the northern the aggregate area has been officially stated at provinces of China, and the most important of the 249,954 square miles; and the population, in 1866, 18, as being the centre of government, and contain- at 2,084,945. The capital is Santiago, situated pretty ing Pekin, the imperial capital, the residence of the nearly in the heart of the country, and connected emperor and court. Pop., in 1812, 27,990,871; area, with Valparaiso, the principal port, by a railway of 90 58,949 square miles.

miles in length, and also by telegraph wires. The

other towns are on or near the ocean; and, to arrange CHIHUAHUA, a city of the Mexican confeder- them according to the relative amounts of their trade, ation, with 12,000 inhabitants, and a considerable they are Valparaiso, Copiapo and Caldera, Coquimbo, trade between Santa Fé, in New Mexico, and the Talcahuano and Concepcion, Huasco, Constitucion, United States, It is in lat. 28° 40' N., and long. 105o and Valdivia. In 1866 the number of tons and ship33' W., and has a cathedral, convents, and an aque- ping entered and cleared at the whole of them was duct 3 miles long, besides appropriate buildings, as 1,416,816 and 1,368,288, respectively, having, in 1851, the capital of the state of its own name. The terri- been only 686,185 and 647,793. In 1866 the imports tory in question, stretching in lat. from 27° to 32° N., amounted to $18,760,000, having been, in 1847, only and in long. from 104° to 108° 40' W., is divided $10,068,849; and the corresponding values of exfrom Texas, in the United States, by the Rio Bravo ports were $26,680,000 and $7,021,334. Of the del Norte. It is a table-land, more remarkable for exports, more than half go to Great Britain, the mineral resources than for agricultural productions. countries next in order being the United States, Peru, It abounds in nitre and other salts, and is rich in and France. Of the imports, again, of 1856, Great mines of gold and silver.

Britain supplied 35 per cent., the countries next in CHI'LBLAINS. See CHAPPED HANDS.

order being France, the United States, and Germany

The chief articles of export, taken in priority of CHILD, SIR Josian, an eminent London mer- value, are copper, wheat, and silver. In 1867, the chant, and one of the ablest of the earlier English ordinary revenue was $9,274,920, the customs alone writers on commerce and political economy, born yielding $4,040,787, and the next most productive in 1630, was the second son of Richard Child, a heads being tobacco monopoly, commutation for merchant of London. His principal work is entitled, tithes, and conveyance of real estates. During that Brief Observations concerning Trade and the Interest same year the ordinary expenditure was $8,070,366. of Money (Lond. 1668, 4to); a 2d edition, much The debt is stated at £4,933,405. The army, reckonenlarged, entitled A New Discourse of Trade, was ing all descriptions of force, has been said to muster published in 1690. In this work he explains kis 39,300 men, of whom 35,600 are national guards, and plans for the relief and enıployment of the poor, the remainder, in 1868, a corps of volunteers. The including the substitution of districts or unions for navy at this time, in 1869, consists of three steamers, parishes, and the compulsory transportation of carrying in all 22 guns, and several smaller vessels. paupers to the colonies. He was one of the direc- The commercial navy of 1866 comprised 259 vessels tors, and for some time chairman of the East India of 57,111 tons. During the war with Spain in 1866 Company, and is said to have written several tracts the navy of C. suffered great losses. in defence of the trade to the East Indies, which The Roman Catholic Church is established, and were published anonymously. In 1678 he was creat- that practically to the exclusion of every other ed a baronet, and died in 1699.

denomination. Of mixed marriages, the offspring,

whether male or female, must be educated in the CH I'L DERMAS, or HOLY INNOCENTS' DAY

national faith. In its political constitution, C. (28th December), is observed by the Church of Rome with masses for the children killed by Herod. appears to be the least democratic republic in the It was considered unlucky to marry or to begin houses. The deputies sit for three years; and the

New World. The legislature is composed of two any work on this day. From Fenn's Letters (yol. senators are chosen for nine, retiring in thirds at the i. p. 234) we learn that the coronation of King Edward IV. was put off till the Monday, because the to say nothing of the still more select voters for a

end of erery third year. The voters for a deputy preceding Sunday was Childermas Day. The learned Gregory says: 'It hath been a custom and yet is senator-must possess either £100 in real property,

or £200 in a personal effects, or £20 of income; elsewhere, to whip up the children upon Innocents' '

a pecuniary qualification which is exceptionally Day morning, that the memory of Herod's murder might stick the closer, and in a moderate proportion doubled for the wealthier localities of Valparaiso

and Santiago. In 1848, attempts were made, but in to act over the crueltie again in kinde.' C. is also a

vain, to abolish or modify these restrictions on the holiday of the Church of England.

suffrage. Under this form of government, C. has CHI'LD-KILLING. See INFANTICIDE.

maintained a degree of peace and prosperity utterly

unknown to the other transatlantic commonwealths CHI'LDREN, LEGAL CAPACITY OF.

See INFANT, of kindred race.

In this respect, however, the MINOR, PUPIL, GUARDIAN, TUTOR, CURATOR.

character of the people has doubtless co-operated CHI'LD-STEALING. See ABDUCTION.

with the tendency of the institutions.

As con

trasted with Spanish America in general, C. contains CHI'LI, a republic of Spanish origin, in South an unusually large proportion of European blood. America, is the most southerly state on the west Immediately after the conquest of Peru, C. was side of that continent. It lies wholly between the seized by Almagro, a companion of Pizarro, subsewater-shed of the Andes and the shores of the quently becoming the seat of a captain-generalship, Pacific, stretching coastwise from Bolivia to Pata- which held sway as far as Cape Horn. In 1910, gonia, in lat. 25° 30'--43° 20' S., and long. 69°— commenced the war of independence, which, at the 74° W., having an extreme length of about 1240 close of eight years, was decided against Spain by the miles, and an average breadth of fully 120. Within victory of Maypo. these limits, however, lies the virtually independent Geology. The predominant rocks of C. are crystalAraucania (q. v.), comprising most of the mainland line and metamorphic. They form the range of the to the left of the Biobio; while the southern portion Andes, except in those districts in which active is confined chiefly to Chiloe (q. v.) and its archi- volcanoes exist, where they are covered with recent pelago. C. is divided into 13 provinces, of which, volcanic rocks.' They occupy also the whole of the including certain outlying dependencies in Patagonia, I level ground between the mountain-range and the


shores of the Pacific, with the exception of a narrow CHILI, or CHILLI. See CAPSICUM. stretch of palæozoic fossiliferous strata which run CHILI NETTLE. See LOASACEÆ. along the coast south from Santiago for a distance CHILI SALTPETRE is a commercial name apof 300 miles. The coast-line of C. is being continu- plied to the nitrate of soda. See Soda, NITRATE. ally altered from the elevation of the whole country CHILLIANWA'LLA, a village of the Punjab, to an extent of at least 1200 miles along the Pacific being 5 miles from the left or east bank of the shores, produced by volcanic agency. In 1822, Jhelum, the most westerly of the five rivers which the coast was raised 4 feet at Quintero, and 3 feet give name to the country. It is in lat. 32° 40' N, at Valparaiso. Oysters and other mollusks were and long. 73° 39' E., being 85 miles to the northleft dry, and perished, becoming offensive as they west of Lahore. c. 'claims notice as the scene of decomposed. The change of level was permanent, Lord Gough's dearly won victory over the Sikhs, over an area of 100,000 square miles, nearly as large of January 1849, and also as the site of an obelisk as the whole extent of Great Britain and Ireland. erected to the memory of those who fell in the two A similar extensive elevation was noticed in 1835 Sikh wars. by Captain Fitzroy.

CHILLINGWORTH, WILLIAM, a famous Physically, the continental portion of the republic theologian of the Church of England, was born at --for its insular section will

, in this repect, be Oxford in 1602, and educated at Trinity College in noticed under the head of CHILOE—presents many that university, where the arguments of a Jesuit singularities. Of all the maritime regions on the named Fisher induced him to become a Roman globe, it is perhaps the most isolated. On every Catholic. He withdrew to Douay; but was induced side but the sea—and that sea very remote from the by his godfather, Dr. Laud, then Bishop of London, to main thoroughfares of commerce--it is beset by re-examine the whole controversy between Catholics difficulties of communication. With the lonely and Protestants, and in 1631, he returned to the wilderness of Patagonia to the south, and the dreary bosom of the Anglican Church. Four years later, desert of Atacama on the north, it is bounded on he published a work, entitled The Religion of the east by a mountain-chain which, altogether Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation. It was ex: impracticable in winter, can be crossed, even in summer, only by a few passes ranging between ceedingly keen, ingenious, and conclusive in point of 12,450 feet and 14,370 in elevation. Moreover, this argument. C. was perhaps the ablest disputant of

and had there not been a certain fickleness strip between the Audes and the Pacific is broken and want of solidity about his intellect, and a into plateaus in the interior, and valleys on the coast, by two longitudinal ranges, with numerous lateral nervous suspicion that all human reasoning might spurs; while, throughout the length and breadth, have produced a really great work. The Religion

be vitiated by undiscovered fallacies, he might the general level gradually descends, as well to the of Protestants acquired a wide popularity. C. was south as to the west. so rugged a surface-covering fully 16° of latitude, offered church preferment, which he at first refused and attaining an altitude of more than 4 miles -- having certain scruples in regard to the subscripwithin about 2° of longitude--must present nearly He became Chancellor of the Church of Sarum, and

tion of the 39 Articles—but afterwards accepted. every possible variety. Through the reciprocal action of the Andes (q. v.) and the prevailing prebendary of Brixworth, in Northamptonshire. He winds, the rain-fall graduates itself

, with some- the civil war, accompanied the king's forces.. He

was a strong royalist, and on the breaking out of thing of mathematical regularity, from the parching skies of the north to the drenching clouds of the died January 1644. The best edition of The Religion south-a graduation which, disturbed merely by and a life of the author, by Dr. Birch.

of Protestants appeared in 1724, with sermons, &c., the melting of the mountain-suows, is, in a great measure, necessarily reflected in the condition and CHILLON, a celebrated castle and fortress of magnitude of the countless water-courses. Hence Switzerland, in the canton of Vaud, 6 miles souththe rivers to the north of the Maypo, which cast of Veray. It is situated at the east end of the enters the Pacific near latitude 34', are but incon- Lake of Geneva, on an isolated rock, almost entirely siderable streams; while, further to the south, the surrounded by deep water, and is connected with Maule, the Biobio, and the Calacalla are all to some the shore by a wooden bridge. The castle is said extent navigable.

to have been built in 1238, by Amadeus IV. of From the cause last mentioned, different districts Savoy, and it long served as a state prison. It is vary

remarkably in their productions. To the north famous as the prison of Bonnivard, the prior of of the Coquimbo, about lat. 30°, is chiefly an arid St. Victor, who having, by his efforts to free the waste, redeemed, however, from being valueless by Genevese, rendered himself obnoxious to the Duke its mines ; and to the south of the Biobio, about of Savoy, was carried off by emissaries of that lat. 37°, timber and pasturage divide the soil potentate, and confined here for six years, at the between them. The intermediate centre alone is end of which time the castle had to surrender to fitted for agriculture, yielding, besides maize and the Bernese und Genevese, when Bonnivard was

C. has been immortalised by Byron's hemp, European grains and fruits in abundance. liberated. Notwithstanding all the varieties and vicissitudes of Prisoner of Chillon. The castle is now used as a climate, the country may claim to be, on the whole, magazine for military stores. extremely healthy. The manufactures are earthen CHILOË', the insular province of Chili (q. v.), is wares, copper-wares, linens, cordage, soap, leather, an archipelago on the west side of South America, and brandy; and, in addition to the wheat and which takes its name from its principal island. It metals already specified, the exports, especially from is separated from the rest of the republic, or rather the south, embrace tallow, hides, jerked beef, and from Patagonia, by the Gulf of Ancud, extending live-stock. Besides the railway already mentioned in S. lat. from 41° 40' to 43° 20', and in W. long. between Valparaiso and Santiago, another of 54 from 73° to 74°. The province-which, in 1858, miles in length runs from Caldera to Copiapo. numbered 65,743 inhabitants-contains, in addiThere are also common roads; but they are neither tion to C. Proper, about 60 islets, of which about numerous nor good. In fact, the want of highways 30 are uninhabited. In the archipelago are two and bridges is a serious obstacle to the progress of towns, both of them seaports of C. Proper-Castro, trade and cultivation. In the basin of the Lower the ancient capital, on the east coast; and San Biobio, coal is plentiful.

Carlos, the modern seat of government, towards the





north-west extremity. The atmosphere, like that bimself a party to transactions which he did not of the mainland opposite, is excessively moist; approve, and of which the House of Commons had the westerly winds, more particularly in winter, implied its condemnation.'--Standard Library of bringing almost constant rains. The climate, how- Political Knowledge, p. 500. ever, is on the whole healthy. This fact is the

CHIMÆ'RA, a genus of cartilaginous fishes, more remarkable, inasmuch as C. Proper is of ranked by Cuvier with the Sturgeons (Sturionide), natural forest, measuring 100 miles by. 40, with but now generally regarded as the type of a distinct a partially cleared and cultivated margin on the family, of which only two or three species are known.

The chief products are wheat, barley, potatoes, The gills have a single wide opening, as in the sturapples, and strawberries; and cattle, sheep, and geons; but the gill lid or operculum is merely rudipigs are reared in considerable numbers. Agricul- mental, and concealed in the skin, whilst there is an ture, however, is in a very primitive state; and approach to sharks in the structure of the gills the staple food of many consists of mussels and The oldest known species of C. is C. monstrosa, occaoysters. The population, equally indolent and poor, differs from that of the rest of Chili in the great preponderance of aboriginal blood. Schools are numerous; but, from the ignorance of the teachers, education has not made satisfactory progress. The principal manufacture is a coarse woollen cloth, dyed blue. This archipelago was discovered by the Spaniards as late as 1558; and as it was the last integral portion of Spanish America to be colonised, so also was it the last to throw off the mother-country's yoke.


CHI'LTERN HILLS, the south part of the low chalk range which runs north-east, about 70 miles, from the north bend of the Thames, in Oxfordshire, through Bucks and the borders of Herts and Beds,

Chimæra Monstrosa. and ends in Norfolk and Suffolk. In Oxford, Herts, and Beds, the C. H. are 15 to 20 miles broad, and sionally found in the British seas, and more common the highest points are Wendover, 905 feet; and in more northern latitudes. It is sometimes called Whitehouse, 893.

the King of the Herrings. It pursues the shoals of CHILTERN HUNDREDS. In former times, herrings, and is consequently sometimes taken in the beach forests which covered the Chiltern herring-nets.

. It is seldom more than three feet Hills, in Buckinghamshire, were infested with long. Its general colour is silvery white, the upper robbers, and in order to restrain them, and protect parts mottled with brown. It produces very large the peaceable inhabitants of the neighbourhood leathery eggs. from their inroads, it was usual for the crown to appoint an officer, who was called the Steward Homer as having a lion's head, a goat's body, and

CHIMÆRA, a mythical monster, described by of the Chiltern Hundreds. The office, which has the tail of a dragon. The rationalistic account of long ceased to serve its primary, now serves a. C. is, that it represented a mountain in Lycia whose secondary purpose. A member of the House of

top was the resort of lions, its middle of goats, and Commons cannot resign his scat unless disqualified the marshy ground at the bottom of which abounded either by the acceptance of a place of bonour and with serpents. In the same manner, Bellerophon's profit under the crown, or by some other cause. I(q. v.) victory over the C. is explained by saying, Now, the stewardsbip of the C. H. is held to be that he first made his residence on this mountain. such' a place, and it is consequently applied for The myth seems, at all events, to have belonged to by, and granted, in the general case as a matter Asia Minor, as gigantic carvings of the C. on rocks of course, to any member who wishes to resign.

are there found. It is usually represented as a lion, As soon as it is obtained, it is again resigned, and out of the back of which grow the head and neck is thus generally vacant when required for the pur- of a goat.-C. is used figuratively to denote any pose in question. When the C. H. are not vacant, monstrous or impossible conception, the unnatural however, the same purpose is served by the steward birth of the fancy. It is frequently depicted on ship of the manors of East Hendred, Northshead, and Hempholme. As to the offices which are held shields, as a heraldic charge. to vacate seats, see ELECTION. “The practice of

CHIMA'PHILA. See WINTER-GREEN. granting the Chiltern Hundreds for the purpose above described began only about the year 1750,

CHIMBORA'ÇO, a conical peak of the Andes, in and its strict legality has been doubted, on the Quito, 21,424 feet above the sea, but only about ground that the stewardship is not an office of the 12,000 above the level of its own table-land. It is

capped with perpetual snow, and was long regarded kind requisite to vacate a seat. The gift of the Chiltern Hundreds lies with the Chancellor of the as the loftiest mountain in the world. Latterly, Exchequer, and there is at least one instance of its however, it has been ascertained to be overtopped being refused. In 1842, after very awkward dis- by some peaks, not merely of the Himalayas, but

even of the central division of its own chain. Its closures had been made before a committee of the lat. and long. are 1° 30' S., and 79° W. Though the House of Commons, as to corrupt compromises, summit of c. has never been reached, yet Humboldt

had avoiding investigation into gross bribery in the elec- ascended within 2138 feet of it, and Boussingault

and Hall within 1729. tion to certain boroughs, of which Reading was one, the member for Reading applied for the stewardship CHIME'RE, the upper robe worn by a bishop, of the Chiltern Hundreds, and was refused--the to which the lawn-sleeves now generally Chancellor of the Exchequer being of opinion that, attached.' Since the time of Queen Elizabeth, it by granting it, he would in some sort have made i has been of black satin, but previously it was of a



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