Images de page

ful arts. This he did with much success during the Thence they sailed to Prince William's Sound, which winter months he remained there from his survey they surveyed in boats. Mr. Whidbey, during his Aorth ward.

last boat excursions, particularly noticed the rapid On the return of spring 1793, Captain Vancouver encroachments of the sea upon the land. Captain again procceded to the north ; touched at Nootka, Vancouver also noticed this phenomenon, and made and on the 26th of May arrived at Fitzhugh's Sound; some remarks thereon. and recommenced the survey of the preceding year On quitting Prince William's Sound, in June 1794, with great diligence and incredible fatigue. In a Captain Vancouver makes some interesting remark's channel only a mile in width, they traversed repeat. relative to some errors that had crept into Captain edly from shore to shore without finding bottom with Cook's last voyage. The reader will be struck with 185 fathoms of line, though within half a cable's that passage where he speaks with so much feeling length of the rocks. The survey of the branches of Captain Cook's not living to superintend the last of various inlets continued to be performed in boats publication of his labours; as Vancouver himself detached in different directions. Captain Vancouver died before the third volume of his own voyage was at one time was absent on this perilous service twenty- printed off. three days; during which, from their outset to their Captain Vancouver now proceeded to Cross Sound, return, he traversed in an open boat above 700 where he anchored : thence sailed to the south ward geographical miles ; but without having advanced along the exterior coast of King George the Third's his primary object, of tracing the continental boun. Archipelago, and completed the survey of the conti. dary more than twenty leagues from the station of nental shores of North-west America, on the 22d of the vessels. The limits of this survey of the American August, 1794. coast appear to be from Fitzhugh’s Sound to Cape After visiting St. Jago, the capital of Chili, they Decision, and from Monterry to the southern extent doubled Cape Horn, and searched in vain fór Isla of their intended investigation, which was fioished Grande, which had been mentioned by former navi. on the 14th of December in the same ycar.

gators, and laid down in some charts as being in the Captain Vancouver regrets, that he had not with South Atlantic Ocean, nearly parallel with Cape him one or two vessels of 30 or 40 tons burden, cal. Blanco. culated as well for rowing as for sailing, to assist Captain Vancouver then proceeded to St. Helena ; him in the unremitting investigation he was obliged and, on his return to England, joined the convoy of to pursue ; as by these means much dispatch would Dutch prizes under the protection of the Sceptre, have been given to the survey, and their labours Captain Essington, who had sailed from St. Helena would have been carried on with much less danger on the very day the Discovery and Chatham arrived and hardship than they now constantly endured. there. They anchored in the Shannon in perfect

On the 921 of December, at a considerable dis. safety on the 13th of September, 1795; and in the tance from the tracks of former navigators, they dis. Thames on the 20th of October following, after an corered an island, named Oparo, in the latitude of absence of 4 years and 6 months. 27° 36', and, by their lunar observations of the two The late iodefatigable Captain Cook, had already preceding days, reduced to its centre by the chrono. shewn that a southern continent did not exist, and meter, in longitude 215° 58' 28", the mean of the had ascertained the important fact of the near approxi. variation was 5° 40' eastwardly. Its principal cha. mation of the northern shores of Asia to those of racter was a cluster of high craggy mountains, form. America. To those great discoveries the exertions ing in several places most romantic pinnacles, with of Captain Vancouver have added a complete cer. perpendicular cliffs, nearly from their suminits to tainty, that within the limits of his researches on the

continental shore of North-west America, no in. Our navigators again visited the Sandwich Islands ternal sea, or other navigable communication what. for the winter months, and at the Island of Owhyhee ever exists, uniting the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. met with that hospitality and liberal treatment which Captain James Colnett was nominated by the would do honour to more polished nations; they saw Board of Admiralty at the close of the year 1792, to the character of those islanders in a more favourable undertake a voyage to the South Atlantic, and round light than had generally been conceived since the Cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean, in consequence death of Captain Cook.

of a memorial from the merchants in the city of LonThey next proceeded up what had been termed don, concerned in the South Sea Fisheries, for the Cook's River, and discovered its final termination, purpose of extending the Spermaceti Whale Fisheries when Captain Vancouver found it to be only an inlet, and other objects of commerce, by ascertaining the the northern extent of which was ascertained to be ports, bays, harbours, and anchoring places in cer. in latitude 61° 29', longitude 211° 17': he adds, tain islands and coasts in those seas, at which the “ Thus terminated this very extensive opening on the ships of the British merchants might bc refitted. coast of North America ; to which, had the great Captain Colnett had sailed with Captain Cook, as discoverer of it, whose name it bears, dedicated one a midshipman on board the Resolution; and after. day more to i's further examination, he would have wards, while a licutenant, had been engaged in va. spared the theoretical navigators who have followed rious commercial undertakings on the north-west him in their closets, the task of ingeniously ascribing coast of America, where he had examined that coast to this arm of the occan a channel, through which a from 36° to 60° north, surveyed several bays, har. north-west passage, existing according to their doc. bours, and creek's, and discovered many inlets, trines, might ultimately be discovered."

particularly between 50° and 53° north, 'He had

[ocr errors]

the sca.


also made two voyages to China, and was deemed came to anchor in the Gulf of Panama, and moored a very proper person by all parties for this under. in the bay of Port de Dames in 19 fathoms, before taking.

the island of Quibo, latitude by observation 7° 27' Captain Colnett left Yarmouth Roads in the Rattler north, and longitude 82° 10' west, and remained sloop of 374 tons burden, with a crew of only 17 here till the 17th. The Captain represents Quibo as officers and seamen, 3 landmen, and 5 boys, to work the most commodious place for cruisers, of any he had a ship, which in his Majesty's service had a comple- seen in these seas, as all parts of it furnish plenty of ment of 130 men. Amid the snow and blowing wea- provisions, wood, and water, and a vessel may lie so ther he had to contend with at that season of the near the shore as to take off her water; but the time year, on leaving the Chops of the Channel, the Cap- of anchoring must be considered, as the flats run off tain observes, the Marine Barometer was of the a long way, and it is possible to be deceived in the greatest service, as it warned him against making distance. The time of high-water at full and change, sail when there was an appearance only of moderate by his observations, was at half.past three o'clock. weather, and to shorten sail on the approach of foul The flood comes from the north, and returns the same tempestuous weather. They touched at Rio Janeiro way, flowing seven hours and ebbing five; and the on their way out, and at day light on the 13th of perpendicular rise of the tide is about two fathoms. April, they saw the Isle of Diego Ramieres, bearing Captain Coloett thinks it would not be advisable N. by E. three or four leagues. Captain Colnett for armed vessels to anchor far in, as the wind makes them by observations corrected, in longitude throughout the day blows fresh from the eastward, 68° 58' west, and in latitude 56° 30' south ; appear. and right on shore; so that an enemy would have a ing to lie in an east and west direction; and makes very great advantage over ships in such a situation : the following remarks on the navigation round Cape he also states, that there is good anchorage through. Horn:-" That the beginning of winter, or even out the bay, at five or six miles distance, in 33 and winter itself, with moon-light nights, is the best sea. 35 fathoms, with a mud bottom and firm holding son; for then the winds begin to vary to the eastward, ground. as has often been observed at the Falkland Isles." Captain Colnett quitted Quibo on the 18th, and He recommends commanders of vessels to keep near cruised between the Isle of Quicara and Cape Ma. the coast of Staten Island, and Terra del Fuego, be. riatto, till the last day of February; during this cause the winds are more variable in with the shore, time the winds were light, and mostly southerly in than at a long offing. The common course is by keep- the day, and sometimes a stiff breeze from north-east ing between Falkland Isles and the Main, and through in the night. As the sun drew near the equator, and the Straits Le Maire, which not only lengthens their long calms were expected, it became necessary to distance, but subjects them to a heavy and irre. steer for the Gallipagos Isles, to procure salt, for gular sea, occasioned by the current and tides in that the purpose of salting seal-skins, at the islands of channel, which may be avoided by passing to the St. Felix and St. Ambrose, in latitude 26° 15' south, eastward.

having failed in the whaling business. Accordingly, He also observes, that there is no necessity for on the 1st of March, he determined to steer to the going to 60° south, as most navigators do, only to southward, in a direct line for the isles. As they 57° 30', so as to give the Isle of Diego Ramieres a sailed up the coast of Chili and Peru from latitude good birth, or if winds and weather would permit, 38° south, during April, May, and June, they had make it, for a fresh departure, especially if one has no occasion to take in a reef from the strength of the not been taken at Cape St. John, Staten Land, or wind, while the barometer stood mostly at 29.9, and the east end of Falkland Isles. Staten Land is well the thermometer at 60, rising gradually till in lati.. situated as a place of rendezvous, both for men of tude 1° 30° south, until it reached 72, but in the war and merchant-ships, and contains plenty of wood evenings it was generally below summer heat in Engand water; while the harbours on the north and south land. Captain Colnett tried the currents on this sides, which are divided by a small neck, would an. coast several times, and found them very irregular, swer the purpose of ships bound out, or home. But sometimes setting one way, and sometimes anotherý the north side offers the best place for any establish- generally from half a mile, to two miles an hour. ment for carrying on the black whale fisheries to. Soundings were also tried for in many places, at the wards the south pole ; and it is one of the easiest land. distance of five or six leagues from the shore, but falls a sailor can make.

they could not obtain any bottoin with 150 fathoms The buccaniers of America have asserted, and of line. During the whole of their passage down the Lord Anson seems to confirm their opinion, that coast of Chili in the month of July, they had sonth. there was no reason to apprehend danger on the east and easterly winds, with variable, but in genccoast of Mexico, from the middle of October till ral pleasant weather, accompanied with occasional May; but Captain Colnett thinks the middle of. Ja. showers. In latitude 33° south, the wind came to nuary too early to expect good weather, as he found the southward, then veered to the west, and conti. to the southward of Cape Corientes, and to the nucd mostly between that and north, till they got to northward of Cape St. Lucas, that the thunder, 47o. south : here it would blow for a few hours be.. lightning, and heavy rains, had not subsided at the tween the west and south-west, but never continued. beginning of November; and that the Spaniards In latitude 48° and 49°, the winds were light for themselves never leave the port of St. Blas for Aca. 48 hours, in the south-east quarter, with a strong pulco till the latter end of that month, when the southerly current. On the 1st of August, they doua north winds set in, and blow steadily.

bled Cape Horn, at the distance of fifteen leagues, In the beginning of February, 1794, the Rattler annid frequent showers of rain, snow, and hail. At

[merged small][ocr errors]

10 o'clock in the morning of the 2d of September, Broughton directed his course to the north of New they anchored in James Bay, St. Helena, and sailed Zealand, touched at Otaheite; and on the 1st of thence on the 13th. On the 11th of October, the January, 1796, reached the Sandwich Islands, where head of the mizen-mast was carried away, and on he learnt from an American vessel, that Captain Van. the 15th, the head of the main-mast sprung in a couver, with the Discovery and Chatham, had sailed squall.

for England. At Owhyhee, Captain Broughton When they approached the Western islands, they obtained ample supplies from Ta.maah-maah; and housed their boats, knocked down their try-work, had the satisfaction of seeing that the cattle which and fresh painted the ship, to make her appear like had been left on the island by Captain Vancouver a man of war. They made the Eddystone on the 1st had bred, and were in excellent order: the goats of November, and reached Portland in the course of had multiplied prodigiously. Captain Broughton the night, stood off and on till day-light, when they added a male and female to their number, also left ran up and anchored in Cowes Road, at the S. W. some geese, ducks, and pigeons; and is of opinion end of the Isle of Wight.

that any vessel may now touch at Owhyhee in safety, This voyage occupied 22 months, and forms a and be amply supplied with refreshments. most valuable addition to the labours of Cook and On the 22d of February, the Providence sailed for Vancouver; and is in fact, in many respects, con- Nootka Sound; and on the 25th, Captain Broughton nected with, and explanatory of the voyage of the says, “We altered our course to the west, intending latter. Excepting the loss of one man by accident, to search for an island called Donna Maria Lajara, the whole of the crew, consisting of 25 men and said to be discovered by the Spaniards in the ship boys, were preserved during this fatiguing and peril. Hercules, in 1781; and laid down in Arrowsmith's ous voyage.

charts, from the authority of Mr. Dalrymple. The Captain William Robert Broughton, in his Ma. centre of it is situated in 28° 30' north, and in lon. jesty's sloop Providence, with her tender, sailed on gitude 202° 30' east. By the chart it is of con. a voyage of discovery in February, 1795, to the siderable extent, in a north and south direction. North Pacific Ocean : in order to examine and sur. The afternoon sights for the watch made our longivey such parts of the north-west coast of America, tude at noon 204' 1' 30" east; and we could see half as had not been completed by Captain Vancouver, a degree to the east. There was a large swell in that and also the opposite coast of Asia, from the latitude direction, but no indication that could induce us to of 35° north, to the latitude of 52° north, the island suppose there was land in that quarter. of Insu, (commonly known by the name of the We had now run 5° of longitude nearly from 200° land of Jesso), the North, South, and East Coasts to 205° east, in the parallel of 28° 30' north : the of Japan, the Lieuchieux, and the adjacent isles, as situation of this island must therefore be to the east well as the Coast of Corea.

or west of the above longitude; most probably to the It will be recollected that Captaia King observes, east of 206°, as Captain Cook passed the parallel in in the third volume of Cook's last voyage, that the longitude of 200° 15' east, and many other naviganavigation of the sea between Japan and China af. tors to the westward of that longitude.” forded a large ficld for discovery; and the Honourable On the 17th of March, the Providence anchored Daines Barrington also says, in the Preface to his in Nootka Sound, which the Spaniards had then era. Miscellanies, that, “ the coast of Corea, the north- cuated. The ship requiring much repair, she was ern part of Japan, and the Lieuchieux Islands, here hore down, and did not quit the Sound till should be explored.” Captain Vancouver has also re. May. Captain Broughton then proceeded along the marked in his 3d vol. “ that the Asiatic coast, from north-west coast of America, and stopped in the Bay about the latitude of 35° to 52° north, is at present of Monterry. 6 It was now necessary," says he, very ill defined; and the American coast, from about " I should come to some determination respecting my the latitude of 44° south, to the southern extremity future proceedings. My orders from the Admiralty of Terra del Fuego, is very little known.” These were, that I should survey the N. W.coast of America, suggestions alone would appear suflicient for under. upon the idea that Captain Vancouver, who had similar taking the present voyage; and it has been previously orders, would not be able to fulfil them. But as I nov stated in Vancouver's voyage, that Captain (then had certain intelligence, that he had left this port Lieutenant) Broughton sailed with Captain Vancou- eighteen months before, and that both the ships, Discover, in his voyage of Discovery, as commander of very and Chatham, under his command, were in good the Chatham tender, in 1791; and that he was sent condition, I had not the smallest doubt of his ability home with the dispatches from Nootka.

to comply with his instructions; particularly as I had Captain Broughton sailed from England on his information of his sailing from Valparaiso, for that mission in February, 1795. His orders were secret, purpose. This being the case, and wishing to em. with an additional one to put himself under the com- ploy his Majesty's sloop under my command, in such mand of Captain Drury, of his Majesty's ship Trusty, a manner as might be deemed most eligible for the and to proceed to sea with his convoy, then bound improvement of geography and navigation; I there. for the Mediterranean. Captain Broughton pro- fore, after consulting the officers, whose opinions ceeded by way of Teneriffe and Rio Janeiro; on the coincided with my own, determined to survey the 10th of June made Gough's Island ; and, on the 18th coast of Asia, commencing at the Island of Sakhalin, of August, anchored in Port Stephens, where our situated in 50° north latitude in the southern part of voyagers remained a week. On the 27th of August, the sea off Ochotz, and ending at the Nanking River, the Providence reached Port Jackson, where she re« in 30° north latitude.” But as this survey could not mained till the 13th of October. Thence Captain probably be completed before the middle of the year

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

1798, Captain Broughton proposed spending his time Mr. John Turnbull also made a voyage round the
in that pursuit till Christmas, then to go to Canton, world, in the years 1800, 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which
for stores and prorisions, and to continue the survey he visited the principal islands in the Pacific Ocean,
early in the following year. He accordingly steered and the English settlements at Port Jackson and
for the Sandwich Islands; and thence sailed across Norfolk Islands.
the North Pacific Ocean, to the Japanese and Kurile As the object of this voyage was not to make dis.
Islands, which he continued surveying during the coveries, but solely undertaken to speculate and trade
months of September, October, and November; with the natives of the said islands, we shall not
and in December he arrived at China. Here Captain enter into any particulars, but refer the reader to the
Broughton purchased a very fine schooner of between voyage itself, in 3 vol. 12mo. which was published in
80 and 90 tons burden; and, in April, 1797, as soon 1805.
as the monsoon permitted, he sailed to prosecute
his voyage, with fifteen months' provisions on board
of both the vessels. On the 17th of May, however,

a dreadful and unexpected accident happened, which
had nearly terminated their farther progress, viz. the Stilling WAVES by Means of Oil. Page 625, col. 1,
Providence struck upon a reef of rocks, off some after line 15, add,
islands distinguished in the charts by the name of

Captain Anthony Pool relates, that his ship, being Typinsan, about 100 leagues from the east part of one of a fleet, in 1761, whereof there was a ship Formosa : every means to extricate her from this laden with oil, which escaped through the seams of perilous situation were employed, but from adverse the casks containing it, and mixing with the water in circumstances, she in the course of five hours became the hold, both of which were pumped up together, a perfect wreck, and they left her to the mercy of while it was remarked, that the water in the wake of the sea, and embarked in the schooner.

the ship was as smooth as a mirror: the longer the The groupe of islands off which the Providence pumping continued, the more was the wake enlarged, was lost, consists of seventeen. They are of different and, notwithstanding the agitation of the sea couti. sizes, and many of them very small and uninhabited.

nued, the waves did not break. They extend from 24° 10' to 24° 52' 30" north lati.

In regard to the method of employing oil, if only tude, and from 103° 2' to 125° 37' east longitude. designed to smooth the surface of the sea, so as to The inhabitants distinguish them by the name of

expose the view of what is below, it is said to be Madjicosemah; they are tributary to Great Lieu- enough to dip a feather in it, which is drawn through chieux, or the Liquieux Islands.

the water. If a more important purpose be designed It is but justice to the natives of Typinsan to re, in averting the presence of danger, a quantity must mark, that they behaved with the most distinguished be allowed to escape slowly through a tube, the size humanity and kindness to Captain Broughton and his of a goose quill, which will be sufficient to quell the crew, who, after having been liberally supplied with turbulence of the wares; and as the effect is grawater and all kinds of refreshments, returned to dually lost, the effusion must be repeated. China, where they arrived safe in the schooner, on

We must not suppose, however, in here describing the 4th of June.

the properties of oil, that a calm and level plain is The crew of the Providence, with the exception produced by its effusion on the sea : on the con. of thirty-five officers and men, whom Captain trary, the swell remair:s unabated; but a vessel will Broughton retained with him in the schooner, were safely mount the waves, and lie in the troughs behere distributed on board the Swift sloop of war, tween them, for the breakers, which are most of all and different East India ships, for the purpose to be dreaded, disappear. The lofty precipices, of taking their passage to England. The Swift was which would otherwise overhang the stern, threaten. afterwards lost, and the whole of her crew perished. ing destr.ction in their fall, gradually decline when

Captain Broughton, being determined to pursue under the influence of the repelling fluid, and instead and finish the survey which he had begun, sailed again of washing the decks of the vessel from above, cle. on the 17th of the same month (June), with five rate the hill on their successive summits. months provisions, on board the schooner. Having accomplished his purpose, at least in its principal points, he returned to China in November. Captain Broughton proceeded thence through the Straights

Y. of Malacca, and from Madras to Trincomale; a track of sea well known to navigators: thence he YARD. Page 65, col. 1, after line 56, add, took the accustomed passage to England, where he The yards of a 74-gun ship are represented in arrived in February, 1799, after an absence of four plate XX. where d d is the main-yard, ee the main, years. It may be proper to observe, that Captain topsail-yard, f f the main-top-gallant yard, and kk Broughton was tried at Trincomalé for the loss of the main royal yard, the Providence, and honourably acquitted.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]




fig. 10,

Page. Col. Live.

Page. Col. Line. 2 2 40 ABURTON. For a correct definition of 133 1 28 Erking, read EkEING,

this article, see the APPENDIX. 144 2 21 hook, read hoop. 6 1 26 See APPENDIX, read See the articles 145 1 22 ship-building, read mast-making. PAY and WAGES.

152 2 23 military, read naval.- l. 31, white, 16 1 23 against, read again.

read red. 2 59 verticle, read vertical.

157 1 39 buntin, read buntine or bunting. 36 2 00 is being hoisted, read is hoisting. 163 1 38 Hard, read Stif. 2 34 coin, read quoin throughout the work. 176 2 24 from the bottom, long ways, read length1. 41, ship-building, read mast-mak.

ways; and for midship, read mid. ing.

ships. 40 1 62 Birtit, read Bertu throughout the 177 1 5 and, read an. work.

192 1 40 fig. 10, plate XI. read fig. 1, plate 45 1 4 voyal, read voyol.

The reference to the boats, from line 214 1 14 Langrage, read LANGRAGE-Suot.

10 to line 41, in column 1 page 49, 219 2 56 fig. i, plate XIV. read fig. 2, plate
as in the original work, is cancelled;

XXXIV. and the sheer-draughts, half. 242 2 7 fig. 9, breadths, and body-plans of the dif.246 1 18 fig. 10, plate XV. fig. 9, Plate ferent modern boats are substituted 254 2,36 fig. 11, read fig. 7, (XIX. in plate XXIV.

261 2 16 fig. 12,

Gg. 8, 50 2. 7 from the bottom, granades, read gre- 320 2 17 fig. 6, plate XVII, read fig. 7, plate nades.

VII). 592 62 Plate IV. fig. 20, in the margin, read 410 1 12 £1 11 0 , read £1 1 11 Plate V. fig. 11.

412 1 56 two, read eight. 66 2 21 ship-building, read mast-making.-423

423 1 4 fig. 1, plate XXII. read fig. 3, plate Plate V. fig. 3, in the margin, read

XXXI. Plate IV. fig. 3. 435 2 59 fig.3, s pl. XXIII. figs. 5 & 6, pl. XIX.

5 67 1 24 is, read are.

441 235 fig. 4,1 read Sfig. 1, plate XIV. 1 63 fig. 11, plate VI. read fig. 21, plate 445 57 fig. i, plate XXIV. read fig. 2, plate VII.

XXVI. 84 2 4 Bow Chasers, read Bow CHASES.- 453 1 6 and 7, fig. 2, plate XXIV. read fig. 3, 1. 7, Stern CHASERS, read Stern

plate XXXII. CHASES.l. 37, steps, read stops. 460 2 52 first, read second ; and for fig. 3, read

l 86 2 57 or the head, read and heel.

fig. 13. 89 2 32 Belaying CLEAT, read Range CLEAT. 467 1 6 after the table, mold-loft, read mould. -1. 50, Single CLEAT, read Sling

loft. CLEAT.

470 % 40 fig. 5, plate XXIII. read fig. 4, plate 92 2 24 an officer, read the person.

XIX. 95 1 32 PENDENT, read PENDANT.

488 2 30 from the bottom, fig. 2, read fig. 1. 98 1 62 Gillibrand, read Gellibrand.

503 1 44 plate XXIV. read plate XXX. 110 2 30 and 31. by plate VIII. fig. 7, read in 579 2 15 TREADDLE, read Treadle throughout fig. 10, plate XIII.

the work. 121 1 23 from the bottom, cargo, read cargoes. 673 240 fig. 3, read fig. 5.


[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Substantive masculine. s. f. Substantive feminine.

Substantive masculine plural. s. f. p. Substantive feminine plural. adj. Adjective. adj. & s. m. Adjective and substantive masculine. adj. f. Adjective feminine. v. 6.

0. A. & n. Verb active and neuter.
0. a. & r. Verb active and reciprocal, or reflected.
v. a. n. & r. Verb active, neuter, and reciprocal,

or reflected.
part. act. Participle active.
part. pass. Participle passive.
ado. Adverb,
prep. Preposition.
int. Interjection. .
Ex. Example.

Verb active.
Verb neuter.
Verb reciprocal, or reflected.

0. n.


« PrécédentContinuer »