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xcarlet colour, like that worn by the bishops when by the lower part with the cooler air around it, assembled in couvocation, and when the sovereign the greater weight of the latter pushes the warm attends parliament.
air upwards, and thus an ascending current is pro
duced. Other conditions being equal, the draught CAIMES, music performed on bells in a church
of a C. will thus be proportional to its perpendicular tower, either by the hands of a performer or by
height, and the difference between the temperature mechanism. The most perfect C. are to be found in Holland and Belgium.
within and without it. The straighter and more
perpendicular the C., the stronger will be the draught, CHIMNEY (Fr. cheminée, Lat. caminus). There because the friction of the ascending current will be seems reason to believe that the C. in its present less, and the cooling effect of a long or tortuous sense of a funnel from the hearth or fireplace to the course will be saved. The maximum efficiency of a roof of the house, is a modern invention. In Greek given C. is attained when all the air that passes up houses it is supposed that there were no chimneys, it enters by the bottom of the fire. In this case, and that the smoke escaped through a hole in the its temperature is raised to the uttermost by passing roof What the arrangement was in houses in which through the whole of the fire, and the fire is at the there was an upper story, is not known; perhaps same time urged to vivid combustion by the blast the smoke was conveyed by a short funnel through thus obtained. A powerful furnace înay be conthe side-wall of the house, which seems to have been structed by connecting a suitable fireplace, capable the first form of C. invented in the middle ages. of being closed all round excepting at the bottom, The Roman caminus, again, was not a C., but a sort with a tall C.; and the amount of draught may be of stove; and it has been a subject of much dispute, regulated by decreasing or diminishing the aperture whether the Romans had any artificial mode of through which the air is admitted to the bottom of carrying off the smoke, or whether it was allowed the fireplace, or by an adjustable opening above the to escape through the doors, windows, and openings fireplace, which will diminish the effective draught in the roof. As the climate and the habits of the as its size is increased, or by a combination of both people both led to the houses of the ancients being of these contrivances. very much more open than ours are, it is probablc When the fireplace can be enclosed thus, there that the occasional fires which they had of wood is little liability to descending currents or "smoky or charcoal may have given them no great incon- chimneys,' as they are called, even when the C, is venience. It is known, besides, that the rooms in very short, or lias a tortuous course. It is chiefly Roman houses were frequently heated by means with open fireplaces that this defect occurs, and the of hot air, which was brought in pipes from a means of prevention and cure is a subject of some furnace below. In England, there is no evidence interest and importance. As with most other evils, of the use of C.-shafts earlier than the 12th century. the prevention is far easier than the cure; for by In Rochester castle (circa 1130), complete fireplaces properly constructing the C. in accordance with the appear; but the flues go only a few feet up in principles above stated-by placing the opening of the thickness of the wall, and are then turned the C. as nearly over the fire, and contracting the out through the wall to the back of the fireplace, open space above the fire, as much as possible the openings being small oblong holes. The downward smoking may in most cases be easily earliest C.-shafts are circular, and of considerable prevented. When a C. is in the neighbourhood of height. Afterwards, chimneys are found in a great a wall or building nearly as high as itself, or variety of forms. Previous to the 16th c., many of what is still worse-higher, it is apt to smoke on
them are short, and termi- account of the eddies and other complex currents nated by a spire or pinnacle, in the air, caused by the interference which such having apertures of various an obstacle presents to the regular movement of shapes. These apertures are the wind. In towns, such tortuous movements sometimes in the pinnacle, of the atmosphere are very coinmon, and the sometimes under it, the contrivances for preventing the wind from blowing smoke escaping as from some down the chimneys are very numerous, and often modern manufacturing C.- grotesque. Revolving cowls of various forms, but stalks which are built in the alike in having a nearly horizontal outlet, which form of an Egyptian obelisk. is so turned by the wind that the mouth shall Clustered C.-stalks do not always present itself in the direction in which appear until late in the 15th the wind is blowing, are the most common, and c., when they seem to have usually the most effectual. They are generally been introduced simultane-constructed of sheet-zinc, with an arrow, a flattened ously with the use of brick pigeon, or other device, as a vane, to determine the for this purpose. Each of rotation of the cowl. The curing of smoky chimneys,
the earlier clustered chim- in conjunction with the economising of fuel, was one Tisbury, Wilts: neys consists of two flues of the favourite subjects of investigation of that very From Parker's Glossary. which adhere to each other, practical philosopher, Count Rumford. He says:
as afterwards was the practice. Long after they nature and properties of elastic fluids--of air, smoke, were invented, and in use for other rooms, our and vapour-and to examine the laws of their ancestors did not generally introduce them into motions, and the necessary consequences of their their halls, which, till the end of the 15th, or being rarefied by heat, will perceive that it would be beginning of the 16th c., continued as formerly to as much a miracle if smoke should not rise in a be heated by a fire on an open hearth in the centre chimney-all hindrances to its ascent being removed of the hall, the smoke escaping through an opening -as that water should refuse to run in a siphon, or in the roof krown by the name of louvre. In many to descend a river. The whole mystery, thereof the older halls in wbich chimneys exist, they fore, of curing smoky chimneys is comprised in this have evidently been inserted about this period. simple direction: find out and remove those local
The action of a C. depends upon the simple hindrances which forcibly prevent the smoke from principle, that a column of heated air is lighter following its natural tendency to go up the chimney; than a cooler column of equal height; when there- or rather, to speak more accurately, which prevent fore a flue full of heated air communicates freely | its being forced up by the pressure of the heavier CHIMNEY-CHIMPANZEE.
air of the room."* He then goes on to speak of descending current is likely to be produced. The above 500 smoking chimneys that he has had under openings are best opposite the fire. For the methods his hands, and which were supposed incurable, and of arranging and regulating such openings for the states that he was never obliged, except in one single admission of air, see VENTILATION. instance, to bave recourse to any other method of Tall factory-chimneys, usually built of brick, cure than merely reducing the fireplace and throat are very costly structures, many of them rivalling of the chimney, or that part of it which lies imme- in height our loftiest cathedral spires. Their diately above the fireplace, to a proper form and construction has been considerably economised just dimensions.'
by building from the inside, and thus saving the The figures illustrate his method of proceeding. expensive scaffolding. Their walls are built very Fig. 1 is a side view of a vertical section of a Č. thick at the base, and gradually thinner upwards: and fireplace before alteration ; fig. 2, the same after recesses are left at regular intervals in the inside,
and stout wooden or iron bars rest upon these to form a sort of temporary ladder for the workmen to ascend; the materials are hoisted by ropes and pulleys.
Sheet-iron chimneys are largely used in Belgium. They are much cheaper but less durable than brick, and are objectionable on account of their rapid cooling by the action of the external air.
CHIMPANZEE (Troglodytes niger), a species of ape; one of those which in form and structure exhibit the greatest resemblance to man. It is a native of the warmest parts of Africa; to which also the Gorilla (q. v.), a larger species of the same genus, belongs. The C. is sometimes called the
Black Orang; but differs from the Orang (q. v.) WHIN
(Pithecus) of Asia in the proportionately shorter arms, which, however, are much longer than those
of man; in the possession of an additional dorsal the reduction of the fireplace and throat of chimney.
vertebra, and an additional or thirteenth pair of ab is the opening of the fireplace in both; this is ribs; and in other particulars, in some of which lowered by the piece at a, fig. 2, and the depth it more nearly resembles, and in others more diminished by the brickwork, ce, behind; cd is a widely differs, from the human species. In both, movable tile, to make room for the C.-sweeper. the difference from man is very wide in the general Figs. 3 and 4 are
adaptation of the structure for movement on allplans of the fire.
fours and for climbing and moving about among place, looking down
branches, rather than for erect walking, although upon the hearth;
the C. is able to move in an erect posture more the original opening
easily than any other ape, usually, however, when of the fireplace is
so doing, holding its thighs with its hands; and shewn by . ACDB,
still more in the form of the skull, and consequent fig. 3; the con
aspect of the countenance, the facial angle being as tracted opening, by
low as 35° in the C. when it is measured without acdb, in fig. 4. The
regard to the high bony ridges which project above dark space is filled
the eyes; the jaws excessively projecting, and the with rubbish and
outline of the face rather concave. There is also faced with brick
an important difference from the human species in work.
the dentition; although the number of teeth of each The slope of ac
kind is the same, the canine teeth of the apes is and bd, fig. 4, is
elongated, so as to pass each other, and correbetter adapted for
sponding intervals are provided for them in the radiation into the room than the square opening of opposite jaw. An interesting point of difference fig. 3: the fire being brought further forward, has
of the anatomy of the C. and Orang from that of also more heating effect; the space of the fireplace
man, is in the muscle which in man terminates in being smaller, the air within it will with a given a single tendon, and concentrates its action on the sized fire become hotter, and therefore have more great toe, terminating in the apes in three tendong, ascending power; while in the contracted throat none of which is connected with the great toe or widening downwards, and having its sides strongly | hinder thumb, but which flex the three middle toes; heated, there is a rapid rush of heated air, which part of the adaptation of the foot for clasping as a carries the smoke upwards, and resists the passage of hand. The great toe both of the C. and Orang is temporary down-draughts. Most modern chimneys
shorter than the other toes, and opposed to them as and fireplaces are now constructed in accordance a thumb. with Count Rumford's suggestions. See GRATE.
The C. does not seem to attain a height of quite One frequent cause of smoky chimneys is the four feet when in an erect posture. Its skin is want of sufficient inlet for air to the roon. Sand-thinly covered with long black hair in front; the bugs placed under doors, and other devices for hair is thicker on the head, back and limbs. The preventing ventilation, may cause a well-constructed ears are remarkably prominent, thin, and naked, C. to smoke. Openings must exist somewhere. of not unlike human ears in shape. The nuse appears sufficient capacity to supply the air which is to as little more than a mere wrinkle of the skin. ascend the chimney. If the air enters the room on 1 The thumb of the hand is small and weak, that of the same side as the fireplace, and sudden gusts of the foot comparatively large and powerful. In a air pass across the front of the fireplace, a temporary
wild state, the animal appears to be gregarious, but
its habits are not well known. Truth and fable * Essays : Political, Economical, and Philosophical, have been so mixed up in the accounts of it, that by Benjamin Count Rumford, vol. i. p. 299.
new information must be obtained from reliable
fourves, before even things not in themselves very | CHINCHI'LLA, a town of Spain, in the province improbable can be believed. In a state of confine- of Albacete, 10 miles south-east of the city of that nent, it exhibits, at least when young, considerable name. It is situated on an abrupt rocky hill crowned
by a castle, and is surrounded by walls. The town is in general well built, with good streets, and a fine parish church, containing some excellent works of art. It has manufactures of cloth, linen, leather, earthenware, and glass, and a trade in the agricultural produce of the district. Pop. 12,000.
CHINCHILLA (Chinchilla, Eriomys, or Callomys), a genus of South American quadrupeds, of the order Rodentia; the type of a family, Chinchillidæ, allied to Cavies (Cavidce), but differing from them in possessing clavicles. The general aspect is somewhat rabbit-like. There are several genera of Chinchillida, distinguished in part by the number of toes; the true chinchillas having four, with the rudiment of a fifth on the fore-feet, and four on the
gentleness and docility, and readily learns to imitate human actions, in eating with a spoon, drinking out of a glass, and the like; but its intelligence does not appear to be superior to that of any other monkeys, or indeed of many kinds of brutes. Its natural food
Chinchilla. consists chiefly of fruit and other vegetable substances; in confinement it exhibits a great fondness for sweetmeats and for wine. The č. is impatient
hind-feet; whilst in the genus Lagidium or Lagotis of cold, and the climate of Britain soon proves fatal
there are four on each foot; and in the Lagostomus,
| four on the fore-feet and three on the hind-feet. to it.
All the species of this family are gregarious; feed CHINA. See CHINESE EMPIRE.
much on roots, for which their strong and sharp CHINA, or CHINA-WARE. See PORCELAIN. incisors are particularly adapted; and live either in
CHINA BARK, a name of Cinchona (q. v.) Bark, | holes, which they select for themselves in rocky often to be met in books, and in common use on the districts, or in burrows, which they excavate. They continent. It is derived, not from the empire of are valued for their fur, particularly the CHINChina, but from Kina or Quina, the Peruvian name
CHILLA of the Andes (C. lanigera), of which the fur of cinchona.
constitutes an important article of commerce. Their CHINA CLAY, or KA'OLIN. See Clay.
numbers are said to be sensibly decreasing in conse
quence of the demand for the fur. The ancient CHINA GRASS, or CHINESE GRASS, the popular Peruvians were accustomed to employ the wool of name of a fibre used in China for the manufacture the C.
are the C. for the manufacture of fine fabrics. Molina of a beautiful fabric known as Grass-cloth. The
suggests, that it might easily and profitably be kept name appears to have originated in the belief that
| in a domesticated state. the fibre was that of a grass; but this is not the case, it being chiefly obtained from Boehmeria (q. v.) |
CHINCHO'N, a town of Spain, in the province nivea, a plaut allied to the nettle. Besides this I of Madrid, 26 miles south-south-east of the city of and other species of the natural order Urticacea,
that name. It is pleasantly situated on a hill near other plants, as species of Corchorus (q. v.) and
| the Tagus, and is well built, with wide, regular, and Sida (q. v.), are believed to yield fibres employed in
clean streets. Agriculture forms the chief occupathe same manufacture. The fibres are said not to
tion of the inhabitants, but leather, linen, and he spun after the European manner, but joined into
earthenware are manufactured to a small extent. long threads by twisting their ends together. Grass
Pop. 5400. cloth is now brought in considerable quantity to CHINDWA'RA, a town of Nagpore, in Hin. Eirope, especially in the form of pocket-handker. dustan, in lat. 22° 3' N., and long. 78° 58' E. It chiefs. It has a fine glossy appearance and a pecu- occupies a plateau amid the Deoghur Mountains, liar transparency. See Rep. of Com. of Ag. 1865–67. standing 2100 feet above the level of the sea. Its CHINA ROOT, the root, or rather the rhizome
climate is consequently one of the most agreeable (root-stock) of Smilax China, & climbing shrubby
and salubrious in India, attracting many visitors in plant, closely allied to sarsaparilla, and belonging to search of health or recreation. the same genus; a native of China, Cochin-China, / CHINE, LA, a village of Lower or East Canada, and Japan. See SARSAPARILLA and SMILACEÆ. The on the south side of the island of Montreal, and stem is round and prickly, the leaves thin and round about 7 miles to the west of the city of that name. ish oblong; the rhizome tuberous and large; sub- Both the city and the village stand on the left bank astringent and diaphoretic. It is occasionally used | of the St. Lawrence, or rather, of a branch of the in medicine, and is imported in a dry state into Ottawa; for here, and at least 10 or 12 miles Europe; but it is also employed in the East as an further down, these united rivers keep their waters article of food. It abounds in starch.
| unmingled. As the intermediate portion of the