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tiar empire, to be able to say, “ I have dentalism, the journalism, the budgetthe north of Africa under my control. ism, the parliamentaryism of the 19th Algiers is mine: Tunis is mine: Tri- century. The times of Soliman are poli is mine.
It is now time that still those to which they look back, Egypt should be mine also; and that and refer with Ottoman pride and thus both coasts of the Mediterranean Eastern delight. They know and feel should be subject to my sway, and that Turkey is fallen. They know obey my domination." And is this a and they feel that the Turkey of 1839, new project on the part of France ? is but the shadow of the Turkey of Is this the policy of 1839 only? No; former generations. The “ regenerit was the policy of the Directory, of ation" of the Ottoman empire, to which the Consulate, and of the Empire; French writers so often refer, is noand if we may believe the declarations thing more than the expedient of the of the opponents of the Restoration, bankrupt noble—the disgust of a wornit was not foreign to the views of those out voluptuary—the affected disapwho undertook, in 1830, the expedi- probation of lust, which time and tion against Algiers.
circumstances no longer allow to be The French politicians, and the best enjoyed. The “regeneration” in quesFrench writers on this Oriental ques.
tion is the evidence of weakness, not tion, are perpetually speaking of the of power- of fallen grandeur, and “ interior regeneration of the Ottoman not of rising glory. When France empire!"
What does this mean? thus proposes that Turkey shall be What has France to do with the in- left to herself — she places the escut. terior regeneration of the Ottoman cheon beforehand on the gates of that empire? Let us see. Has this 66 once mighty empire, and inscribes on generation,” as it is termed, been pro- the sign of dissolution, “ REQUIESCAT ductive of weakness or of strength to IN PACE!"
When France proposes the Ottoman Porte? Has it attached that the treaty of Kutahia shall be the populations of Turkey in Europe, maintained, and that Turkey shall be Turkey in Asia, or Turkey in Africa, left to pursue the work of her own to the Ottoman government? No. regeneration, she merely seeks to gain Have the changes introduced fortified time for the working of her own policy, the alliances of the Sultan, concentra- which is that of suffering Turkey to ted the national spirit, bound the expire, that Algiers in the mean time Mussulmans together as one man, and may become a wide and a mighty given life and vigour to a decaying colony, and that, when the East shall frame ? Just the reverse. We speak have to be divided, her share may be not as amateurs when we say this, but Egypt. With such convictions as to on the information of the most able the nature of French policy in the and enlightened travellers and resi. East, we have undertaken the prepadents of modern days. The bankrupt ration of the preceding and following noble, who has no longer his chests filled observations on the Eastern question ; with guineas and his title-deeds free and we now propose to examine, delifrom mortgage-who can no longer berately but briefly, the present state meet the pressing demands of enraged of the Eastern crisis. creditors with a diminished revenue The history of Turkey has shown and lessened estates-will perhaps in- us, that in all ages Russia has been the veigh against the extravagance of for- enemy of the Ottoman Porte. This mer years, and the villainy of his is a fact of vast importance. dismissed stewards. The banquets of The history of Egypt has shown us, gone-by days will be condemned as that the Porte has never voluntarily absurd, and the splendours of his more abandoned that province of its mighty wealthy years as madness and folly. dominions; and that Mehemet Ali is But why did not the nobleman enter- still in revolt against his legitimate tain these opinions when his resources sovereign. were vast, and his means of existence The history of Syria has shown us, and happiness indubitable ? No, no; that never did it belong to Egypt; he is still a spendthrift by choice, and that for centuries it belonged to Turreformed only from necessity. Thus key; and that, at this very moment, it is with the Sultan Mahmoud and his the Syrian Christians have decidedly Turkish subjects. They have no taste less partiality for Ibrahim Pacha than for the penury, the reductions, the occi- even for the Porte and the Crescente
Yet what is the present state of the hereditary rights of his crown, things in Turkey, Egypt, and Syria? but the entire independence of Egypt. Why, that Turkey is protected” by He is firmly resolved not to allow her bitterest foe; -that Egyptis encour- himself to be delivered up to the aged in her rebellion against the Porte, Porte by the European powers. He even by those who profess (as does is old, and perhaps there is nothing France) to maintain the status quo ; better for him to do than to fall hoand that Syria is to be required, and nourably in the conflict, rather than to if necessary compelled, to submit to leave his family, his servants, and bis the domination of Ezypt; and the people, to the hazard of events. He mere advance of a Turkish corps to has, in the course of his life, been the frontiers of that province, is to be obliged to shed much blood, in order magnified into a cause for legitimate to establish that which he has done, war on the part of all Europe against to obtain that which he possesses. He the Sultan.
is resolved that such blood shall not We have said that Egypt is encour- have been shed in vain. Besides this, aged in her rebellion against the Sul. his views are in harmony with the in. tan, and we say so advisedly. The terests and the policy of Europe. Why French Guveroinent never protested then sacrifice them? He is not of their against the treaty of Kutahia. The religion—but he is a man like themFrench Government has encourayed selves, and he should be treated like the Pacha of Egypt in his Syriun vic- a man; that is to say, he should be tories. The French Government now, allowed to provide for the destiny of to this day, requires that Syria shall his children, for whose future fortunes remain attached to the territories of he would provide. If the great powers the victorious Ibrahim.
of Europe do not approve of these than this: the Pacha of Egypt claims reasons—if they will not give himny to be “independent" of the Sultan, guarantee for the stability of the state and France encourages him in his am- of things existing in Egypt — if they bitious projects. We know well that reduce him to the necessity of followwe shall be told that, in August last, ing only his own inspirations, and of when Mehemet Ali announced his in- taking counsel only of himself-he is tention of asserting that independence, decided on sacrificing the rest of his the French Consul was the first to life and of his strength to put an end protest to the Pacha against the to a state of uncertainty which is adoption of such a resolution; and unsupportable, because, above all, it that the Consul General of France re- weighs down upon his children. Bepresented to the Viceroy, that to pro- sides this, he knows well, that if the claim his independence " at that time" great powers are agreed on oppress would be to rekindle war, and that, ing him, he must succumb; but these if necessary, the powers of Europe powers are already so powerful and would oppose it by force. But what great, that such a victory will add did this protest mean? The words, “at nothing to their renown, and that even that time,” embody all its sense and the consequences of that victory may application; and the reply of the embarrass them. As to himself, there Pacha proved that he well understood are ninety-five against, and but five his position.
for him ; but that is of no moment. “ The Pacha," said the diplomatic In war the dice are always uncertain ; note, “ fully relies on the excellent in- and if hazard should cause them to be tentions of the four powers with re- favourable to him, he leaves to the spect to him. He regrets to see them great powers the duty of considering opposed to his views; but be predicts the consequences of a victory which that the time is not far removed when no one then will have the right to con. they will change their opinion. He trol or to moderate." hopes, above all, that the hereditary And what says France to this proquestion of the throne will be resolved test of the Pacha ? Does she remind in his favour. He will be satisfied him of the conditions of Selim, of the if it shall be terminated without war, character of all pachalick governments, and by means of negotiations ; but of the impossibility of Europe to enif he cannot thus succeed, and if he courage revolt, and of the fact that the shall be forced to have recourse to Porte, who conquered Egypt, and inarms, he will then proclaim not only stituted a pacha there, has alone the
right of altering the form and direc- This is open and undisguised protion of the government? No such pagandism and democracy. There thing.
is no revolution, however unjust-no “The hereditary rights of Mehe- revolt, however savage or blind met Ali,” cries the French Govern- that may not be vindicated and apment organ, is an acquired right. It proved on such principles as these. could not be disputed. We must de. At this rate the Belgian insurrection sire ourselves to see civilisation by may be defended, because it is succesdegrees gain possession, little by lite ful, as one of the “regular and
peacetle, of all the coasts of the Mediter- able means" of creating new states. ranean ! Thanks to our arms! civili- But what says the organ of the sation has regained a footing in French Cabinet as to the rights of Africa ; in Egypt, thanks to Mehe- the Ottoman Porte? Are they actumet Ali; in Greece, thanks to the ally neglected or passed over by the Treaty of London ; and at Constan. writers in question ? Certainly not ; tinople, thanks to the reforms at- but the manner in which they are tempted by the Sultan !!”
treated is at once anarchical and deThus France has settled for herself plorable. the “ hereditary” question of the • The Porte will preserve its suzethrone of Egypt; and until the fu- raineté, and it will, assuredly, be ture events in the East shall enable stronger, aided by the power of its her to take possession of that country hereditary vassal, than it is to day; for herself, she proclaims to Europe for to-day the force of Egypt is injuthe necessity for changing the form rious to Turkey, and hereafter it will, of Government in the Egyptian do- on the contrary, serve it." minions of the Sultan.
This short paragraph contains as whispered away the “rights” of the many errors as it does words ;-and Ottoman Porte, and “ civilisation" each of those errors is dangerous and and “ the progress of reform" are the insidious. Ist, When the Porte shall cant phrases of the French politicians, no longer have a voice in the appointBut that the whole of the views and ment of a pacha, its suzeraineté in reasonings of France on this impor- Egypt will be at an end, except so far tant question of the hereditary throno as the khazneh or tribute-money may of Mehemet may be fully under. be concerned. 2nd, When Égypt stood, we transcribe the following shall be governed by an hereditary observations from the Government pacha independent of the Porte, exorgan of that country.
cept perhaps the simple payment of “ It would be painful to think that the khazneh, not only will that pacha Egypt, after the death of Mehemet not be the vassal of the Sultan, but Ali, was to be restored to barbarism. be will be his equal. 3rd, The force Thus the hereditary throne of Egypt, of Egypt to day, is only injurious to in the family of Mehemet Ali, is an Turkey, because it has usurped a force acquired fact. His children will en- wbich does not belong to it, and has deavour to maintain it. Who is the annexed to it dominions belonging to pacha that would dispute their rights? the Ottoman empire. 4th, The Pas We add, that this regular and peace- cha of Egypt has already announced able manner of creating new states, three conditions of peace with the appears to be one of the maxims of lifeless remains of the once-powerful our times. It is thus that Greece Ottoman Porte, which arest, The became, by little and little, an inde- annexation of the whole of Syria to pendent kingdom. It is thus that Egypt ; 2nd, The hereditary throne Walachia and Moldavia have acquir. of Egypt secured to his family for ed, by a series of treaties, an indepena ever; and 3rd, The eventual total dence certainly greater with regard independence of Egypt. How, then, to the Sultan, their former master, would the mere recognition of the than with regard to the Czar, their hereditary throne of Egypt, in the new protector. The recognition of family of Mehemet Ali, secure the the hereditary throne of Egypt, in force of Turkey ? And, finally, the the family of Mehemet Ali, will be erection of Egypt into a powerful, inthis one of those regular and peace, dependent, and hereditary monarchy, able acts which prepare the way for must necessarily terminate, not in the the new life of states,
force and progress, strength and vi.
ĝour of Turkey, but, on the contrary, are the best means to be pursued for in its final if not early destruction. preserving the integrity of Ottoman
But France has a project of her empire ?" We are friends of peace, own, as idle and chimerical as it is we are supporters of the French confalse and flimsy. She takes much servatives, and we have made many pains to enforce one dogma, which is sacrifices of our sympathies and tastes this, “ that the questions of the East to assist the government of Louisshould be decided by the East,” for the Philippe ; but we did expect some betpurpose of hiding from the public eye ter“ programme" than this. her real intentions. She proclaims This is indeed expecting order to that Europe ought not to interfere in spring out of disorder, and conflicting Oriental questions. Why? Because it interests to co-operate for the same does not yet suit her to interfere her object. The Sultan—the robbed, spoself. “ Hereafter," she says, “ that liated, insulted Sultan—unable to open interference may become necessary,'
the Dardanelles without the permission —and then, when her Algiers shall be of the Czar-unable to obtain the payextensive and mighty-when T’unis ment of the tribute of centuries from and Tripoli shall be levelled to the Egypt-cajoled out of Walachia and dust—when nothing shall stand in Moldavia, and tricked out of Syria, the way of a French attack on Egypt, Greece, and Egypt-reduced by the -when Asia Minor or Cyprus shall treaty of Kutabai to a mere fourthbe valuable and gainable acquisitions, rate European power-and by the then France will discover that the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi to play the Eastern question is European as well part of a municipal governor at Conas Asiatic, and the ports of Toulon, stantinople ;—this Sultan is to be the Marseilles, Bona, Algiers, Tunis, &c., suzerain and president of an Oriental will pour forth her vassals to the Me- confederation. diterranean war. As, however, the From the pretensions and policy of projects of France for the future France, if we turn to those of Russia o settlement" of the affairs of the with regard to the Porte and to the East it was necessary to keep from question of the East, we shall find public observation, and as every one nothing to encourage or to cheer. feels that the Eastern estion is now, • Russia," said M. de Boutenief in 1839, one that admits not of delay, (the Russian ambassador at ConstanFrance has invented the following tinople)—“ Russia ' had no middle scheme or project, which we have course to take between these two called flimsy, idle, chimerical, and parts—either to be the first friend or false. It is that of an EASTERN Con- the first enemy of the Porte." And
feeling this to be her position, Russia • An Oriental confederation, which is equally ready to play either part, shall unite under the hardy and de- as her interests and as circumstances cided protection of Western Europe may point out: for in the Crimea and all the scattered members of the an. at Odessa she has always a fleet and cient Ottoman empire ;-Egypt, by an army, ready to hasten to protect, the title of hereditary pachalick; or equally to hasten to crush, the Greece, as an independent kingdom; dying remains of the Ottoman Porte. Walachia and Moldavia by the title But what means M. de Boutenief of Hospodorates ; with Constantinople by Russia being the first friend of for the centre and the capital, and the the Porte?” What has been the avowed Sultan Mahmoud for suzerain and policy of Russia towards the Ottoman president ;-aconfederation of this sort empire from the time of Peter the would certainly be infinitely better Great downwards? The policy of enthan the impossible resurrection of the croachment. “ Yes,” says M. Pozzo integrity of Ottoman empire." di Borgo,
66 but not that of the en. This is the scheme of the French croachment of others-only of her Government, court, and perhaps dy- own.”' This is not strictly true-for dasty. One more senseless could not if so, how happened it that Russia be devised—and an éiève of the college consented to the treaty of Kutahia. of Henri IV. would have merited dry The alphabet is not so commonly bread and close confinement had such known in Russia as the fact, that the þeen his plan in reply to the question Government of that country has for of his historical professor,What centuries kept one object steadily in
view—the making Constantinople the fluence to prevent a collision between southern capital of the Russian empire. Great Britain and Russia. Thus the The policy of Russia has been to labour of six years has been on the part weaken Turkey, since by so acting it of France, England, Austria, and rendered, on the one hand, resistance to Turkey, to gain time; and on that of her plans impracticable, and, on the Russia and Egypt to push on the adother hand, it got rid of the chance of vantages secured by their respective one day being opposed by a rival em. treaties. Turkey has endeavoured in pire.
vain, single-handed, to regain possesAnd if we look at the histories of sion of Syria by means of the revolt of the wars of Russia with the Ottoman the Druses. Ibrahim Pacha has prePorte, one prominent fact will strike served his conquests ; and his father us, and that is, that she always under- Mehemet Ali has been willing to make took and carried on these.wars when every sacrifice to preserve Syria. Europe was engaged with other and Two thousand years ago, says Mehemore pressing subjects. The reason met, Alexander the Great marched was evident. Her wars with the against Egypt before proceeding to Porte bave not been those of venge- submit Upper Asia to his dominions. ance, of sudden and quick quarrel, of There is a mysterious connexion, he the wrath of an enemy who has been maintains, between Syria and Egypt. provoked to combat, and who seeks to The Lagides of Alexandria and Seleusatisfy the demands of his dignity and cides of Antioch were ceaselessly at his honour. Nothing of the sort. war, he will tell you, for the same reaThe wars of Russia against the Porte, “ Egypt is only an empire when especially those of the last hundred she has Syria,” exclaimed Ibrahim. years, have been those of deliberate “ My father was the Pacha of the Sulencroachmentonits territory-of asys- tan till I was master of Aleppo," cried tematic resolution to weaken its power this same mighty warrior; “but now and diminish its influence; not all at he is the Emperor of the East!” once, so as to create anxiety or alarm, When Russia was informed of the but by degrees-now a little and then intention of Mehemet Ali to proclaim a little---sometimes laying by for a the independence of Egypt, her reply series of years, but always returning was just such as might have been antito the charge. The policy of Russia cipated. If, said the Russian Governtowards Poland has been of a similar ment, this event shall occur, and the character. Thus Russia has, by de fleets of France and of England shall grees, destroyed the nationality of blockade the coasts of Egypt and Syboth countries. In pursuance of this ria, and shall obtain the revocation of system of gradual destruction, or of their independence, Russia will make gradual incorporation, Russia obtain- no demonstration to succour the Porte; ed the treaty of Adrianople, and sub- but, on the contrary, if the fleets of sequently that of Unkiar Skelessi. England and of France shall remain From that moment she proclaimed neutral, Russia will find herself obligherself the guardian of the Porte ed, in conformity with the treaty of and Turkey became not the ward but Unkiar Skelessi, to afford her aid. the vassal of the Russian empire. Thus faithful to her immemorial poSince the signature of the last-named licy of considering the affairs of the treaty, six years have passed away- East as independent of those of Euand we now approach the considera rope, she separated her cause and her tion of the present position of affairs. policy from those of the other powers, Turkey, bound down, fettered, and resolved, as she was, to pursue her feeling her chains, has been, on the one course of gradual but effective enhand, solicitous of destroying the croachment, until the moment should treaty of Kutahia, whilst Egypt has arrive when Constantinople should be. been endeavouring to extend its ef- come the southern residence of the fects and advantages. England has Czar. In the East, Russia will be been anxious to diminish the evil con- ambitious at her ease ; always ambisequences of the treaty of Unkiar Ske- tious, and always progressing, but by lessi, whilst Russia has sought to degrees --- slowly-surely--and never fortify it. France and Austria, su. for one moment deviating from her premely anxious to avert a general purpose. It was, therefore, that in war, as neither power was prepared to 1828, in her famous manifesto, she engage in it, have exerted all their in. proclaimeda" Que nul pacte de ga