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pride which dogmatizes in matters of opinion; and that intolerant bigotry which persecutes in matters of faith. It is this religion which infuses into men the lust of power, and coolly calculates the profits of oppression. Before its tribunal, the rights of conscience are invalid; and the pleadings of the heart are disregarded; for its laws are the speculation of opinionism, and the decisions of its judges are the cold abstractions of a perverted reason. In a word, under its domination to think right is to do right, and to worship reason is to worship God.
But oh! that “Lamb as it had been slain”-that form that was “marred”!—that loving heart that was “pierced”!--these sacred memorials of that divine love now spread before us! Surely, it is not here that such religions as these can triumph. It is not in the sanc. tuary of God that we shall either bow in the chambers of imagery, or yield to the idolatry of reason. How poor and weak and valueless do they appear when the heart feels the love of God, and the soul rejoices in the Beloved? How evanescent now the glories with which Fancy may deck her day-dreams! How visionary and false here, are reason's partial revelations of the Infinite! “It is Christ that died; yea, rather that hath risen again”! "It is God that justitieth; who is he that condemneth?” “It is the Spirit that.quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing." Before the cross of Jesus, the magnificence of earth is vanity, and the power of intellect but pride. And oh! how much have they to unlearn, who have been taught in these schools of error, before they can realize that God's grace is glory; that His foolishness is wiser than men, and His weakness, superior strength!
But oh! my soul, rejoice thou in the Lord and be joyful in the God of thy salvation. The Lord God is “a sun and a shield”—a strong tower of defence to them that trust him. He crowneth thee “with mercy and loving kindness," and satisfieth thee "with good things.” He leadeth thee by the “still waters” in the “green “pastures” where he feeds his flock. "He guideth thee in the paths of righteousness for his naine's sake.” How happy they who are permitted to dwell in the courts of the Lord, and to behoid his beauty as he appeareth in the sanctuary! Here shives forever the true lamp of wisdom; here is continually provided the bread of life; here ascends the most acceptable incense; and, behind the veil of outward symbols, we are admitted to bow before the spiritual mercyseat, overshadowed by the wings of cherubim and the radiant glory of the divine presence. For this is the house of God; the “greater and more perfect tabernacle” which the Lord himself has erected
for his own abode. It is here he would receive the grateful homage of the heart. It is here that he will meet with those who love h’m, and hope in his prercy..
And it is here that the deceitful visions of Fancy must be exchanged for the quered promises of Christian Hope, and that Reason must be subjected to the mysteries of Revelation. And oh! how gainful is that exchange! how blissful that subjection! For Christian IIope admits to scenes more glorious than unaided Fancy ever sketched; and the mysteries of Faith are more sublime than those of Beason.
And it is in the unsearchable riches of Christ; in the infinitude of the Divine perfections—the depths of his wisdom; the greatness of his power; the wonders of his redeeming love, that all the faculties of our nature may find their noblest exercise and most illimitable freedom. Here Fancy may range in fields of delight, or rest in bowers of Eden; for Hope and Joy shall lead her to the realms of eternal glory, and where the perfection of beauty shall be enjoyed forever. Here Reason may be borne, on wings of Faith, to know and to admire the mysteries of the universe; while unfailing Love, enthroning the Deity in the heart, consecrates every pursuit; sanctifies every emotion; refines every enjoyment, and brings thė whole man, in all the departments of his nature, under the blissful influences of true religion.
LETTERS FROM EUROPE-No. XIX. My dear Clarinda—WHILE in London, I resolved to make a special visit to Cambridge and Oxford. Indeed, appointments for me to deliver discourses at these great seats of learning had been published before I reached London. But, on learning that it was vacation at both of them, and that Professors and Masters of Col. leges, as well as Students, were all adrift and dispersed over the kingdom, I preferred to recruit my health by an excursion to France, and withdraw my appointments to lecture at the Universities.Still I determined to make a call, if not a visit to them, and to survey both the buildings, the libraries, the lecture rooms, and all that appertained to them, hoping to find some of the Professors or Fellows of some of the Colleges on the ground. It is, indeed, but some sixty or seventy miles rail-road from London to Cambridge, and through as beautiful and as highly cultivated a section of Engand as any one through which I passed.
On arriving at the University so soon after the inauguration of Prince Albert, the present Chancellor, and after the dispersion of
the Masters, Professors, and Students, I found matters somewhat in confusion, yet more than enough to engross my attention during my stay. Every thing that the most liberal endowment and the rich legacies of its friends and patrons could bestow on the build. ings, the college grounds, the libraries, and apparatus of the University, has been done. The amplitude, neatness, and beauty of the grounds connected with its seventeen colleges; the magnificent public walks, shaded with the most stately and umbrageous elms, amidst green terraces and gently flowing streams of water, skirted with verdant borders and occasional clumps of well assorted shrubbery, lend enchantment to the scenes around the venerable piles of antique buildings which constitute the chief of English Universities.. Nothing extrinsic of the institution itself struck me with so much force as the excellent order and style in which the grounds, the trees, the parks, the flowers, and the buildings are kept. I saw not the mark of a knife on tree or shrub, on door, or window, on all the premises of this much frequented and very extensive institution. Not one pane of glass was broken, not one door or window appeared to have been profaned by the unhallowed touch of any insubordinate or reckless knight of the pocket-knife. Certainly, said I to myself, there are no “Yankees” educated at Cambridge.
These remarks, indeed, are mainly true of all the English and Scotch Colleges and Universities. In their preservation and neatness-in their freedom from outrage and abuse, they are more like private residences of well bred and well educated gentlemen, than public seminaries for young men and boys. But from the grounds and exterior circumstances we must basten to the interior arrangements of this celebrated institution. But in the first place we shall answer a very frequent and common question-What means THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE? It may be of more use and interest to some of our readers to understand something of its organization and character, than to read any thing we could say of its buildings or of their contents.
In the first place, then, we shall define the institution from its own authentic documents:—“The University of Cambridge is a society of students in all and every of the liberal arts and sciences, incorporated (43 Elizabeth, c. 29) by the name of The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge. This commonwealth is the union of seventeen Colleges, or societies devoted to the study of learning and knowledge, and for the better service of the Church and of the State. Each College is a body corporate, bound by its own statutes, but is likewise controlled by the para
mount laws of the University. The present University statutes were given by Queen Elizabeth in the 12th year of her reign. Each of the seventeen Colleges furnishes members both for the executive and legislative branches of its government. In this assembly, which holds its meetings in the Senate House, all Masters of Arts, Doctors of Divinity, Law and Physic, may vote, who have their names enrolled on its oks a sufficient time. The present eligible voters, amount to about 3500.
The executive officers of the University are a Chancellor, High Steward, Vice-Chancellor, Commissary, Public Orator, Assessors, two Proctors annually elected, Librarian, Registrary, two Taxors, two Scrutators, two Moderators, two Esquire Beadles, the University Printer, Library Keepers, Under Library Keepers, School Keeper, and Marshal.
There are ten different orders of persons in each of these seventeen colleges:-1. Heads of Colleges generally: these are Doctors of Divinity. There are but three exceptions in the seventeen colleges. In these they may be only Doctors in Civil Law or Physic. The head of King's College is called Provost; the head of Queen's College is called President; the heads of all the others, Masters.
2. Fellows. These are generally Doctors of Divinity, of Civil Law, or Physic; Bachelors of Divinity; Masters or Bachelors of Arts; Bachelors of Incivil Law or Physic. In all these there are 430 Fellowships.
3. Noblemen Graduates; Doctors in the several Faculties; Bachelors in Divinity and Masters or Bachelors of Arts, Civil Law, or Physic. For the purpose of being members of the Senate, many of them keep their names on the Boards at the expense of from £2 to £4 per annum.
4. Ten Year Men. These are allowed to become Bachelors of Divinity without graduating in the Arts at all, provided their names are kept ten years on the Boards, and that two of these ten years have been spent for the greater part in the University.
5. Bachelors in the Civil Law and Physic.
6. Bachelors of Arts, who are in statu pupillari, and pay for tuition, whether resident or not, together with certain other conditions.
7. Fellow-Commoners, generally younger sons of the Nobility, or young men of fortune, who have the privilege of dining at the Fellows' table, whence the appellation originated.
8. Scholars—foundation members of their respective colleges, and who enjoy various advantages—having their commons paid for, their chambers rent free, specific stipends, &c. &c.
9. Pensioners, who form the great body of the students, who pay for their commons, chambers, &c. and who enjoy generally no pecuniary advantages from their respective colleges.
10. Sizars are generelly students of limited means. They usually have their commons free, and receive several emoluments.
The terms or sessions of the University are three per annum. Commencement Day is always July 1st. The candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts must have resided ten terms, or the major part of such terms. The term in which he enters, and that in which he takes the degree, are both counted in the ten."
But, strange to tell, “the University confers no degree whatever, unless the candidate has previously subscribed a declaration that he is BONA FIDE A MEMBER OF THE CHURCH OF England, as by law established.”
“In conferring the degree of Doctor of Divinity, it must appear that the candidate had been a Bachelor of Divinity of five years standing, or a Master of Arts of twelve years standing."
of the seventeen colleges of the University of Cambridge, that of St. Peter is the oldest. It was founded A. D. 1257; and the most recent is Duoning College, founded September 22, 1800. Of the whole number of colleges, thirteen were founded by the Church of Rome, and but four by the Church of England. Of these, the first in point of age and standing is Trinity College, founded in 1546. I was, therefore, most curious and interested to examine its details. The justly celebrated “Rev. William Whewell, D. D.," appointed in 1841, is Master of this College—the celebrated author of that which I have long regarded the best of the “Bridgewater Treatises." His argument from general physics, or from cosmical arrangements of the material universe, is the fullest and most convincing argument of the seven treatises in proof of the being and perfections of God as developed in material nature.
The Queen, and her illustrious consort, the Prince Regent, sojourned as the guests of Dr. Whewell during the inauguration visit. The Doctor's "grace before meat," written in old Latin and recited at table, which I recollect to have read in the London Times during that grand pageant, did far less honor to his practical theology than did the Bridgewater Treatise to his theoretic.
The arbors for that grand display and the tents were only being in extremis when I entered Trinity College and its library. In this splendid collection of choice works of many ages, I saw much to interest me had 1 a year or two to spend in it. But a mere glance of the eye over its extensive shelves and well assorted folios SERIES II.--VOL. v.