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considerable points of it.” Besides this, the manifest disagreement of the various copies of them and the quotations made from them by subsequent Fathers, make it certain that nothing like certainty can be arrived at, as to what this Saint did or did not write.Whilst, then, Archbishops assume the authority of rejecting what does not suit them and retaining what does, we hope we will not be charged with a want of reverence, if we prefer, out of abundant caution, and a too great respect for the Apostles, to decline his instructions altogether.
W. K. P.
Oh, no! they have not ceased to be,
Nor live alone in memory; 'Tis we who still are tossed
O'er life's wild sea; 'tis we who die;
They only live whose life is immortality.
Why should our ceaseless tears be shod
O'er the cold turf that wraps the dead,
From out the Book of Life? Ah, no!
'Tis we who scarcely live that linger still below. The loved, but not the lost!
In heaven's own panoply arrayed,
They met the conflict undismayed;
Of battle. Now their crown is won;
Our sword is scarce unsheathed-our warfare just begun.
From all that dims the tearful eye;
From all that wakes the ceaseless sigh;
When conscience dare not say, “The loved, but not the lost.”'
The one o'ermastering agony;
To watch the sleep of those who die,
But they who join the heavenly hosta
Why should we mourn for them?—"the lored, but not the lost!” The spirit was but born,
The soul unfettered, when they fled
From earth—the living, not the dead-
We, the wave-driven, the tempest tossed,
LETTERS FROM HON. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
LETTER III. The grand general point of view in which I propose for you to consider the Bible, to the end that it may “thoroughly furnish you unto all good works,” is in the historical character.
To a man of liberal education, the study of history is not only useful and important, but altogether indispensable; and with regard to the history contained in the Bible, the observation which Cicero makes respecting that of his own country is much more emphatically applicable, “that it is not so much praiseworthy to be acquainted with as it is shameful to be ignorant of it.” History, so far as it relates to the actions and adventures of men, may be divided into five different classes. First, the history of the world, otherwise called Universal History: second, that of particular nations: third, that of particular institutions: fourth, that of particular families: and fisth, that of individual men. The last two of these classes are generally distinguished by the name of Memoirs and Biography. All these classes of history are to be found in the Bible, and it may be worth your while to discriminate them one from another. The universal history is short, and all contained in the first eleven chapters of Genesis, together with the first chapter of the first book of Chronicles, which is little more than a genealogical list of names; but it is of great importance, not only as it includes the history of the creation, of the fall of man, of the antediluvian world, and the flood, in which the whole human race (excepting Noah and his family) were destroyed, but as it gives a very precise account of the time from the creation until the birth of Abraham. This is the foundation of ancient history: and in reading profane historians hereafter, I would advise you always to reflect upon their narratives with reference to it with respect to the chronology. A correct idea of this is so necessary to understand all history, ancient and modern, that I may hereafter write you something farther concerning it: for the present I shall only recommend to your particular attention the fifth and eleventh chapters of Genesis, and request you to cast up and write me the amount of the age of the world when Abraham was born. The remainder of the book of Genesis, beginning at the 12th chapter, is a history of one individual (Abraham) and his family during three generations of his descendents; after which the book of Exodus commences with the history of the same family, multiplied into a nation: this national and family history is continued through the books of the Old Testament until that of Job, wbich is of a peculiar character, differing in many particulars from every other part of the scriptures. There is no other history extant which can give so interesting and correct view of the rise and progress of human associations as this account of Abraham and his descendents, through all the vicissitudes to which individuals, families, and nations are liable. There is no other history where the origin of a whole nation is traced up to a single man, and where a
connected train of events and a regular series of persons from gen. eration to generation is preserved. As the history of a family, it is intimately connected with our religious principles and opinions, for it is the family from which (in his human character) Jesus Christ descended. It begins by relating the commands of God to Abraham, to abandon his country, his kindred, and his father's house, and to go to a land which he would show him. This command was accompanied by two promises; from which, and from their fulfilment, arose the differences which I have just noticed between the history of the Jews and that of every other nation. The first of these promises was, that "God would make Abraham a great nation, and bless him;" the second, and incomparably the most important, was, that “in him all the families of the earth should be blessed.” This promise was made about two thousand years before the birth of Christ, and in him had its fulfilment. When Abraham in obedience to the command of God, had gone into the land of Canaan, the Lord appeared unto him and made him a third promise, which was that he should give that land to a nation which should descend from him, as a possession: this was fulfilled between five and six hundred years afterward. In reading all the historical books of both the Old and New Testaments, as well as the books of the Prophets, you should always bear in mind the reference which they have to these three promises of God to Abraham. All the history is no more than a narrative of the particular manner, and the detail of events by which those promises were fulfilled.
In the account of the creation, and the fall of man, I have already remarked that the moral doctrine inculcated by the Bible is, that the great consummation of all human virtue consists in obedience to the will of God. When we come hereafter to speak of the Bible in its ethical character, I shall endeavor to show you the intrinsic excellence of this principle; but I shall only remark how strongly the principle itself is illustrated, first in the account of the fall, and next by the history of Abraham. In the account of the creation we are informed that God, after having made the world, created the first human pair, and “gave them dominion over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” He gave them also “every herb bearing seed, and the fruit of every tree for meat;" and all this we are told “God saw was very good. Thus the immediate possession of every thing was given them, and its perpetual enjoyment secured to their descendants, on condition of abstaining from the "fruit of the tree of knowlegde of good and evil." It is altogether immaterial to my present remarks whether the narrative is to be understood in a literal or allegorical sense, as not only the knowledge, but the possession of created good was granted; the fruit of the tree could confer upon them no knowledge but that of evil, and the command was nothing more than to abstain from that knowledge-to forbear from rushing upon their own destruction. It is not sufficient to say that this was a command in its own nature light and easy; it was a command to pursue the only law of their nature, to keep the happiness that had been heaped upon them without measure; but observe, it contained the principle of obedience—it was assigned to them as a
duty-and the heaviest of penalties was denounced upon its trans. gression. They were not to discuss the wisdom or justice of this command; they were not to inquire why it had been enforced upon them, nor could they have the slightest possible motive for the inquiry: unqualified felicity and immortality were already theirs: wretchedness and; death were alone forbidden them, but placed within their reach as merely trials of their obedience. They violated the law; they forfeited their joy and immortality; they “brought into the world death and all our woe.” Here, then, is an extreme case, in which the mere principle of obedience could be tried, and a command to abstain from that which every motive of reason and interest would have deterred had the command never been given-a command given in the easiest of all possible form, requiring not so much as an action of any kind, but merely forbearance; and its transgression was so severely punished, the only inference we can draw from it is that the most aggravated of all crimes, and that which includes in itself all others, is disobedience to the will of God. Let us now consider how the principle of obedience is inculcated in the history of Abraham, by a case in the opposite extreme. God commanded Abraham' to abandon forever his country, his kindred, and his father's house, to go he knew not where; promising, as a reward of his obedience, to bless him and his posterity, though he was then childless: he was required to renounce every thing that could most contribute to the happiness and comfort of his life, and which was in his actual enjoyment; to become a houseless, friendless wanderer upon the earth, on the mere faith of the promise that a land should be shown him which his descendents should possesse that they should be a great nation—and that through them all mankind should receive in future ages a blessing. The obedience required of Adam was merely to retain all the blessings he enjoyed; the obedience of Abraham was to sacrifice all that he possessed for the vague and distant prospect of a future compensation to his posterity: the self-control and self-denial required of Adam was in itself the slightest that imagination can conceive; but its failure was punished by the forfeiture of all his enjoyments; the self-dominion to be exercised by Abraham was of the most severe and painful kind; but its accomplishment will ultimately be rewarded by the restoration of all that was forfeited by Adam. This restoration, however, was to be obtained by no ordinary proof of obedience; the sacrifice of mere personal blessings, however great, could not lay the foundation for the redemption of mankind from death; the voluntary submission of Jesus Christ to his own death, in the most excruciating and ignominious form, was to consummate the great plan of redemption; but the submission of Abraham to sacrifice his beloved and only son Isaac-the child promised by God himself, and through whom all the greater promises were to be carried into effect, the feelings of nature, the parent's bowels, were all required to be sacrificed by Abraham to the blind unquestioning principle of obedience to the will of God. The blood of Isaac was not, indeed, shed-the butchery of an only son by the hand of his father, was a sacrifice which a merciful God did not require to be completely executed; but as an instance of obedience it was imposed upon Abraham, and
nothing less than the voice of an angel from heaven could arrest his uplifted arm, and withhold him from sheathing his knife in the heart of his child. It was upon this testimonial of obedience that God's promise of redemption was expressly renewed to Abraham: “In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast obeyed my voice.” Gen. xxii. 18. From your affectionate Father,
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.
LETTERS FROM EUROPE-No. XXVIII. Niy dear Clarinda—At the close of my last we arrived at Dundee. We were, indeed, in all places received with all kindness and hospitality by our brethren in Scotland, and in a very special manner in Dundee. The church ,there is quite respectable in numbers and standing, and with them many of our brethren of the Scotch Baptist Church united in giving us a cordial welcome to the city.
On Tuesday evening, the 20th of September, we addressed the brethren assembled in a spacious Hall; and on Saturday evening the brethren of both churches united in holding a soiree in the same place. We had a very pleasant meeting. Questions were propounded and discussed; several addresses were made by different brethren, intermingled with free conversation, social prayer, and praise—and a rich repast of all good things. Elders James Ainsley, John Easson, Wm. Anderson of the place, and many highly influential brethren from a distance round, together with many excellent 'sisters, gave great interest to the meeting. Persons of enlarged views, of elevated and noble sentiments, with hearts full of Chris. tian affection, contributed much to the pleasures of the evening; so that few pleasanter meetings or more joyful festive scenes of Christian communion are enjoyed on earth.
During the afternoon of Saturday, brethren J. Ainsley, J. Dron, and myself, made an excursion to the residence of Thomas Dick, D. D., author of the “Christian Philosopher,” &c. &c. He resides about four miles from Dundee, on a very beautiful elevation just opposite to the University of St. Andrews, some four miles east, and with his observatory looking toward the University. Were it not for the village, which rather crowds too much upon his premises, the residence is just such a one as would comport with the idea of a Christian philosopher.
On calling at the residence of Dr. Dick, we found only his good lady, the Doctor having gone to Glasgow to see his Printer. We were shown into his library and observatory, neither of which is