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horrible fidelity. The process of absorption i degrad, seems carried to its utmost, while the promi- Faich he can nent rods of veins, and the flaccid remains of the culprit, in muscle, indicate the ne plus ultra of the ravages sent to the gali of time on a living carcass. smile, so characteristic of this extraordinary Wreur runs so h

othe man, is more deeply marked than in statue I have seen.

On the pedestal is inscribed —

The sardonic

any

viller once degra Etice in any capa

way into it would

2 men. For the sa

À MONSIEUR VOLTAIRE,

receives a blow, even

PAR LES GENS DE LETTRES, SES COMPATRIOTI,
ET SES CONTEMPORAIRES,

1776.

witing it sur le cha

sizce his comrades wou

kim; and in the next,

It may, therefore, b

de outrage would iner Opposite to him are the busts of ser other very distinguished literary charac

hation is to a French among whom I observed Franklin.

As I passed through the Place Vendôm morning, an immense crowd were collect "wall admonitions, witness a military punishment; which sisted not in flogging and fleecing, awal inflictions English reader might anticipate, done wi purpose of beating a proper sense of I into the sufferer, and improving his allez

at make a deeper

of dishonour e of this lively Sicily

, when I moto had been

POINT D'HONNEUR.

189

but a mere degradation from the rank of a soldier, to which he can never afterwards be admitted. The culprit, in grave cases of delinquency, is sent to the galleys, or consigned to hard labour.

The point d'honneur runs so high in the French
army, that a soldier once degraded can never
re-enter the service in any capacity: any at-
tempt to force him into it would produce a
mutiny among the men. For the same reason,
soldier never receives a blow, even from his
oficer, without resenting it sur le champ. If
be did, in the first place his comrades would no
Jonger company with him; and in the next, the
faser that committed the outrage would inevit-
kly be put to death.

It may, therefore, be
staladied, that degradation is to a French
sities the most impressive of all admonitions,
and upon such minds must make a deeper
sapessiya than any mere

any mere corporal inflictions
sepsibly do, where the sense of dishonour
les este. An instance of this lively

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belang disenare occurred in Sicily, when I Tatua. Ove viour soldiers, who had been

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always remarkable for his strict good conduct, was reprimanded on parade by his officer; which made so great an impression, that no sooner was the parade orer, than he stepped quietly aside and blew his brains out. I hope it will not be long before the horrible and impolitic practice of Alogging will be abandoned in both our services: it never can improve a good character, and it infallibly hardens a bad one.

The custom of reasoning by blows, which has so long been a part of our naval and military discipline, is banished even from the schools of France. Boys are made to feel, like soldiers, the disgrace of their conduct, but are never struck.

The lowest of the people will not put up with a blow. To be known to do so is exclusion from society; and accordingly their differences, when serious, are settled like gentlemen. There were two men, when I visited the hospital, under Baron Larry, who had been brought in the day before with tremendous gashes on the head, inflicted in a duel. One had his ear nearly off. Not long since, the conductor of a diligence having

received some harsh language from a traveller, bore long without complaint; at last, able to stand it no longer, he doffed his frock, and taking his cordon d'honneur out of his pocket, and deliberately placing it in his button-hole, delivered himself as follows: -“Sir, I have borne very long with you in my capacity of conductor; but take care how you proceed further in this insolence, or you will have to answer to me as a soldier and a man of honour.” A challenge even from such a person is refused at great hazard of being disgraced. Many individuals who had been decorated in the campaigns of Buonaparte with medals and other marks of distinction, are at this present moment among the peasantry, delving and ploughing. I should have observed, that when an officer has been unfortunately guilty of lifting his hand to a soldier, it is not uncommon for the private first to kill the officer and then himself.

March 8th.-I know of nothing in Paris which better repays the trouble of seeing than the Conservatoire des Arts et des Métiers, or grand National Repository of Mechanical Inventions, where you are shewn a sample of every imaginable machine or model, from a spinning-jenny to a wheel-barrow. There is a most bountiful store of rural implements, and of ploughs alone more than a hundred different kinds. The numerical amount of the agricultural specimens, en tout genre, is 530. A prize exhibition takes place every five years, on which occasion the competition often runs high and hot, producing cases of acrimonious rivalry that the judges find very difficult to decide. When two persons lay claim to the same invention, the precedence is determined by the date of the application to the Préfet of the department. A list of both inventions and inventors is published annually, in a register of every thing to be seen, felt, heard, or understood about Paris, called the Journal du Commerce. In one of these lists I find 160 rewarded for discoveries or improvements of some sort or other in 1825; it matters not how humble the improvement. The list contains brevets d'invention for smoothing linen,

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