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A DICTIONARY OF
UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE
GOOD, JOAN Mason, a physician and author, was the recognizance is forfeited, then the party may born at Epping in Essex, 1764, and died in London be again punished. in 1827. He commenced practice as a surgeon in GOOD-CONDUCT PAY is an addition made Sudbury in 1784, but meeting with little success, in the British army to the daily pay of corporals be removed to London in 1793, principally with the and private soldiers, in consideration of long service view of obtaining literary employment.
unaccompanied by bad behaviour. The amount In addition to The Book of Nature, the work by awarded at one time is ld. a day, with one white which he is now chiefly known, and which only chevron on the arm as a badge of distinction. Sucappeared shortly before his death, he published cessive awards of good-conduct pay may raise the various poems, translations, and professional treatises. total grant to 6d. a day, with a corresponding Of his original poems we need say nothing. Amongst number of stripes on the arm. his translations we may notice his Song of Songs, In each regiment there is kept a 'Regimental or Sacred Idylls, translated from the Hebrew, 1803; Defaulters' Book,' in which the commanding officer his translation of Lucretius, in verse, in 1805; of is bound to enter the name of every soldier in the the Book of Job, in 1812; of the book of Proverbs, corps who shall have been convicted by court. in 1821; and of the Book of Psalms, which was martial of any offence, or who, in consequence of just completed at the time of his death. His chief misconduct, shall be subjected to forfeiture of pay, professional work, his Study of Medicine, in four either with or without imprisonment, or to any volumes, was published in 1822. It is a learned other punishment beyond seven days' confinement and amusing work, but by no means a trust to barracks. No first or subsequent ld. of good. worthy guide to the medical student. He likewise conduct pay can be awarded to a soldier, unless two published, in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory continuous years have elapsed without his name and Bosworth, the Pantologia, or Encyclopædia, being thus recorded ; and if he have the misfortune comprising a General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, to come within the provisions of this black book and General Literature, in twelve volumes, which while actually in receipt of good-conduct pay, he were completed in 1813, and contributed largely loses for each offence ld. per diem, which can only to various periodicals. His friend, Dr Olinthus be restored after one uninterrupted year of good Gregory, published a Memoir of his Life in service, during which his name has not been recorded 1828.
in the defaulters' book. The loss of the ld. is of GOOD BEHAVIOUR, a phrase rather popular course accompanied by the loss of the corresponding than legal. It is used chiefly as synonymous with distinguishing mark or stripe. keeping the peace. Thus, if one person assaults The first ld. is obtainable after three years' service, another, or threatens or provokes him to a breach of the last two having been passed through without the the peace, the offence is punishable summarily by name once appearing in the defaulters' book; the justices of the peace, who, besides inflicting a fine, second, after 8 years; the third, after 13 years ; may, and often do bind over the offending party to the fourth, after 18 years ; the fifth, after 23 years ; keep the peace, and be of good behaviour for a and the sixth, after 28 years; the service being period of six or twelve months. The mode of doing only reckoned in any case from the age of 18, and two this is by requiring the offending party to enter years of uninterrupted good conduct immediately into his recognizances with or without sureties, before the time at which the award is granted which is, in fact, the giving a bond for a specified being requisite in every instance. As an addi. sum to the crown, and if it is broken, that is, if I tional inducement to continuous good behaviour, GOOD FRIDAY-GOODENIACEÆ.
14 uninterrupted years without an adverse entry construction of the ceremony. See IDOLATRY ; entitles a soldier, after 16, 21, or 26 years' service, IMAGES. The very striking office of «Tenebræ' is to the award for which he would only otherwise be held upon Good Friday, as well as on the preceding eligible after 18, 23, or 28 years.
two days: it consists of the matins and lauds of Kon-commissioned officers do not receive good the office of Holy Saturday, and has this peculiarity, conduct pay, an addition instead thereof of 2d. per that at the close all the lights in the church are diem having been made to their regular pay a few extinguished except one, which for a time (as a years since. A sum, however, not exceeding £4400 symbol of our Lord's death and burial) is hidden a year is distributed among sergeants of long ser- under the altar. vice and good conduct, in the way of annuities, not In the English Church, Good Friday is also celeover £20 each. The annuity is receivable during brated with special solemnity. Anciently, a sermon active service, and also in conjunction with the was preached at St Paul's Cross on the afternoca of pension on retirement.
this day, at which the lord mayor and aldermen In the Ceylon Ritles, the Gold Coast Artillery, and attended. The practice of eating upon this day the Malta Fencible Artillery, good-conduct pay is cross buns’--cakes with a cross impressed upon allowed to the native soldiers for similar periods of them is a relic of the Roman Catholic times, but service, but to only half the above amount.
it has lost all its religious significance. In England A considerable increase of the army causes a and Irelanı, Good Friday is by law a dies non, and large decrease the sum payable for good-con- all business is suspended. În Scotland, the day duct pay, as the older soldiers become non-com- meets with no iar attention, except from missioned officers, and the ranks are swelled by members of the Episcopal and Roman Catholic young recruits, who have not yet had time to earn communions. these extra rewards. The total charge in the army
GOOD HOPE. See CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. for good-conduct pay during the year 1862–1863 is estimated, exclusive of the annuities to sergeants, GOODALL, FREDERICK, an eminent English at £105,622.
artist, the son of Edward Goodall, an engraver Good-conduct pay and badges are also awarded of reputation, was born in London, September 17, in the navy to seamen of exemplary conduct; but 1822. His first oil-picture was entitled, “ Finding the periods for obtaining, and the rules under which the Dead Body of a Miner by Torchlight,' for which it is granted and forfeited, so nearly resemble those the Society of Arts awarded him the large silver in force for the army, that a separate description medal, During the summers of 1838–1842, he is unnecessary:
The leading differences are, that visited Normandy and Brittany, and in 1839, when the grant is limited to three badges, and 3d. a but 17 years of age, he exhibited his first picture day; that petty officers continue to hold it; and at the Royal Academy, French Soldiers Playing that it is of no account in the pension given at the Cards in a Cabaret.' His ‘Entering Church, as expiration of active service.
well as “The Return from a Christening,' which GOOD FRIDAY, the Friday before Easter, received a prize of £50 from the British Institution, sacred as the commemoration of the crucifixion of and others of his early pictures, were purchased our Lord. This day was kept as a day of mourning by Mr Wells. The l'ired Soldier,' exhibited in and of special prayer from a very early period. It 1842, was purchased by Mr Vernon, and is now was one of the two paschal days celebrated by the in the Vernon Gallery. Some of his French scenes Christian Church, and in memory of the crucifixion, are,,, - Veteran of the Old Guard describing his was called by the Greeks Pascha Staurosimon, or
Battles,' 'La Fête du Mariage,' «The Wounded the Pasch of the Cross. That it was observed as
Soldier Returned to his Family,' "The Conscript.' a day of rigid fast and of solemn and melancholy In 1814, he went for subjects to Ireland, and subceremonial, we learn from the apostolic constitutions sequently visited North Wales. Among his Irish (h. v. c. 18), and from Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. b. ii. scenes are, “ Irish Courtship,' The Irish Piper,' c. 17), who also tells that, when Christianity was
and the ‘ Departure of the Emigrant Ship. His established in the empire, Constantine forbade the later efforts have chiefly been directed to English holding of law-courts, markets, and other public subjects. The Village Festival,' one of the best of proceedings upon this day. In the Roman Catholic them, exhibited in 1847, was purchased by Mr Church, the service of this day is very peculiar; Vernon. His Hunt the Slipper (1849), "Raising instead of the ordinary mass, it consists of what the Maypole' (1851), ‘An Episode of the Happier is called the Mass of the Presanctitied, the sacred Days of Charles I.' (1853), * Arrest of a Peasant host not being consecrated on Good Friday, but Loyalist-Brittany, 1793' (1855), and Cranmer at * reserved from the preceding day: The priests
the Traitor's Gate' (1856), also added greatly to his and attendants are robed in black, in token of reputation. In 1852, G. was elected an Associate mourning; the altar is stripped of its ornaments; of the Royal Academy. the kiss of peace is omitted, in detestation of the GOODENIACEÆ, a natural order of exogen. kiss of the traitor Judas ; the priest recites a long ous plants, of which about 150 species are known, series of prayers for all classes, orders, and ranks mostly herbaceous plants, although a few are shrubs, in the church, and even for heretics, schismatics, and mostly natives of Australia and the islands pagaus, and Jews. But the most striking part of of the Southern Ocean, a few being also found the ceremonial of Good Friday is the so-called in India, the south of Africa, and South America. • adoration of the cross,' or, as it was called in The order is allied to Campanulaceae and Lobeli. the old English popular vocabulary, 'creeping to aceæ, but is destitute of the milky juice which is the cross.' A large crucifix is placed upon the found in both of these. The corolla is monoaltar with appropriate ceremonies, in memory of petalous, more or less irregular. A remarkable the awful event which the crucitix represents, and character of this order is that the summit of the the entire congregation, commencing with the cele- style bears a little cup, in the bottom of which brant priest and his ministers, approach, and upon the stigma is placed. The flowers of some of their knees reverently kiss the figure of our crucified the species are of considerable beauty. The young Lord. In the eyes of Protestants, this ceremony leaves of Scavola taccada are used as a salád by appears to partake more strongly of the idolatrous the Malays; and the pith furnishes a kind of character than any other in the Roman Catholic rice-paper, which they make into artificial flowers ritual; but Catholics earnestly repudiate all such and other ornaments.
GOODS AND CHATTELS GOODWIN SANDS.
GOODS AND CHATTELS, a legal as well as England he can. See other incidents of this distinc. popular phrase in common use, to signify personal tion in Paterson's Compendium of English and Scotch property. It is not unfrequently used in wills, but Law, ss. 673, 738. If there is a marriage-contract or seldom in any other legal instrument; and when used antenuptial settlement between the husband and in wills, it generally includes all the personal property wife, the rights both of the wife and children may of the testator. In Scotland the corresponding phrase be materially varied, for the rule then is, that the is goods and gear.
parties may make what arrangement they please by GOODS IN COMMUNION, the name given way of coutract, and in such settlements a fixed in the law of Scotland, France, and some other sum is generally provided both to the wife and countries, to the personal property of a married children, in lieu of what they would be entitled couple, which is not subject to any deed, but left to to at common law, i. e., where no express contract the operation of the common law. In England, is made. Buch a phrase is unknown, for upon marriage, all the GOOD-WILL is rather a short popular exprespersonal property which previously belonged to the sion than a legal term. It means that kind of woman (whieh is not secured by any deed or will), interest which is sold along with any profession, as well as what was previously his own, becomes trade, or business. In reality, it is not the business and continues the husband's absolutely-he is entire that is sold, for that is not a distinct thing recog. master of it
, and can do what he likes with it, nised by the law, but the house, shop, fixtures, regardless of the wishes of his wife or children, and &c., are sold, and the trade debts ; and along with he may even bequeath it away to strangers. In Scotland, the theory is not so liberal towards the transferring these, the seller binds himself, either by husband, though in practice there is not much covenant or agreement, to do everything in his difference. By the law of Scotland, the husband interests in such business. If the seller acts con
to recommend his successor, and promote his can also do what he likes with the personal property trary to such agreement, he is liable to an action. of both parties, if there is no previous marriage. But the more usual course is for the seller to enter contract or other deed governing the subject-matter. into an express covenant not to carry on the same He can almost squander it at will. It is only at his business within 30, 40, or 100 miles, or some death that the theory of a kind of partnership, or of specified moderate distance from the place where the a communion of goods, comes into play. Until 1855, when the law was altered, this theory sought to be set aside as invalid, on the ground
purchaser resides. At first, such a covenant was prevailed when the wife died, for formerly, at her that it tended to restrain the natural liberty of death, the goods were divided into two parts, if there trade; but the courts have now firmly established were no children, and one-half went to the next of that is a definite radius of moderate length is tixed kin of the wife, however distant the relationship, and not to the husband. But now, by statute is upon, it does not sensibly restrain trade, inasmuch Vict. c. 23, s. 6, when a wife dies before the husband, limits, and trade as much as he pleases. Hence,
as the person covenanting can go beyond those her next of kin takes no interest whatever in the such limitations are a fair matter of bargain, and goods in communion ; and the law in this respect upheld as valid. If the party break his covenant, is now the same as it is in England. Hence the he is liable to an action for damages. phrase goods in communion is less appropriate than it was before 1855. If, however, the husband die, the GOODWIN SANDS, famous banks of shifting goods in communion suffer a division on the principle sands stretching about 10 miles, in a direction of a partnership. Thus, if there are no children, north-east and south-west, off the east coast of half goes to the widow, and the other half to the Kent, at an average distance of 54 miles from the next of kin of the husband. If there are children, shore. The sands are divided into two portions by a then one-third goes to the widow, and is often called narrow channel, and at low water, many parts are her Jus Relictæ (q. v.), and the other two-thirds to uncovered. When the tide recedes, the sand the children equally, if there is no will; or if there becomes firm and safe ; but after the ebb, the water is a will, then one-third to them, called the Legitim permeates through the mass, rendering the whole (q. v.). The same division also takes place in pulpy and treacherous, in which condition it shifts England, when there is no will; but this is done in to such a degree as to render charts uncertain from England by virtue of a statute 29 Charles II. c. 3, year to year. The northern portion is of triangular called the Statute of Distributions (q. v.), whereas form-34 miles long, and 2 in its greatest width; this effect is produced in Scotland not by a statute, on the northernmost extremity, known as North but by the common law. Practically, this distinc- Sand Head, a light-vessel marks the entrance on this tion, though important to be known by lawyers, perilous shoal. This light is distant about seven may seem immaterial to laymen.
miles from Ramsgate. In the centre, on the western Another more important distinction, however, side, jutting out towards the shore, is the Bluut both theoretically and practically, is this: The Head, a peculiarly dangerous portion, also marked above division of the goods in communion prevails by a light-ship. The southern portion is 10 miles in Scotland whether the husband has left a will or in length, 24 in width at its northern end, and not; in short, it prevails in spite of his will, and sloping towards the south-west, to a point called all that a husband having a wife and children can South Sand Head, which, being marked by a do by means of a will, is to bequeath one-third of light-vessel, completes the triangle of dangerous his personal estate to strangers, and this third is proximity recorded for the benefit of mariners. usually called on that account the Dead's Part From the sunken nature of these sands, they havu (q. v.). Thus, in Scotland, on the death of the hus- always been replete with danger to vessels passing band, the wife and children have an indefeasible through the Strait of Dover, and resorting either to interest in two-thirds of his personal property, the Thames or to the North Sea. On the other and this inchoate interest during life gave rise to hand, they serve as a break water to form a secure the phrase 'goods in communion.' In England, on anchorage in the Downs (q. v.), when easterly or the contrary, the will, if there is one, may carry south-easterly winds are blowing. The Downs, away all the personal property to strangers, regard- though safe under these circumstances, become less of the wife and children. Hence, the result dangerous when the wind blows strongly off-shore, inay be stated shortly thus: in Scotland, a man at which time ships are apt to drag their anchors, cannot disinherit his wife and children; whereas in and to strand upon the pertidious breakers of the