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giveness of sins, because they are not his own, but others' sins that are forgiven him.” Such the philosophy, the reason, and the authority of the Council of Carthage, and such the character of the third century and its Bishops. An age and a people peculiarly qualified to introduce and ordain infant baptism.
We will not weary our readers with any more such extracts from the men who afterwards plead for infant baptism. Nor do we at all deem it essential to trace the history of infant baptism or that of infant communion, of god-fathers, and all the other appendages of this human tradition. We concede, without a demur, that, in the Greek and the Roman church, whether in Africa, Asia, or Europe, infant baptism, with its kindred accompaniments of sponsors, the salt, the spittle, and the oil; together with monachism with all its forms; and virginity with all its potency on earth and in heaven, not only existed, but in triumph reigned for more than twelve hundred years. Infant baptism, with its other accompaniments, has been gradually losing its power over the human mind; and in every conflict with those who repudiate it as a papal tradition, it has uniformly fallen in public favor, and is ever making unsuccessful aggressions upon those who seek to find for it either precept or example in all the written records of Prophets and Apostles. Still in every century from the times of Tertullian till
there have been many witnesses for the apostolic baptism. A host of learned and pious men have in all ages stood up as remonstrants against the pretensions of those who sought for infant baptism any other warrant than the doctrines and commandments of men. А few notices of those distinguished men who in word and deed testified against it, is all that we have room for in these Tracts:
Of distinguished men in the third century, the celebrated Baxter says that “Tertullian, Origen, and Cyprian, who lived in the second and third centuries, do affirm that in the primitive times none were baptized but such as engaged themselves to obey him.” Saint's Rest, 1st ed., chap. 8.
Fourth Century.-Jerome says, “The Lord commanded his Apostles that they should first instruct and teach all nations, and afterwards should baptize them that were instructed in the mysteries of the faith; for it cannot be that the body should receive the ordinance of baptism before the soul has received the true faith.” Jerome's Comment on Matth. xxvii. 19, 20. Athanasius, in his third sermon against the Arians, says—“Our Saviour hath not simply commanded to baptize; but first said teach, then baptize; because true faith
proceeds from teaching, and baptism rightly follows faith.” See Merningus, part 2, p. 370.
"Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus, was baptized upon a profession of his faith, and did afterwards assert for doctrine that none ought to be baptized but such.” See Metaphrastes, l. 1, chap. 30, and Mern. page 336, as quoled by Junius.
During this century there were sundry councils and synods. The Council of Laodicea, of Neocesaria, and the synods of this time, agreed in this, that “whosoever were to be baptized should give in their names, and then, after due examination, should be baptized. And not only great men, and even princes, converted from Paganism, were baptized; but even the sons and daughters of believing parents were baptized when arrived at adult years.” A clear proof that infant baptism had not yet become general; for the children of believing parents would certainly have been baptized had any infants in ordinary cases been baptized. Amongst the vast numbers of the children of believers that were baptized in adult years during this century, we shall mention a few men of renown. Basil the Great, son of a Christian Bishop, was baptized in Jordan when advanced in years. Gregory, son of Gregory, Bishop of Nazianzen, was baptized at the age of twenty. Constantine the Great, a Briton born, and king of England, son of Helena, a zealous Christian, was well advanced in years before he was baptized. During his reign most of his British troops were Christians, A. D. 320. Ambrose refused to be baptized till he was chosen Bishop of Milan. Chrysostom was born of believing parents, and was educated by Miletus, a Bishop; yet he was not baptized till the age of twenty-one. Hugo Grotius, while saying this of Chrysostom, adds, "Many of the Greeks, in every age, to this day, keep the custom of deferring the baptism of their little ones till they make a profession of their faith.” Erastus testifies that “Jerome was born in the city of Shydon, of Christian parents; was brought up in the Christian religion, and was baptized in the thirtieth year of his age.” “Austin, the son of the gracious Monica, being instructed in the faith, was not baptized till thirty.” See Osiander's book, cent. 4, 1. 3, page 371-380; also, Nauclerus, A. D. 391. Historia Tripartita tells us that “Theodosius the Emperor was born in Spain, and his parents were both Christians; that he was instructed in the Christian faith; and falling sick at Thessalonica, he was baptized by Achalis." See Dr. Taylor, lib. proph.
I cannot close the testimonies of the fourth century better than by presenting to the reader the words of Dr. Barlow, Doctor of the
Chair at Oxford—a man eminent for learning. On reviewing the records of antiquity and the arguments of his Pedobaptist friends, in a letter to a friend, he says, “I do believe and know that there is neither precept nor example for infant baptism, nor any just evidence for it for above 205 years after Christ; that Tertullian condemns it as an unwarrantable practice. I have read what my learned friends Dr. Hammond and Mr. Baxter and others say in the defence of it, and I confess I wonder not a little that men of such great parts should say so much to so little purpose; "for I have not as yet seen any thing like an argument for it.” Thus far Doctor Barlow, Jun. 69.
Fifth Century.—In this age there were many public advocates of the true baptism. Crysostom, whose baptism we mentioned in the last century, in the fifth century publicly taught that “the time of grace (or when a man obtained grace) or conversion, was the only fit time for baptism, which,” says he, “was the season in which the three thousand in Acts ii. and others afterwards were baptized.” See Magd. cent. 5, page 368.
Faustus Regiensis, a Bishop in France, taught in this age that "the will and desire of the party that comes to be baptized, is neces
Evegrius says that "they who have been instructed in the word of God, were the proper subjects of baptism." See Merningus, page 421-425.
Sixth Century.-Gregory says, “In baptism the elect receive the gift of the Spirit, whereby also their spirits or understandings are enlightened in the scriptures, and that by faith in the death of Christ by baptism their sins are forgiven.” “In this century the Council of Agather decreed that the articles of faith be first preached to the persons to be baptized before they are baptized.” Vicecome's History, page 482.
Seventh Century. In this age the Bracarens Council, in Spain, decreed that “no adult persons but such as had been well instructed and examined, should be baptized.” “The Council of Toletanus express the same import; and we find that Paulinus baptized in the river Trent, in England, a great number of men and women." See Bead. 1. 2, chap. 16, cent. 7, page 145. “In Egypt, in this century, the Christians departed from the faith of the church of Rome, placing it upon the apostolic foundation, that the person should first believe before he is baptized.” Vice. 1. 9, chap. 3.
Eighth Century.-Bede, who lived in this century, page 220, says, "Men are first to be instructed in the knowledge of the truth,
then to be baptized as Christ has taught; because that without faith it is impossible to please God.” The learned Haime, on Matth. xxviii. 19, says, “In these words is set down the rule how to baptize-that is, that teaching should go before baptism; that Christ says, Teach all nations, then baptize: for he that is to be baptized must first be instructed to believe what he in baptism shall receive. In this century the Council of Paris and that of Laodicea decreed that those who are to be baptized ought first to be instructed in the faith and make a confession of it."
Ninth Century. Rabanus, chapter iv., says that “the catechism, which is the doctrine of faith, must go before baptism; to the intent that he who is to be baptized may first learn the mysteries of faith;" and, continues he, “the Lord Jesus anointed the eyes of him that was born blind, with clay. made of spittle, before he sent him to the waters of Siloam, to signify that he that is to be baptized must first see or be instructed in the faith concerning the incarnation of Christ. When he that is instructed doth believe, then he is to be admitted to baptism that he might know whom he afterwards ought, and, in duty is bound, to serve.”
Albinus says, “Three things are visible in baptism—the body the water, and the administrator; and three things invisible—the soul, faith, and the Spirit of God, which are all joined by the word of God.” p. 220.
Rabanus likewise observes that the adults were first to be instructed in the faith, and duly examined before they were baptized; and that as Noah and his family were saved by water and the ark, so the faithful are saved by Christ and baptism." p. 144.
Tenth Century.--In this age Smaragdo, on Matth. xxviii. 19, observes, “Men are to be taught in the faitli, then after to be baptized therein; for it is not enough that the body be baptized, but that the soul, by faith, first receive the truth thereof." p. 187.
Eleventh Century.--Anselm says that “believers are baptized into the death of Christ; that believing his death and conforming thereto, may, as dying with him, live also with him.” p. 169. Again, says he, “Christian baptism is the washing of water into the word of life. Take away either the water or the word, baptism ceaseth." p. 116. "In this century the Waldenses and Albigenses loudly asserted and extensively practised believer baptism." Twisk Chron. 1. 11; A. D. 1100, p. 423. “Peter Bruise, a learned author in Toulouse, France, and his numerous followers, were zealous asserters and practisers of baptism after faith and repentance.” Dutch Mar. chap. 11.
Twelth_Century.--Alburtus Magnus says, “The laver of baptism is not proper but to the illuminated and called, who can draw virtue from the death of Christ.” page 413. Thomas Aquinas says that “in baptism God works inwardly, as he dispenseth the ordinance outwardly; there is not only a consecration of the soul to God, but the body; because the whole man, by baptism, is dedicated to God; for by baptism we die to the life of sin, and begin to live a new life of grace.” p. 424. "In this century there was a great spread of those who practised believer's baptism.” Twisk Chron. 1. 13, pp. 528, 529.
Thirteenth Century. In this century Jacob Merningus says that "he had in his hand, in the German tongue, a Confession of the Faith of the Baptists, called Waldenses, which asserts that in the beginning of Christianity there was no such thing as baptizing infants, and that their forefathers practised no such thing, as Johannes Bohemius writes in his second book; and Merningus' History of Baptism, part 2d, page 736.” Moreover, it is observed by many, that “this faith and practice made a prodigious spread through Poland, Lombardy, Germany, and Holland.” Montanus, p. 86. Mernin
gus, p. 737.
Fourteenth Century.—In addition to the evidence cited above, which also bears upon this century, as, indeed, the documents presented with respect to any century always have an important bear. ing upon that immediately succeeding, we find that “Carlos, Bishop of Meyland, did exhort the ministers under his charge that they should fir:t teach the faith; and that only upon a confession of faith and a good conversation they should administer baptism.” Merning. p. 740. The Confession of the Thabotites, in the year 1431, confirms that in this century there were many Baptists, especially in Bohemia. They say, "We do from our hearts acknowledge that the ordinance of baptism is washing, which is performed with water, which, according to Christ's words doth hold out (i. e. in a figure) the washing of the soul from sin according to Christ's command." Matth. xxviii. 19. Merning. p. 743.
Fifteenth Century. In this century the Baptists spread amazing ly. Mer., p. 772. Twisk says in his Chronology, page 930, that in the year 1507, “the Waldenses, who were Baptists, were much spread in Hungary.” That these Waldenses were Baptists, Montanus, Impress 2d, says that “the Waldenses, in the public declarations of their faith to the French king, A. D. 1521, assert in the strongest terms the baptizing of believers, and deny that of infants » Balthazer Lydia testifies that‘at this time there were several churches