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and valuable portion of the work, and as none of Lilar character, entitled Tresor des Livres Rares et note have been purposely omitted, the Bibliotheca | Precieux, by J. G. T. Graesse, and comprised in Britannica may be considered as a universal cata- seven volumes, was published in Dresden 1859_-1869. logue of all the authors with which this country is To these may be added the amusing and instructive acquainted, whether of its own or of the continent.' bibliographical works of the Rev. Dr. Dibdin. This great work was compiled under very adverse Turning to special B., and taking the subjects circumstances, and its author did not live to see it of which it treats in the order given above, we through the press. It thus labours under all the have to notice first the works which confine themdisadvantages of a posthumous publication; but selves to the literature of a particular country or with all its faults both of omission and commission, language. As regards Great Britain, we have, besides which are neither few nor small, it deservedly main- Watt and Lowndes, already mentioned, the Typotains a high character as a work of reference, and is graphical Antiquities of Ames and Herbert, 3 vols. indispensable to the library of every bibliographer. 4to (Lond. 1785 - 1790). A new and improved

The other labourers in this field of literature, edition was projected by Dibdin, but was not conwhose works we are about to notice, have confined pleted. Volumes 1 to 4 only have appeared, 4to themselves within narrower limits. Some, proceed-(Lond. 1810-1819). The latest contribution to ing upon a principle of selection, endeavour to the bibliography of works in the English language, furnish the inquirer with the information he seeks is the Critical Dictionary of English Literature in regard to books which are rare, curious, or and British and American Authors, by S. Austin valuable ; others, again, aiming at greater complete- Allibone, in 3 vols. octavo (Philadelphia, 1858– ness within certain bounds, restrict themselves to 1870). This work contains notices of more than the description of a special class of works-the 43,000 authors, and a vast mass of critical reviews literature, for example, of a particular country or of the writers cited. Volume I. has been warmly language ; the productions of a celebrated press ; commended by Carlyle, Lord Brougham, Dr. Trench, the books published within a given period; those of Cardinal Wiseman, Prescott, Irving, Bancroft and which the authors have withheld their names, or Lord Macaulay: the latter asserted, “I have no have veiled them under a pseudonyme; the treatises hesitation in saying that it is far superior to any other that have been written on a specific subject; and work of the kind in our language.” Our French so on, together with a few which hardly admit of neighbours possess a treasure in La France Littéraire classification, but of which some examples will be of J. M. Querard. It embraces only the 18th and given.

19th centuries, but within this limit, it leaves Bibliographical works on the selective principle nothing to be desired in point of accuracy and form a numerous class ; the following are amongst fulness. The continuation, begun by Querard, and the more important: Vogt, Catalogus Historico- afterwards carried on by Lonandre and Bourquelot, criticus Librorum Rariorum, 8vo (Francofurti, 1793). forms 6 vols. 8vo (Paris, 1846-1857). For the This is the fifth edition; the four preceding appeared literature of Italy we can only notice Gamba's successively at Hamburg in 1732, 1738, 1747, and Serie de' Testi, 4th ed. (Venice, 1839); and for that 1753. David Clement, Bibliothèque Curieuse, ou Cata- of Spain, the Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus, and the logue raisonné de Livres difficiles à trouver, 9 vols. Bibliotheca Hispana Nova, of Antonio, the latest and 4to (Göttingen, 1750-1760). The expression cata- best editions of which appeared at Madrid (1783– logue raisonné is usually, but erroneously, applied 1788) in folio. The authors of the Low Countries in this country to classified catalogues; yet the are enumerated in the Bibliotheca Belgica of Foppens, work of Clement, who was the son of a Frenchman, 2 vols. 4to (Brussels, 1739); and those of Scandiand certainly understood the language in which he navia in the Almindeligt Litteraturlexicon for wrote, is arranged alphabetically. It is simply | Danmark, Norge, og Island, of Nyerup and Kraft, what it professes to be, a descriptive and metho- 4to (Copenhagen, 1820). For Germany, we have dised account of the books which it includes; but | Heinsius, Allgemeines Bücherlexicon, with suppleunfortunately it was never completed. It termin-ments (10 ; vols. 4to, 1812-1849), and Ebert's ates with the article · Hesiodus.' and the seven or Handbuch der Deutschen Litteratur, 4 vols. 8vo eight volumes required to finish it have not been (Leip. 1822-1840). To this class also belong the published. The Bibliographie Instructive of De Bure Bibliotheca Græca, Bibliotheca Latina, and Bibliotheca has already been mentioned; it extends to seven | Latina Medio et Infime Ætatis' of Fabricius ; volumes 8vo, the last of which appeared in 1768. Harwood's View of the various Editions of the Greek To these, however, should be added the Catalogue and Roman Classics ; and Moss's Manual of Classical des Livres de Gaignat, 2 vols. 8vo (Paris, 1769), and Bibliography. The Oriental student will find much the Table destinée à faciliter la Recherche des Livres to interest him in the Lexicon Bibliographicum of Anonymes, 8vo (Paris, 1782). Ebert's Bibliograph- Haji Khalfa, edited in the original Arabic, with a isches Lexicon, 2 Bde. 4to (Leip. 1821–1830), is an Latin translation by Fluogel, vols. 4to, 1835– accurate and useful work. It has been translated | 1858. into English, 4 vols. 8vo (Oxford, 1837). Lownde's Of works descriptive of the productions of parBibliographer's Manual contains an account of rare, ticular presses, we can only notice Renouard's curious, and useful books, published in or relating | Annales de l'Imprimerie des Alde (3d ed., 8vo, 1834); to Great Britain, from the invention of printing, the Annales de l'Imprimerie des Estiennes, by the and may always be consulted with advantage. It same author. 8vo (Paris, 1837–1838): and Bandini. appeared originally in 4 vols. 8vo (Lond. 1834); but Juntarum Typographiæ Annales, 2 vols. 8vo a new edition, with many improvements, was issued (Luccæ, 1791). The student may also consult with in 1865 and another in 1869, under the editorship of advantage the Notice de la Collection des Auteurs Mr. H. G. Bohn. One of the most interesting and Latins, Français, et Italiens Imprimés en petits important works in this department of B. is the formats par les Elzeviers, at the end of the 5th Manuel du Libraire et de l'Amateur des Livres of J. volume of Brunet's Manuel. C. Brunet, of which it is hardly possible to speak The bibliographers who have confined themselves in terms of too high coinmendation. It was first to books printed within a given period are chiefly published in 1810, in 3 vols. 8vo.; a fourth edition, Panzer, Annales Typographici ab Artis Invento in 5 vols. 8vo. (appeared in 1842-1844), and a fifth | Origine ad Annum MD (continued, however, to edition in 6 vols. (1860--1865); the work is a master-1586), 11 vols. 4to (Norimbergæ, 1793-1803); and piece of modern bibliography. A new work of a sim- | Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 4 vols. 8vo, LIBLIOMANCY-BICANERE.

1826-1838. The death of the author before the contrary to their purpose and spirit, and which was completion of this work, was the cause of the in harmony only with the notions and practices of comparative inaccuracy observable in the 3d and heathenism. B. was prohibited, under pain of 4th volumes. The article Virgil,' for example, is excommunication, by the Council of Vannes, 465 A.D., omitted altogether.

and by the Councils of Agde and Orleans in the next One of the earliest attempts to reveal the author. century. It continued, however, to prevail for many ship of anonymous works was the Theatrum Anony- centuries thereafter, and is said to have been intromorum et Pseudonymorum 'of Vincent Placcius, duced into England at the Norman Conquest. It folio (Hamburg, 1708); to which Mylius added a was essentially the same as the Sortes Virgiliance, the supplement in 1740. So far as France is concerned, only difference being in the book employed. these have both been superseded by the admirable and well-known Dictionnaire des Ouvrages Anonymes

BIBLIOMA’NIA, or book-madness, is a word et Pseudonymes of Barbier, 2d ed., 4 tom. 8vo (Paris,

recently formed from the Greek' to expresa 1822–1827). Italy, too, has the Dizionario di Opere

the passion for rare and curious books, which Anonime e Pseudonime di Scrittori Italiani of Melzi,

has manifested itself to such an extent during vols. 1 and 2, 8vo (Milano, 1848–1852); and we

the last century. While the ordinary collector may also mention here the Pseudonimia of Lancetti,

is satisfied with the possession of works which are 8vó (Milano, 1836), as the work of an Italian,

valuable either on account of their established though not confined to the authors of his native

reputation, or as assisting him in his literary or country. No work specially devoted to the anony. professional pursuits, the bibliomaniac is act

actuated mous and pseudonymous literature of Britain has by other motives. With him utility is of secondary yet been published; but it is understood that the

importance, rarity being the first and great requipresent keeper of the Advocates' Library has been

site. Thus even a common book becomes valuable for some time engaged in collecting materials for

in his eyes, if it be one of a few copies thrown off on this purpose. The most recent additions to this

vellum or on large paper, or if it has been bound by branch of B. are Weller's Maskirte Literatur der Derome, Bozerian, Lewis, or Payne; and for the älteren und neueren Sprachen. lter Theil : Index same reason, he sometimes prefers an inferior to a Pseudonumorum. 8vo (Leip. 1856). 2ter Theil: Die better article. The fac-simile reprint of the Giunta falschen und fingirten Druckorte, svo (Leip. 1858). edition of Boccaccio's Decameron (Florence 1527)

Bibliographies which describe treatises on special | fetches hardly as many shillings as the original does subjects are very numerous; we have only space pounds, yet the great distinguishing difference to uotice the following: Lipenius. Bibliotheca Realis | between them is, that the former is the handsomer Theologica, 2 vols. folio (Francofurti, 1685); Bibli- | and mo

Logica 2 vols folio Francofurti 1685). Bibli. and more correct of the two. otheca Philosophica, 1682 ; Bibliotheca Medica, 1679 : Lu

1679: The formation of complete sets of such books as Bibliotheca juridica. 1672-a new edition of the the Elzevir Republics (see ELZEVIR), or of the works last of these was published at Leipsic in 1757, and of a single author, provided they be scarce, is a supplements have been successively added by Scott. | favourite pursuit with many. The editions of the Senkenberg, and Madihu-Marvin's Legal Biblio- classics most prized by collectors are those of the graphy, 8vo (Philadelphia, 1847); Orme's Bibliotheca Elzevirs and of the Foulises (q. v.). The original ediBiblica, 8vo (Edin." 1824); Fürst's Bibliotheca tions of Defoe's numerous productions are eagerly Judaica, 8vo (Leip. 1849—1851); Vater, Litteratur sought for at present. der Grammatiken Lerica und Wörtersammlungen B. seems to have reached its climax at the sale aller Sprachen der Erde, 2te Ausg. von B. Jülg. 8vo of the library of the Duke of Roxburghe in 1812. (Berlin, 1817): Upcott's Bibliographical Account of Amongst the treasures which that library contained, the Principal Works relating to English sopography,

was the only perfect copy, known to exist, of the 3 vols. 8vo (Lond. 1818): Oettinger's Bibliogranline first, or at least the first dated edition of Boccaccio's Biographique Universelle, 8vo (Bruxelles, 1854);The Decameron (Venice, Christ. Valdarfor, 1471). After Literature of Political Economiu, by J. R. M*Cúlloch, a spirited competition with Lord Spencer, this 8vo (Lond. 1845); Arithmetical Books from the volume was purchased by the Marquis of Blandford Invention of Printing to the Present Time, by Augustus for the sum of £2260, the highest price perhaps ever de Morgan, 12mo (Lond. 1847); thé Biographia paid for a single book. When the collection of the Dramatica, by Baker, Reed, and Jones, 3 vols. 8vo marquis came under the hammer in 1819, Lord (Lond. 1812): and the Bibliotheca. Analo-noetica. Svo Spencer secured this precious tome at the large yet (Lond. 1815).

more moderate cost of £918, 15s. It is now, we As examples of other works not included in the believe, in his lordship's library at Althorp. above classification, we have only space to mention

| One of the results of the Roxburghe sale was the Van 1

establishment of the Roxburghe Club, the object of 9 vols. 8vo (Paris, 1822-1828); Peignot's Dictions which was to reprint, for the use of the members naire des Livres condamnés au Feu, 2 vols. (Paris. only, works hitherto unedited, or of extreme rarity. 1806); and Martin's Bibliographical Catalogue of

The example thus set was speedily followed by the privately printed Books, 2d ed., 8vo (Lond. 1824).

Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs in Scotland, and The student desiring further information, 'will by many more in other parts of the kingdom. Some find copious lists of works on B. in Watt's Bibliotheca, of these are defunct, and others are in a moribund and in Brunet's Manuel.

state. It remains to be seen in what new form the BIBLIO'MANCY (Gr. ta biblia, the Bible and B. of the present day will develop itself. manteia, divination), a mode of divination much BICANE'RE, capital of the protected state of practised during many ages, by opening the Bible, the same name in Rajpootana, India, is situated in a and observing the first passage which occurred, or singularly desolate tract, 1175 miles to the northby entering a place of worship and taking notice of west of Calcutta, in lat. 28° N., and long. 73° the first words of the Bible heard after entering 22' E. Pop. about 60,000. It is surrounded by a it. The application was often very fanciful, and battlemented wall of 37 miles in circuit; and from depended rather upon the mere sound of the words a distance presents a magnificent appearance, but than upon their proper signification, or the scope of inside, the people are found to be extremely filthy. the passage. Prayer and fasting were sometimes Immediately to the north-east is a detached citadel, used as a preparation for a mode of consulting the of which the rajah's residence occupies the greater divine oracles, than which nothing could be more part.--The state of which B. is the capital, lies in

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lat. 27° 30'-29° 55' N., and long. 72° 30'-75°, who adopted him as his son, and whose surgical 40' E., thus measuring, in its extremes, 160 miles works he edited. In 1797, he began giving lectures by 200. It contains 17,676 square miles, with an on anatomy, along with experimental physiology estimated population of 539,250. The Rajpoots and surgery, and in 1800 was appointed physician are the predominant race; but the Jauts form in the Hôtel-dieu. Two years after, July 22, 1802, the great body of the inhabitants. Though the he fell a victim to intense and unremitting labour, people find their principal resource in pasturage, before he had completed his thirty-first year. He yet water appears to be remarkably scarce. In was the first to simplify anatomy and physiology the whole territory, there is not one perennial by reducing the complex structures of the organs stream; while wells, as precarious and scanty to the simple or elementary Tissues (q. v.) that as they are brackish and in wholesome, average enter into them in common. This he has done in perhaps 250 feet in depth ; even the lakes or sirrs, his Anatomie Générale (2 vols., Par. 1801, often which the periodical rains leave behind them, are reprinted). In his Recherches Physiologiques sur la generally saline, yielding, in fact, at the close of Vie et la Mort (Par. 1800), he develops another the dry season, a thick crust of salt. But the luminous idea—the distinction between the organio peculiar feature of the country is the range of its and the animal life. temperature. In the beginning of February, ice is BICKERSTAFF, ISAAC, author of numerous formed on the ponds; and in the beginning of May, comedies and light musical pieces produced under the thermometer stands at 123° F. in the shade. Garrick's management, which had at one time a Again, in the beginning of November, according to great popularity, was born in Ireland about the year Elphinstone's experience, each period of 24 hours, 1735, and became page to Lord Chesterfield, who according as the sun was above or below the was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1746. B. horizon, presented such extremes of heat and cold afterwards became an officer of marines. but was as often to be fatal to life.

dismissed the service for some discreditable offence. BICE (Ger. Beis, Ital. Biadetto), the name of two Nothing is certainly known regarding his after-life, pigments of a blue and green colour respectively, nor the time of his death, which would seem to have known to artists from the earliest times-blue B. as taken place on the continent. His best known mountain blue, ongaro, azzuro di terra, &c.; and pieces are, The Maid of the Mill ; The Padlock ; green B. as chrysocolla, Hungarian green, verde de He would if he could; Love in a Village ; The Miniera, verde de Spagna, verdetto, &c. Green B. is | Hypocrite ; and The Captive. now usually called malachite green and mountain

BICKERSTETH, Rev. EDWARD, an influential green. Both are native carbonates of copper, but are also prepared artificially. In its native state,

clergyman of the Church of England, was born at

Kirkby Lonsdale, in Westmoreland, March 19, 1786. however, B. is more durable, and in the case of

He commenced life as a post-office clerk; and aftermountain green especially, much more brilliant. Artificial blue B. is known as Hambro' blue, .

wards, having served an apprenticeship to a London

attorney, established a lucrative solicitor's business mineral blue, &c.; artificial green B., as mountain

in Norwich. Here, he took great interest in all green, Paul Veronese green, and emerald green.

meetings of a religious nature, and soon became so BI'CEPS (double-headed) is the muscle which deeply impressed with the importance of religious gives a full appearance to the front of the arm. truth, that he resolved to devote himself to the Above, it consists of two portions or heads-, ministry. Being admitted to orders, he was sent by whence its name-one being attached to the cora- the Church Missionary Society to re-organise their coid process of the scapula, the other to the margin mission stations in Africa. Having most satisof the depression on that bone which lodges the factorily accomplished his mission, B. was, on his head of the humerus. The former is the short, return, appointed secretary to the Church Missionary the latter, the long head of the biceps. They unite Society, and continued to discharge the duties of to form a fleshy belly, which terminates in a the office with an unwearied energy and devorounded tendon.

tion that won for himself a high reputation and The B. tendon is inserted into the tubercle of the extensive influence, as well as great prosperity for radius (see ARM). Before passing to this insertion, the institution he represented, until 1830, when he it gives off an expansion (see SPONEUROSIS), which resigned on acceptance of the rectory of Watton, separates the median basilic vein from the brachial in Hertfordshire. Here, until his death, which took ariery in the situation generally selected for vene-place February 24, 1850), he took an active part in section. The action of the B. is rapidly to bend the

promoting, both by tongue and pen, almost every forearm, and also to supinate the hand.

work having for its object the spread of religious BICÊTRE, originally the name of a very old truth whether at home or abroad. B. belonged to castle, situated on a little eminence in the neighbour- what is known as the Evangelical section of the hood of Paris, and commanding one of the finest Church of England, and took a decided part against views of the city, the Seine, and the environs. In the endowment of Maynooth, and in opposition to 1632, it was destroyed, because it had become a the spread of Tractarianism in his own church. He hiding-place of thieves. Afterwards, it was rebuilt was also one of the founders of the Evangelical by Louis XIII., and made a hospital for old soldiers. Alliance. Of his religious writings which were When Louis XIV. had built the Hôtel Royal des extensive, and which have been collected in 16 Invalides, the B. was made a civil hospital for vols. (Lond. 1853)-the most popular are, A Help to septuagenarians. It also serves as a prison for 2000 | the Study of the Scriptures (written before he was culprits, mostly condemned to the galleys, as well ordained), The Christian Student, and A Treatise on as a hospital for incurable lunatics. Wool-spinning the Lord's Supper. B. also edited a work called and glass-polishing are carried on in the building. The Christian Family Library, which extended to There is a well sunk in the rock to the depth of | 40 or 50 vols. 183 feet.

I BIDASSO'A, a river which, rising in Spain, forms BICHAT, MARIE FRAXÇ. XAVIER, one of the the boundary between that country and France, most famous anatomists and physiologists, whose dis- | and falls into the Bay of Biscay at Fuenterabia. coveries make an epoch in biology, was born at Thoir- | The treaty of the Pyrénées was concluded on an ette, in the department of Ain, France, November | island in its mouth in 1659. The B. was the scene 11,1771. He studied chiefly in Paris under Desault, of several conflicts during the Spanish campaign. BIDDING PRAYER-BIDPAI.

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In April, May, and June 1793, the Spanish crossed | whom he had converted to his opinions-namely, the river, and defeated the French, who occupied a that there was but one person, as there was but one line extending from St. Jean Pied-de-Port to the nature, in the Godhead. The members were first mouth of the B., in three successive encounters, cap- called Bidellians, then Socinians, and finally assumed turing a considerable quantity of ammunition and for themselves the name of Unitarians. Twice, several pieces of cannon. In July of the following however, after this, during the Commonwealth, B. year, however, the French captured the intrenched suffered severely for his creed, and even the ironcamp and all the fortified posts of the Spaniards- willed Protector himself, in order to save his life, defended by 200 pieces of cannon-on the river. was compelled to banish him to one of the Scilly Napoleon, in June 1811, had a tête-du-pont con- Isles. Three years of imprisonment having elapsed, structed on the B. at Irun. In August 1813, the he was permitted to return, and continued to preach French únder Soult were defeated at San Marcial in London till the death of Cromwell, and also after on the B. by the allies; and in the October of the restoration, until June 1662, when he was again the same year, Wellington surprised and drove the apprehended and fined in £100, and being unable French from their strongly fortified positions on its to pay, was committed to jail, where he died in northern side.

September of the same year. His personal character BIDDING PRAYER is a form of exhortation,

was highly esteemed by those who knew him. always concluding with the Lord's Prayer, enjoined l BIDDLE, NICHOLAS, an American financier, born by the 55th canon of the Anglican Church, in 1603. at Philadelphia in 1786, graduated at Princeton to be used before all sermons and homilies. Except | College, and became an energetic member of the in cathedrals and the university churches, it is now legislature of Pennsylvania. In 1823, he was but seldom used. The term "B.' is from the Saxon appointed president of the United States' Bank, • Bede,' signifying a prayer. The form is of extreme and held that post till 1839. He conducted its antiquity, and we have a similar one in the Apostol- affairs at first with great skill, integrity, and pruical Constitutions (a. y.), the original of which was dence; but, in 1838, the bank became insolvent, and probably that used in the Church of Antioch. It in October of that year suspended cash-payments. was anciently used for the communicants or believers

The commercial panic and distress which at that after the dismissal of the catechumens, and was

time prevailed in the United States spread dismay pronounced by the deacon, each petition beginning | far and wide, and involved multitudes in ruin. In with the words : ‘Let us pray for – and the

December 1841, the grand-jury for the county of people responding at the end of each with Kyrie Philadelphia made a presentment against B. and Eleeison,' or some such words.

some others for entering into a conspiracy to defraud There is another very ancient example in the the stockholders of the bank of 400,000 dollars in Ambrosian Liturgy: and St. Chrysostom alludes to 1836, and endeavouring to conceal the same by a such a form in one of his sermons. It must have | fraudulent and illegal entry in 1891; the presentbeen, and even now in its abridged shape still is, very ment, however, was never followed up. B. had conimpressive, allowing each individual to supply from siderable literary taste, and for some time edited The his own thoughts special cases of necessity under the

| Philadelphia Portfolio, contributing many articles different heads. There is some resemblance between

to its pages. By request of the president of the these B. Prayers and the Litany, and prayer for United States, he compiled from the original papers the church militant, now used in the Anglican

a History of Lewis and Clarke's Expedition to the Church.

Pacific Ocean; also The Commercial Digest, a volume BIDDLE, JOHN, the founder of English Unita

put forth by congress. A number of his essays, rianism, was born in 1615, at Wotton-under-Edge,

speeches, &c., were published. He died in January in Gloucestershire, and, in 1632, entered Magdalen

1844. College, Oxford, where he took his degree of M.A.

MAI BI'DÉFORD, a seaport town of Devonshire, on In 1641, he was elected master of the free school in bo

tool in both sides of the Torridge, near its confluence with the town of Gloucester the duties of which function | the estuary of the Taw, 30 miles north-west of he discharged with such zeal, that the character of Exet

Exeter. A bridge of 24 arches, and 677 feet long, the institution was greatly improved ; but having

na unites the two divisions of B., which has manuembraced certain opinions—which he printed for

factures of ropes, sails, earthenware, and leather. private circulation in regard to the personality of These it exports, together wiih oak-bark, corn, the

Holy Spirit at variance with those held by flour, linens, woollens, iron, and naval stores. Pop. the majority of Christians, he was thrown into | (1851) 5775. In 1857, 130 vessels, of 10,889 tons, jail, December 1645. Being at length summoned

belonged to the port; and in 1858, 1135 vessels, before the parliament at Westminster, on account of of 59,336 tons, entered and cleared it. Vessels of his heresy, he was formally tried, and condemned 500 tons can get up to the quay in the centre of to imprisonment for five years. The famous West- | the town. Sir R. Granville, the naval hero and minster Assembly of Divines undertook to settle' discoverer of Virginia, was born in Bideford. B.'s case, but unfortunately their arguments—as is BIDPAI, or PILPAI, is the reputed author of a, usual in disputation-had only the effect of strength-collection of fables and stories which have been widely ening his previous convictions. In 1648, while still current both in Asia and Europe for nearly 2000 in prison, he published a Confession of Faith con- years, passing as a compendium of practical wisdom. cerning the Holy Trinity, &c., which was followed by Scarcely any book except the Bible has been transanother tract containing the opinions of the Church | lated into so many languages; and its history Fathers on the same question. In consequence of deserves attention as part of the history of human this attempt to combat the orthodox doctrine, the development. The researches of Colebrooke, Wilson, Westminster Divines called upon the parliament to Sylvestre de Sacy, and Loiseleur des Longchamps pass an act declaring the denial of the Trinity a (Essai sur les Fables Indiennes, 1838), have successcrime punishable by death. The army, however, fully traced the origin of the collection, its spread, strange to say, proved on this occasion less cruel and the alterations it has undergone among different than the church, for it manifested such strong oppo- nations. The ultimate source is the old Indian sition that the act remained a dead-letter. Under collection in Sanscrit, with the title Pantcha Tantra, the liberal rule of Cromwell, B. was released. He i. e., “Five Sections' (edited by Kosegartwn, Bonn, now commenced to gather a congregation of those i 1848). An analytical account of the Sapscrit

BIEL-BIENNE.

Pantcha Tantra, by H. H. Wilson-who determines the town of Bial:t, which is situated in Galicia. It the date of its production to be subsequent to the has dye-works and print-fields, and carries on a large 5th c. A. 1.---is printed in the Transactions of the trade in woollens and kerseymeres with Russia, PoRoyal Asiatic Society, vol. i.; but an abridgment of land, Hungary, and Italy. B. belongs to the Princes it, called the Hitopadesa, is better known than the Sulkowsky, whose castle, now converted into public original. A critical edition of the Hitopadesa has offices, is situated here. Pop. 6000. been published by A. W. von Schlegel and Lassen BIËLLA, a town of Piedmont, capital of the pro. (Bonn, 1829), and translations have been made into vince of the same name, about 38 miles north-east of English by Wilkins and Jones, and into German by Turin, with which it is connected by railway. It is M. Müller (Leip. 1844).

| pleasantly situated on the Cervo, an affluent of the Under the Persian king, Nushirvan (531-579), Sesia, and has manufactures of woollens, hats, paper, the Pantcha Tantra was translated into the Pehlvi fe 'Pon hout 0000 tongue by his physician Barsuyeh, under the title of

1 BIË'LO-OZ'ERO (the White Lake), a lake in the Calilah and Dimnah (from two jackals that take a prominent part in the first fable). This Peblvi |

o government of Novgorod, Russia, lat. 60° 10' N.,

long. 37° 30' E. version has perished with all the profane literature

It is elliptical in shape, its length

being about 25 miles, and its breadth 20. Its bottom of ancient Persia ; but under the Calif Almansur (754 -775), it was translated into Arabic by Abdallah

is composed of white clay, which, during storniy ibn-Almokaffa (published by De Sacy, Par. 1816).

weather, gives to the water a milky appearance; From Almokaffa's Arabic translation in the intro

| hence, doubtless, the name White Lake. B. is fed duction to which the author of the collection is

| by numerous small streams, is pretty deep, and called Bidpai, the chief of Indian philosophers—have

ahounds with fish. Its surplus waters are conveyed flowed all the other translations and paraphrases of

by the Sheksna River into the Volga. Canals unite the East and West. Several Arabic poets worked it

it with the Onega, Sukona, and Dwina.-B.-OZERSK, an up into complete poems; and in the new Persian

old wooden town on the south shore of the lake, literature a great variety of versions and paraphrases,

formerly capital of an ancient principality of the some in verse, some in prose, were made. From the

same name, has a trade in cattle, corn, and pitch, Persian of Vaez (about the end of the 15th c.), the

and manufactures of candles. Pop. 3000. work was translated into Turkish about 1540 by Ali BIËLO'POL, a town of Russia, in the government Chelebi, under the title of Homaynin-nâmeh, the of Kharkov, from which city it is distant 106 miles Imperial Book. There are also translations into the north-west. It has a considerable general trade and Malay, Mongol, and Afghan languages.

extensive distilleries. Pop. 10,500. Towards the end of the 11th C., a translation had BIELSHÖ'HLE. a singular cavern in one of the appeared, from the Arabic of Almokaffa, into Greek,

Harz Mountains, called Bielstein, on the right bank by Simeon Sethus; and later, a Hebrew translation

of the Bode, in the duchy of Brunswick, Germany. by Rabbi Joel, which John of Capua, a converted

It was discovered in 1768. The entrance to it is Jew, in the last half of the 13th c., retranslated into

more than 100 feet above the bed of the stream. Latin with the title of Directorium Humance Vitæ

The cavern is divided into eleven main compart(published first at Augs. 1480, and repeatedly since).

ments, and contains a great deal of that curiously A version from this was made into German by Eber

freakish work which nature delights to execute in hard I., Duke of Würtemberg (died 1325), which

stalactites, when she sometimes condescends to imiappeared with the title of Examples of the Ancient

tate the inventions of human art, as in the eighth Sages (Ulm, 1483). Under Alfonso X. of Castile

| division, where she has contrived to fashion the (1252-1284), Almokaffa's work was translated into

framework of an organ out of the slow drip of ages. Castilian, and afterwards from that into Latin by

In the ninth, there is also a picture of a sea, as it Raymond of Veziers, a learned physician. The

were, arrested in its motion, its waves silent, but in other European translations follow, some the Latin of John of Capua, some that of Raymond of Veziers ;

act to roll. Spanish (Burgos, 1498), Italian (Fior. 1548), English | BIËLSK, a town of Russian Poland, 25 miles (Lond. 1570), Dutch" (Amst. 1623), Danish (Cop. south of Bialystok. It is situated in a very fertile 1618), Swedish (Stock. 1743), German (most recent, district, watered by the Narev and Nurzek, was forLeip. 1802).

merly capital of a Polish palatinate, is well built, and BIEL. See BIENNE.

has a fine custom-house. Pop. 12,000. BIE'LÉFELD, a busy town of Westphalia, in BIENNE, or BIEL, a town of Switzerland, in the Prussia, picturesquely situated on the Lutter or canton of Bern, 17 miles north-west of the city Lutterbach, at the foot of the Sparrenberg Moun. of Bern, beautifully situated at the foot of the tain, and about 26 miles south-west of. Minden. The vine-clad Jura, at the mouth of the valley of the broad ditch, which formerly surrounded B., is now Suze, and at the northern extremity of the lake of converted into pleasant walks. The old walls of the Bienne. It is surrounded by old walls, and approached town have been put to a similar use. The castle of by shady avenues. Pop. 4248, who are engaged in Sparrenberg, erected in 1545 on the site of an old the manufacture of watches, leather, cotton, &c. B. Guelphic fortress, and which now serves as a prison, is a place of great antiquity. It belonged to the is in the immediate neighbourhood. B. which is Bishop of Bâle, or Basel; but as early as 1352, it the centre of the Westphalian linen-trade, has exten- entered into an alliance with Bern, for the protecsive bleaching grounds, manufactures of woollen tion of its liberties, and for this display of indepenthread, soap, leather, &c., and its meerschaum pipes dence was burned by its ecclesiastial ruler. The are celebrated. Pop. 10,000.

Reformation, huwever, so weakened the power of

the clerical governors of B. that in the beginning of BIËLE'V, an ancient town of European Russia, in

the 17th c. it had become merely nominal; and B. the government of Tula, situated on the left bank of

was essentially a free and independent city until the Oka, in lat. 53° 45' N., and long. 36° 5' E. It

1798, when it was annexed to France. In 1815, it has a large trade, and manufactures of soap, hard

was united to Bern.-B., LAKE OF, extends from the ware, leather, &c. Pop. 11,000.

town of B. along the foot of the Jura Mountains in BIE'LITZ, a town of Austrian Silesia, on the left a south-west direction, until within 3 miles of Lake bank of the river Biala, about 18 miles north-east of Neuchâtel, its length being about 10 miles, and its neschen. A bridge over the river connects it with greatest breadth 3. It is situated at an elevation of

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