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whence he says it is necessary to give At the expiration of that time, Lilla the Moors an example, not to try to re- Ampani goes again to the seaside. sist the hand of fate." p. 85.

The same gold comb she had used

before is carried with her, and four fresh Notwithstanding this notion of eggs; the eggs she gives to the first irresistible fate, the false prophet person she meets, who is obliged to

receive them were it even the Bashaw inculcated a belief in the efficacy himself. With the eggs, it is imagined, of charms, which is equally mis- she gives away all her misfortunes, chievous, and in some degree at consequently, no person likes to revariance with the other.

ceive them; but this custom is so esta

blished, that not any one thinks of re66 The Christians were invited to be

fusing them." p. 313. present yesterday at the launching of

The mischief, which the maraone of the Bey's cruisers; when there was little to notice except one or two buts or pretended prophets are singular circumstances.

able to effect through the sacred, Just at the moment of its quitting the ness attached to their character, stocks, a black slave of the Bey's was led forward and fastened at the prow of

is another evil consequence of theirthe vessel to influence a happy recep

creed. tion of it the ocean.

Some embarrassment happened at the time of its 16 We met one of the noted Moorish going off, and Mustaphar (the first saints, or boly men.

I have already minister) not baving seen the black described these people to you; but attached, said it was no wonder the this man, contrary to the general apvessel did not go easily off the stocks, pearance of these marabuts, was tolerafor they had neglected to bind a black bly covered, with a long wide blue on board and send off with it. A beau- shirt reaching to the ground, and white tiful lamb fitted for the purpose, wasbed trowsers underneath. He wore nothing white as snow, and decorated with on his head, which was shaved close, dowers and ribands, stood on the deck, except a long lock of hair descending and at the instant the vessel plunged from the back part of it. The whole into the water received the fatal knife, dress of many of these marabuts conbeing devoutly offered as a sacrifice to sists of a bit of crimson cloth, about four Mahomet for the future prosperity of inches square, dexterously placed on the cruiser." pp. 74, 75.

the crown of their head. The marabut " The evening before they went away, we met in the castle was returning from they performed for Uducia (Hadgi the Bashaw, with whom he had a long Abderrahman's eldest daughter) one of private audience.

His appearance, their extraordinary ceremonies, to pro

from the furious and strange gestures tect her, in her removal to her father's he made, with an immense large living house, from the effect of any ill-disposed spake round his shoulders, was truly persons looking on her with an unfriend. terrific, though we were all aware of ly eye, which they call being taken with the unfortunate reptile having been bad eyes,' and which might cause a rendered harmless by the wearer's exdisorder to prove fatal, that would tracting its teeth, before he attempted otherwise not be so. This charm con- to impose on the credulous, in making sisted in having a writing from one of them believe he alone was exempt from their Imans, which being burnt was death by the reptile's touch. The mixed in wine and drank by Uducia, Moors regarded him with great revewho was perfumed with musk and in- rence." p. 140. cense by her friends, they walking round “ Before Sidy Useph appeared in her, repeating prayers for her while she sight, his famous Marabut Fataisi came drank it. When we heard how ill she into town with some of his holy followers. was at the time she was obliged to go They were admitted to the sovereign, through this ceremony, we could not and Fataisi told the Bashaw that Sidy but consider her exertions, and her Useph was on his way to town with swallowing the sooty draught, in such a twenty people only, and without arms, state, a dangerous expedient." pp. 119, and implored him by the prophet to send 120.

the Bey out to meet him, and make 6. The period fixed for a widow's terms with him for the peace of his mourning is four months and ten days. family and of his people. The Bashaw

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instantly agreed to it; and had the not being able to carry with them the prince gone he would certainly have provisions wanted for the rest of their been murdered. But the Bey having pilgrimage to Mecca; for Suez, surreceived certain information, that Sidy rounded with sands and destitute of a Useph was near the town with several drop of water for its own consumption, hundred people, he seized the Marabut, can furnish nothing to travellers. The though in the Bashaw's presence, and, inhabitants of Suez are obliged to holding his sabre over him, he told him, travel six or geven hours - for all the that had he not been a Marabut he water they use ; they go for it to the would have laid him dead at the Ba. Arabian shores, and get it from Nuba, shaw's feet for his treachery ; and then on the borders of the Red Sea; and informed the Bashaw, that his brother this, which is the nearest water they had with him upwards of four hundred can procure, is so bitter that no Euromen under arms. The Bey turned the pean can drink it, without being mixed Marabut out of his presence, and the

with spirit

It was,, therefore, indis. officers presented their arms at him, pensably necessary for Hadgi Abderrahbut the Bey ordered them not to fire. man to provide himself with pulse, meat, He desired they would see the Marabut wond, and water, for the rest of his out of the gates of the town, and gave long journey, near seven hundred miles, orders that, on pain of death, no one the greatest part through the deserts should suffer him on any account to en- of Arabia ; and this circumstance, while ter it again.” pp. 270, 271.

it increased the numerous animals The long fasts, unaccompanied of burden in the caravan, obliged the

poorer pilgrims, who had no beasts of by any religious service of a spi- burden, to proceed by sea. ritual kind, and the distant pilgrim- " A pilgrimage by a man of distincages, imposed evidently as a me

tion is made at a very heavy expense, ritorious duty, may fitly be regarde suite almost wholly depend on him for

as those persons he permits to join his ed as inventions of the great enemy their subsistence," pp. 191, 192. of mankind to obstruct the ave- " It is known that froin ancient times nues to repentance, and supersede the curiosity of visiting holy places all those emotions which, under brought Christians from all parts of the Divine influence and illumination, world to Jerusalem. For a long time

the Popes made it an act necessary to might lead to contrition and humi

salvation, and the fervoar with which lity.

this agitated all Europe produced the 66 With one of these caravans the crusades. Since that epoch, which ambassador (Hadgi Abderrahman) and occasioned so much bloodshed, the his family went hence to Mecca. They number of pilgrims has considerably set out for Grand Cairo, where they dimipished. They are reduced now joined the caravan of Egypt ; but were to some monks from Italy, Spain, and detained for three or four weeks, not- Germany. But it is different with the withstanding the finest weather imagin. Orientals: they continue to regard the able, on account of unlucky days and voyage to Jerusalem as one of the most frightful omens, which were said to meritorious acts. They even consider have happened from time to tiine. These themselves scandalized by those Franks delays are sometimes very serious to or Christians who come to the East, those pilgrims who go expressly to visit and do not follow thcir example, and the holy places, as the Beit-Alla, at stigmatize them with the name of hereMecca, which is the principal object tics or infidels, for not fulfilling this of their worship, is only open two days part of their religion. To those who in

every six weeks, one for the women do, the Turks will not give the insulting and another for the men i consequently, epithet of Kielb, or dog, so-commonly such delays often occasion the Mahome applied to Christians by them. dans to be three months longer on their

i The Greeks more than other nations pilgrimage.

believe this pilgriosage to be productive The road from Cairo to Suez, though of the greatest indulgences; they not sixty miles, is among the worst parts suppose it absolves them not only for of the journey from 'ripoli to Mecca, , the past, but for the future, for not obnot excepting the deserts to Alexandria. serving feasts or_fasts, and, indeed, Many of the pilgrims are then obliged for every criine. From these ideas, a to continue their route by the Red Sea, prodigious number of pilgrims of both sexes, and of all ages, go from the Morea, their circumstances, and who in. from the Archipelago, from Constanti

crease our regret at their degradanople, Anatolia, Armenia, Egypt, and

tion by showing how sensible they Syria, every year. In 1784, the number

are of it themselves.

We cagnot of pilgrims amounted to five thousand.

i The most simple pilgrimage costs here witbbold from our readers the four thousand livres, or near two 'hun-' character of Lilla Halluma, queen dred pounds, and they often amount

of Tripoli. to fifty or sixty thousand livres, or from three to four thousand pounds sterling. Jaffa, which is about forty-six miles from Jerusalem, is the place where

« On visiting this sovereign, the the pilgrims disembark. They arrive consuls' wives are permitted to kiss her there in November, and go thence head; other ladies in their company, directly to Jerusalem, where they re

or their daughters, her right hand; her main till after Easter. The pilgrims left she offers only to dependants. If are lodged altogether in the cells of any of her blacks, or any of the attendtheir different communities, They

ants of the castle are near her, they are told their lodging is free ; but it frequently seize the opportunity of would not be safe if they went away baracan, or upper garment. She is

kneeling down to kiss the end of her without presenting a much larger sum than it would cost at ap inn ; besides

adored by her subjects, which is natural, which, they must pay for masses, ser

as she is extremely benevolent; her vices, exhortations, &c. and for cruci- greatest fault is, not in spending, but fixes, chaplets, and Agnus Dei's. When

in giving away, more than her revenues the jour de Rameau arrives, they must

afford. Halluma is the name given her go to purify themselves in the river by her parents, and Lilla means, in Jordan, which costs a very consider. Moorish, Lady. She is called in her able sum. There is an account given in family Lilla Halluma, but by her subthe history of that pilgrimage, of the tu- jects she is styled Lilla Kebbiera, the multuous and confused march of this de.

great, or greatest lady. The Bey, her Tout crowd in the plains of Jericho, with

eldest son, has been married several their astonishment on viewing the rocks

years. He married at seven years old. of that country. Haring completed

The Moors, indeed, marry so extremely this ablution, the pilgrims return to the

young, that the mother and her first Holy Land. When Easter is passed

born are often seen together as playthey all return to their own countries, mates, equally anxious and angry in proud of having vied with the Mussul

an infantine game.

The women here mans in the title of pilgrims." pp. 195–

are often grandmothers at twenty-six 197.

or twenty-seven years of age ; and it is

therefore no wonder they live frequently But the degradation of the fe- om

to see the children of many of their ge

neration. From the melancholy turn male character, which cuts off the of Lilla Halluma's mind at present, she best hope of improvement froin the has always some article of her dress rising generation, with the con- in a state to denote deep mourning. tinual employment of the minds

" The Moorish habit for mourning of the women on objects unworthy consists only in the clothes being enof them, and their total want of in- tirely deprived of their new appearance,

and the deeper the mourning is meant formation on all important subjects, to be, the more indifferent and even contribute, more perhaps than any shabhý the clothes : therefore, when she other cause, to the evils which we orders a new cap, which is so richly have mentioned. Some of the lead

embroidered that it is like a solid plate ing men in the place, who, from ha

of gold, she never puts it on till it has

been passed through water before her, ving been employed as ambassadors and all the beauty of it destroyed. She in Europe, had acquired new ideas weeps over the operation, and her tireon these as well as other subjects, women make extempore verses on the seem to have lamented the defect, cause of her distress." p. 31. which it was beyond their powered gallery before Lilla Halluma's apart,

16 A collation was served in the coverto remedy , and occasional in

ment. As the party to-day consisted stances arise of women superior to only of Lilla Halluma, three of the

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princesses, and our family, we had the 66 The Jews are at present loading
pleasure of seeing them all sit down vessels with the clothes of those who
with us, instead of Lilla Halluma walk- died of the plague, and are exporting
ing round the table, attended by the them to Europe and Egypt; extraor-
priucesses, and conversing alternately dinary precautions are, therefore, ne-
with the guests; which she does if there cessary in Europe, to prevent the effects
are any Moorish nobility at dinner, as it of importing such cargoes.” p. 107.,
is considered too great a condescension 66 The rich Jews would all have em-
in her to sit down and eat with her sub- barked for Europe, but the Turk was
jects. Lilla Halluma's urbanity, and the too much on his guard not to provide in
dignity of her manners, were as usual time against any one of them leaving
equally engaging and fascinating: por the place; at least, before he has ascer-
could those of the most polished sove- tained what they are worth, and appro-
reigo in Europe have been more striking; priated to himself as much of their pro-
with this infinite advantage, that court perty as he thinks right.
duplicity forms no part of her charac- The shops are still almost all shut


and there is not yet any re-appearance

of commerce. Scarcely any person is One of the most striking singu

seen walking in the streets; and the larities, however, in the Moorish gates are kept securely closed and character is, that with a profu- of all Moorish guards being dispensed

guarded by bodies of Turks, the service sion of wealth in the bigher with for the present. The guard of the orders, they not only fail to con- town gates, the Sandanner, and the struct such permanent works as

night guards, are entirely composed of would contribute most essentially have no compassion on the Jews, and

Turks, whe are riotous and noisy. They to their security and comfort, but ill use the Moors when they meet with suffer those wbich they inherit any they dare annoy." p. 354. from their predecessors in the ter- * The steep mountains of Gouriana ritory to go into decay: nor can are the only ones seen on a clear day any more decisive proof be given from the city of Tripoli, and seem to be

a long ridge of high black hills. These than this of the barbarizing ten.

and the sands, are inhabited by numerous dency of Mohammedan superstition. tribes of Arahs, among which are those

of the Tahownees, Acas, Benoleeds, " To supply the dreadful want of Nowalles, Wargammas, and others water, and save the traveller from ex- These Arabs form three classes; the first, piring through thirst, there are in a part those who came from Arabia; the seof the Deserts of Arabia, about four cond, the Arabs of Africa ; and the third, days journey to the north of Suez, the wandering Bedouins. The first two several ancient aqueducts, and many are equally warlike, handsome in their subterranean canals which have been

persons, generous in their temper, formed at immense expense by the honourable in their dealings, grand and Assyrians, Persians, and Medes, who ambitious in all their proceedings when made it a part of their religion to con- in power, and abstemious in their food. duct the water into the deserts; but They possess great genius, and enjoy these canals and aqueducts are nearly a settled cheerfulness, not in the least rendered useless through neglect.” bordering on buffoonery, Each of

these tribes are governed by a chief,

whose title is Sheik, by whose laws all Amidst these peculiarities, which those under him are directed, judged, distinguish the Moors, it is curious and punished. Each family has a chief ok to observe, that there are two races

its own kindred, whose authority in the

same manner extends to life and death. of people, who are every where their trade is war. They serve as and always the same. The Jews auxiliary troops to whoever pays them are as distinct and as persecuted best : most of them are at present cona race at Tripoli as throughout the sidered as being in the interest of the rest of the world, and the Arabians Bashaw.of Tripoli. The Bedouins are are the same in bistory and in pro- trading with what they carry from place

hordes of petty wandering merchants, phecy, at one place or time as

to place. They manufacture a dark another.

cloth for baracans, and thick webs of

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P. 194.

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goats' hair used to cover tents, which middle size. The Arabs are in general they sell to the Moors.

tall. Shaik Alieff's features were per. " These Bedouins, in the spring fectly regular and strongly marked; of the year, approach Tripoli from his complexion nearly black; his counthe Pianura, adjoining the town. Here tenance very cheerful, though he was they sow their corn, wait till they can not a young man; and a settled vivacity reap it, and then disappear till the seemed to be his characteristic ; yet year following. During the stay of he retains all the ferocity of the ancient these people in the Pianura, the Arabs, and considers bimseli one of the women weave, and sell their work masters of the desert of Tripoli ; for the to the Tripolitans. They pitch their Wargummas and the Noilles, the two tents under the walls of the city, but most powerful tribes known in these cannot enter the town gate without parts, hold the sovereignty of the deserts, leave ; and for any misdemeanour the Both the latter have acted, and are still Bedouins may commit, their chief is considered as auxiliary troops to the answerable to the Bashaw. Besides Bashaw. Shaik Alieff's tribe is of those being divided into hordes, each family who were scattered throughout the is governed by its own chief, in the provinces of Barbary, as descended same manner as those of the Arabs. from those Mabometan Arabians who, Both the Arabs and Bedouins still re- pursued by the Turks, fled to the mountain many customs, described in sacred tainous parts to save themselves with and profane history, and are in almost their cattle and effects, where they still every thing the same people as we find continue to enjoy their liberty. They mentioned in the earliest accounts." are divided into a multiplicity of little pp. 14, 15.

governments under their respective " The African chief, Shaik Alieff, chiefs, and value themselves highly of before he left the town paid us a visit. having preserved their blood unstained This Gentulian, or Numidian, perfectly by a mixture with other nations.” resembled in bis habits and mappers

pp. 176, 177. the description given of the first inha- “ The sovereignty of the Arabs is most bitants of those countries. His dress formidable. They may be truly said, was that of the Jibeleen, or mountain not only to extend their sceptre over Arab, whose habit is precisely the same one of the four principal parts of the as it is described in the time of our world, but to extend with success their Saviour. The fineness of the Arab's dominion from Africa far into Asia ; dress is proportioned to his fortune, remaining every where in powerful Shaik Alieff's upper covering, or bara- hordes sufficiently numerous to prevent can, made of Barbary wool famous for the intercourse of nations, without their its beauty and whiteness, appeared at special leave. Inured to the hardships first sight to be of the finest muslin, of the deserts, they easily undergo there : many yards in length, which he bad such as none but themselves can resist; rolled in ample folds around his head priding themselves on the purity of and body. He wore a curious wrought their blood, untainted, as they say, by belt, (of a manufacture peculiar to a mixture with that of any other race, this country and to the hand of an and boasting of their ancestry as Ara Arab,) ingeniously woven in a variety bians. The Arab Shaiks support and of figures resembling Arabic characters: keep up an alliance with each other, it was wound several times tight and from the extrem

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of Africa on the even round his body, and one end being farthest shores of the Atlantic Ocean, doubled back and sewed up served him through nearly the extent of Asia.

In this belt he wore " In the deep recesses of the moun. his arms, and he prided himself much tains the Arabs have their dwellings on them, not on account of their rich- and retreats, which are defended by ness, but from the proof he had had of fortresses of craggy rocks and frightful their execution. After the

precipices, rendered inaccessible by of the Arabs, he wore sandals, which pature. The whole of the extensive he took off on entering the apartment, mountains of Atlas are occupied by and thus paid a compliment to those them; and in the same manner they who received him ; for among the Arabs

inhabit the different chains of mounno one can approach his superior with tains in almost every direction throughhis slippers on. His air was noble, bis out two quarters of the globe. While gait haughty, and his figure about the they are dispersed in such powerful

for his purse.


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