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10 o'clock in the morning of the 2d of September, they anchored in James Bay, St. Helena, and sailed thence on the 13th. On the 11th of October, the head of the mizen-mast was carried away, and on the 15th, the head of the main-mast sprung in a squall.
When they approached the Western islands, they housed their boats, knocked down their try-work, and fresh painted the ship, to make her appear like a man of war. They made the Eddystone on the 1st of November, and reached Portland in the course of the night, stood off and on till day-light, when they ran up and anchored in Cowes Road, at the S. W. end of the Isle of Wight.
This voyage occupied 22 months, and forms a most valuable addition to the labours of Cook and Vancouver; and is in fact, in many respects, connected with, and explanatory of the voyage of the latter. Excepting the loss of one man by accident, the whole of the crew, consisting of 25 men and boys, were preserved during this fatiguing and peril. ous voyage.
Captain William Robert Broughton, in his Majesty's sloop Providence, with her tender, sailed on a voyage of discovery in February, 1795, to the North Pacific Ocean: in order to examine and sur. vey such parts of the north-west coast of America, as had not been completed by Captain Vancouver, and also the opposite coast of Asia, from the latitude of 35° north, to the latitude of 52° north, the island of Insu, (commonly known by the name of the land of Jesso), the North, South, and East Coasts of Japan, the Lieuchieux, and the adjacent isles, as well as the Coast of Corea.
It will be recollected that Captain King observes, in the third volume of Cook's last voyage, that the navigation of the sea between Japan and China af forded a large field for discovery; and the Honourable Daines Barrington also says, in the Preface to his Miscellanies, that, "the coast of Corea, the northern part of Japan, and the Lieuchicux Islands, should be explored." Captain Vancouver has also remarked in his 3d vol. "that the Asiatic coast, from about the latitude of 35° to 52° north, is at present very ill defined; and the American coast, from about the latitude of 44° south, to the southern extremity of Terra del Fuego, is very little known." These suggestions alone would appear sufficient for under. taking the present voyage; and it has been previously stated in Vancouver's voyage, that Captain (then Lieutenant) Broughton sailed with Captain Vancouver, in his voyage of Discovery, as commander of the Chatham tender, in 1791; and that he was sent home with the dispatches from Nootka.
Captain Broughton sailed from England on his mission in February, 1795. His orders were secret, with an additional one to put himself under the command of Captain Drury, of his Majesty's ship Trusty, and to proceed to sea with his convoy, then bound for the Mediterranean. Captain Broughton proceeded by way of Teneriffe and Rio Janeiro; on the 10th of June made Gough's Island; and, on the 18th of August, anchored in Port Stephens, where our voyagers remained a week. On the 27th of August, the Providence reached Port Jackson, where she remained till the 13th of October. Thence Captain
Broughton directed his course to the north of New Zealand, touched at Otaheite; and on the 1st of January, 1796, reached the Sandwich Islands, where he learnt from an American vessel, that Captain Vancouver, with the Discovery and Chatham, had sailed for England. At Owhyhee, Captain Broughton obtained ample supplies from Ta-maah-maah; and had the satisfaction of seeing that the cattle which had been left on the island by Captain Vancouver had bred, and were in excellent order: the goats had multiplied prodigiously. Captain Broughton added a male and female to their number, also left some geese, ducks, and pigeons; and is of opinion that any vessel may now touch at Owhyhee in safety, and be amply supplied with refreshments.
On the 22d of February, the Providence sailed for Nootka Sound; and on the 25th, Captain Broughton says, "We altered our course to the west, intending to search for an island called Donna Maria Lajara, said to be discovered by the Spaniards in the ship Hercules, in 1781; and laid down in Arrowsmith's charts, from the authority of Mr. Dalrymple. The centre of it is situated in 28° 30′ north, and in lon. gitude 202° 30' east. By the chart it is of con. siderable extent, in a north and south direction. The afternoon sights for the watch made our longitude at noon 204° 1′ 30′′ east; and we could see half a degree to the east. There was a large swell in that direction, but no indication that could induce us to suppose there was land in that quarter.
We had now run 5° of longitude nearly from 200° to 205° east, in the parallel of 28° 30′ north: the situation of this island must therefore be to the east or west of the above longitude; most probably to the east of 206°, as Captain Cook passed the parallel in longitude of 200° 15′ east, and many other navigators to the westward of that longitude."
On the 17th of March, the Providence anchored in Nootka Sound, which the Spaniards had then evacuated. The ship requiring much repair, she was here hove down, and did not quit the Sound till May. Captain Broughton then proceeded along the north-west coast of America, and stopped in the Bay of Monterry. "It was now necessary," says he, "I should come to some determination respecting my future proceedings. My orders from the Admiralty were, that I should survey the N. W. coast of America, upon the idea that Captain Vancouver, who had similar orders, would not be able to fulfil them. But as I now had certain intelligence, that he had left this port eighteen months before, and that both the ships, Discovery and Chatham, under his command, were in good condition, I had not the smallest doubt of his ability to comply with his instructions; particularly as I had information of his sailing from Valparaiso, for that purpose. This being the case, and wishing to em. ploy his Majesty's sloop under my command, in such a manner as might be deemed most eligible for the improvement of geography and navigation; I therefore, after consulting the officers, whose opinions coincided with my own, determined to survey the coast of Asia, commencing at the Island of Sakhalin, situated in 50° north latitude in the southern part of the sea off Ochotz, and ending at the Nanking River, in 30° north latitude." But as this survey could not probably be completed before the middle of the year
1798, Captain Broughton proposed spending his time in that pursuit till Christmas, then to go to Canton, for stores and provisions, and to continue the survey early in the following year. He accordingly steered for the Sandwich Islands; and thence sailed across the North Pacific Ocean, to the Japanese and Kurile Islands, which he continued surveying during the months of September, October, and November; and in December he arrived at China. Here Captain Broughton purchased a very fine schooner of between 80 and 90 tons burden; and, in April, 1797, as soon as the monsoon permitted, he sailed to prosecute his voyage, with fifteen months' provisions on board of both the vessels. On the 17th of May, however, a dreadful and unexpected accident happened, which had nearly terminated their farther progress, viz. the Providence struck upon a reef of rocks, off some islands distinguished in the charts by the name of Typinsan, about 100 leagues from the east part of Formosa: every means to extricate her from this perilous situation were employed, but from adverse circumstances, she in the course of five hours became a perfect wreck, and they left her to the mercy of the sea, and embarked in the schooner.
The groupe of islands off which the Providence was lost, consists of seventeen. They are of different sizes, and many of them very small and uninhabited. They extend from 24° 10' to 24° 52′ 30′′ north latitude, and from 103° 2 to 125° 37' east longitude. The inhabitants distinguish them by the name of Madjicosemah; they are tributary to Great Lieuchieux, or the Liquieux Islands.
It is but justice to the natives of Typinsan to remark, that they behaved with the most distinguished humanity and kindness to Captain Broughton and his crew, who, after having been liberally supplied with water and all kinds of refreshments, returned to China, where they arrived safe in the schooner, on the 4th of June.
Mr. John Turnbull also made a voyage round the world, in the years 1800, 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which he visited the principal islands in the Pacific Ocean, and the English settlements at Port Jackson and Norfolk Islands.
As the object of this voyage was not to make discoveries, but solely undertaken to speculate and trade with the natives of the said islands, we shall not enter into any particulars, but refer the reader to the voyage itself, in 3 vol. 12mo. which was published in 1805.
Stilling WAVES by Means of Oil. Page 625, col. 1, after line 15, add,
The crew of the Providence, with the exception of thirty-five officers and men, whom Captain Broughton retained with him in the schooner, were here distributed on board the Swift sloop of war, and different East India ships, for the purpose of taking their passage to England. The Swift was afterwards lost, and the whole of her crew perished. Captain Broughton, being determined to pursue and finish the survey which he had begun, sailed again on the 17th of the same month (June), with five months provisions, on board the schooner. Having accomplished his purpose, at least in its principal points, he returned to China in November. Captain Broughton proceeded thence through the Straights of Malacca, and from Madras to Trincomalé; a track of sea well known to navigators: thence he took the accustomed passage to England, where he arrived in February, 1799, after an absence of four years. It may be proper to observe, that Captain Broughton was tried at Trincomalé for the loss of the Providence, and honourably acquitted.
Captain Anthony Pool relates, that his ship, being one of a fleet, in 1761, whereof there was a ship laden with oil, which escaped through the seams of the casks containing it, and mixing with the water in the hold, both of which were pumped up together, while it was remarked, that the water in the wake of the ship was as smooth as a mirror: the longer the pumping continued, the more was the wake enlarged, and, notwithstanding the agitation of the sea conti. nued, the waves did not break.
In regard to the method of employing oil, if only designed to smooth the surface of the sea, so as to expose the view of what is below, it is said to be enough to dip a feather in it, which is drawn through the water. If a more important purpose be designed in averting the presence of danger, a quantity must be allowed to escape slowly through a tube, the size of a goose quill, which will be sufficient to quell the turbulence of the waves; and as the effect is gradually lost, the effusion must be repeated.
We must not suppose, however, in here describing the properties of oil, that a calm and level plain is produced by its effusion on the sea: on the contrary, the swell remains unabated; but a vessel will safely mount the waves, and lie in the troughs between them, for the breakers, which are most of all to be dreaded, disappear. The lofty precipices, which would otherwise overhang the stern, threaten ing destrction in their fall, gradually decline when under the influence of the repelling fluid, and instead of washing the decks of the vessel from above, clevate the hull on their successive summits.
YARD. Page 652, col. 1, after line 56, add,
The yards of a 74-gun ship are represented in plate XX. where d d is the main-yard, ee the main. topsail-yard, ff the main-top-gallant yard, and k k the main royal yard,
FRENCH SEA-PHRASES, AND TERMS OF ART.
Laisse ABATTRE! Let her fall off!·
ABATTRE un vaisseau en carène, v. a. To heave down, or careen a ship.
ABRAQUE le mou! Haul taught!
Se mettre à L'ABRI d'une côte. To shelter a ship
trough of the sea.
Ce vaisseau va nous ABRIER.
A ship becalmed in the
That ship is going to
La misaine est ABRIÉE. The fore-sail is becalmed.
ABATTRE un vaisseau en quille. To heave down a ABRITER, v. a. To shelter. Ex.
APRITÉ de tous les vents. Sheltered from all winds.
tally a-board of each other, or otherwise. Aller à L'ABORDAGE. To run down upon a ship
with an intention to board her.
Eviter L'ABORDAGE. To avoid an enemy's boarding.
Nous ABORDÂMES le vaisseau ennemi. We boarded the
Un vaisseau de ligne nous ABORDA en appareillant. A line of battle ship fell aboard of us, in getting under way.
Nous ABORDAMES à Portsmouth. Wel nded at Ports
ABOUGRI. Voyez RABOUGri.
Butt-end of a ak: also, the
To haul taught upon any cask or weighty body that is slung or seized for that purpose. Ex.
ACADÉMIE, ACADÉMIE Royale, s. f. A place in
Vaisseau qui a L'ACCASTILLAGE élevé. A round-
A flat-bottomed boat, for catching
Regularity in plying the oars, or
Hisse D'ACCORD! Voyez ENSEMBLE.
ACCORER un vaisseau sur le chantier. To prop a
ACCORER un tonneau, une malle, &c. To wedge a
Shores fixed under a ship's wales, &c. to support her whilst building, &c.
Le canot est il ACCOSTÉ? Does the boat lay fair along-side?
ACCOSTE! Come along-side! ACCOURSIE, s.f. A passage formed in a ship's hold by a separation of her stores, cargo, or provisions, to go fore and aft, as occasion requires. ACCROCHER, v. a. To grapple an enemy's ship.
ACCUL, s. m. The depth of a bay, or small road. (A term used in the French West India Islands.) ACCULÉ, adj. (from acculer.) Ex. Varangues ACCULÉES, varangues demi-ACCULÉES. Voyez VARANGUES. ACCULEMENT, s. m. Rising of the timbers. s'ACCULER, v. r. To be pooped; to receive a shock in pitching. ACHEVER, v. a. To complete. Ex.
Ils auront bientôt ACHEVÉ leur cargaison. They will soon have completed their cargo. ACOTARS, s. m. p. Filling pieces. Voyez CLÉS. ADENT, s. m. (In ship-building) A scoring in a piece of timber.
ADIEU-VA! int. Helm's a-lee! About ship! the order for tacking.
ADONNER, v. n. To draw aft; speaking of the wind when it becomes favourable. Le vent ADONNE. The wind draws aft. AFFALER, v. a. To lower, to overhaul. Ex. AFFALER les cargues fonds. To overhaul the buntlines, &c.
AFFALER un palan. To fleet a tackle. s'AFFALER. To get embayed. Ex.
Le navire étoit AFFALE sur la côte. The ship was embayed on a lee shore.
AFFINER, v. n. To clear up, speaking of the
AFFLEURER, v. a. (In ship-building) To fay, as, a plank fays to the timbers.
AFFOLÉE, adj. An epithet given to a magnetic needle which has lost its virtue, and is become erroneous and defective.
AFFOURCHER UN VAISSEAU, & s'AFFOURCHER, v. a. To moor a ship by the head. Ex. AFFOURCHER à la voile. To moor across under sail.
AFFRANCHIR, v.n. To free the ship, or to clear her hold of water by the means of the pumps.
AFFRÉTEMENT, s. m. The freighting of a mer
Les ferrures de L'AFFÛT. The iron works of a carriage.
Les plattes bandes. The cap-squares, or clamps.
Cheville qui lie l'entretoise avec les flasques. The transom-bolt.
Cheville qui traverse L'AFFÛT vers l'arrière sur laquelle porte la culasse du canon. The bed-bolt. Chevilles pour la brague. Breeching-bolts. Chevilles qui lient les flasques avec l'essieu de derrière. Hind axle-tree bolts.
Eillets à accrocher les palans à canons. Loops, or eye-bolts, to which the gun-tackles are hooked. AFFÛT de mortier, s.m. Carriage of a mortar. AFFÛTER UN CANOn, d. a. upon its carriage.
To mount a gun
AGENT DE LA MARINE, S. m.
L'AGITATION des flots. The surges.
To swell or run high, expressed
of a turbulent sea.
La mer est AGITÉE. The agitation of the sea.
AGRÉER. Voyez GRÉER.
AGRÈS, s. m. p. Rigging. The French term is of
AIDE de port. An officer under the commissioner of a French dock-yard.
AIDE Major des signaux. The under officer belonging to the signals.
AIDE-Calfat. Calker's mate.
netic needle. AIGUILLE, ou flèche.
AIGUILLE de fanal. A crank used to support a poop