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of very large dimensions, and had the pleasure of taking a peep through his telescope. Being rather a dark afternoon, we had no object to gaze at save the University of St. Andrews, and for that a very small instrument would have served quite as well. Still, in gazing on the spot where Patrick Hamilton, the protomartyr of Protestantism in Scotland, who was burned at the stake only some ten years after Luther first opened his mouth in Germany—and where James Wishart also, the last of the Scotch martyrs, was burned, March 1, 15-16–I could not but become at once absorbed in the scenes that were transacted on that spot under the blood-thirsty primacy of the two Roman Archbishops of Scotland, James Beaton, the uncle, and Cardinal David Beaton, the nephew-personifications of treachery, intrigue, and murder-alias persecution. The recollection of such scenes is, indeed, always unpleasant; yet some. times, nay, often -profitable. The chapter of Scotch story to which I refer is very much modernized and handsomely condensed in the late work of a Rev. Thomas M'Crie, from which we will re. fresh the memory of some of our readers:
“The first person who was honored to carry the tidings of the reformation to Scotland, and to seal them with his blood, was Patrick Flamilton.* This amiable and accomplished young gentleman was of noble extraction, and nearly allied to the royal family, being nephew to the Earl of Arran and of the Duke of Albany. He was destined for the church; but while pursuing his studies he acquired some knowledge of the reformed doctrine, and with the view of obtaining better information, he went abroad and paid a visit to
* Patrick Hamilton, though not the first who introduced or suffered for the reformed opinions in Scotland, may be considered the protomartyr of the reformation, inasmuch as he was the first who suffered in that glorious canse, after the standard of the reformation had been unfurled by Luther. Before his time, two individuals, at least, had suffered martyrdom for their religious opinions- James Resby, an Englishman, and scholar of Wickliff, who was burned in 1422; and Paul Craw, a Bohemian, and a follower of Huss, who underwent the same cruel fate at St. Andrews ahout two years afterwards. In 1494, thirty persons, chiefly gentlemen and ladies of distiuction, were accused of heretical sentiments, but conducted their defence with such boldness that they were dismissed with an admonition. In 1525 there was an act of Parliament passed, prohibiting the importation of Luther's books into Scotland, which, they said, had always "been clean of all sic tilth and vice.” If we may judge from the character of the Scots, who h ve been accused of being usually "wise behind the hand,” it is highly probable that such books had already been introduced into this country. Life of Knox, ii 28. "The more the subject is investigated," says Dr. M'Criê, "he more clearly am I persuaded it will appear that the opinions of Wickliffe had the most powerful and extensive influence upon the reformation. We can trace the existence of the Lollards, in Ayrshire, from the time of Wickliffe to the days of George Wishart; and in Fife, they were so numerous, as to have formed the design of rescuing Patrick Hamilton by force on the day of his:execution.” Life of Melville, i. 8.
Luther and other reformers in Germany. The result was, a deeper persuasion of the truth, accompanied with a strong and unconquerable desire to impart to his benighted countrymen the beams of that saving knowledge by which his own soul had been enlightened. His friends, aware of the danger to which he would expose himself by so doing, used every argument to dissuade him from making the attempt. But the motion was from God, and could not be resisted. On arriving in Scotland about the commencement of the year 1528, his spirit, like that of Paul, was stirred within him, when he beheld the ignorance and superstition which prevailed; and wherever he came, he denounced, in the plainest terms, the corruptions of the church. His clear arguments, aided by his fervent piety, mild manners, and exalted rank, could not fail to produce a powerful sensation; and the clergy took the alarm. James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was at that time Primate of the church and Chancellor of the kingdom-a cruel and crafty man, who scrupled at no means, however tlagitious, for effecting his purposes. Afraid to proceed openly against Hamilton, he advised that he should be decoyed to St. Andrews, on the pretext of a friendly conference with him about his doctrine. The open-hearted young man eagerly embraced the proposal, and fell into the snare. It is needless to dwell on the revolting consequences. He was easily induced, by some insidious priests, to declare his sentiments. At the dead hour of night he was dragged from his bed, taken to the castle, and after confessing his faith before the Archbishop, was condemned to be burned at the stake as an obstinate beretic. On the afternoon of Friday, February 28, 1528, this gentle and gracious youth was led to the place of execution, where a stake was fastened, with wood, coals, powder, and other inflammable materials piled around it. When he came to the place, he stripped himself of his gown, coat, and bonnet, and giving them to a favorite servant, “These,” he said, “will not profit in the fire; they will profit thee. Aster this, of me thou canst receive no commodity, except the ensample of my death, which I pray thee to bear in mind; for albeit it be bitter to the flesh, yet is it the entrance into eternal life, which none shall possess that deny Christ before this wicked generation.” When bound to the stake he exhibited no symptom of fear, but commended his soul to God, and kept his eyes steadfastly directed towards heaven. The executioner set fire to the train of powder, which, however, did not kindle the pile, but severely scorched the side of the martyr. In this situation he remained unmoved, till a new supply of powder was brought from the castle. Meanwhile, the Friars who stood around him, cruelly molested him, crying out, --Convert, heretic; call upon our Lady; say, Salve regina." "Depart and trouble me not,” he said, “ye messengers of Satan.” One of them in particular, called Friar Campbell, rendered himself conspicuous for his rudeness in disturbing the last moments of the martyr. "Thou wicked man,” said Hamilton, addressing him, “thou knowest that I am not a heretic, and that it is the truth of God for which I now suffer-so much didst thou confess unto me in private-and thereupon I appeal thee to answer before the judgment seat of Christ.” At length the fire was kindled; and, amidst the noise and
fury of the flames, he was distinctly heard pronouncing these last words: “How long, O Lord, shall darkness cover this realm? How long wilt thou suffer this tyranny of men? Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.”
"The martyrdom of this engaging and accomplished youth produced a sensation very different from what his murderers anticipated. They expected by this bold stroke, aimed at a person of such high rank, to intimidate all others, and suppress the rising reformation. The effect was precisely the reverse. It roused the minds of men from the dead sleep into which they had fallen-led them to inquire into the causes of his death-created discussion-and ultimately, what Hamilton had failed to do by his living voice was accomplished by his cruel death.
“Knox informs us, that many even in the University of St. Andrews, began to "call in doubt what they had before held for a certain verity, and to espy the vanity of the received superstition.” And he relates, in his own homely way, an anecdote which shows how matters stood: “Short after this,” he says, “new consultation was taken that some should be burnit. A merry gentleman, named John Lindesay, familiar (servant) to Bishop James Beatoun, standing by when consultation was had, said, "My lord, gif ye burn any man, except ye follow my counsell, ye will utterly destroy yourselves. Gif ye will burn them, let them be burned in how* cellars; for the reek of Mr. Patrick Hamilton has infected as many as it did blow upon.”! The impression made by Hamilton's death on the popular mind was greatly aided by the fearful death of Friar Campbell, who had insulted him at the stake. This wretched man soon after went distracted, and died in the utmost terror of mind, with the last appeal of the martyr ringing in his ears."
Wishart was one of the first men of the age for learning, talents, and piety. Of only one real error did they accuse him at the stake“of holding that the soul slept from death till the resurrection.” Al] other matters alleged against him by his most intelligent contemporaries, were admitted, and are still admitted to be orthodox. With regard to that which all parties regarded as an “heresy'--soulsleeping-Wishart at the stake, with the fire and faggot before his eyes, was at pains to disclaim as an error. When the powder fastened to his body exploded, the martyr said, “The flame has scorched my body, yet hath it not daunted my spirit.” “But he," pointing to the couch in which sat the Cardinal witnessing the scene, “who from yonder high place beholdeth us with such pride, shall, within a few days, lie in the same as ignominiously as now he is seen proudly to rest himself.” He was then strangled and consumed to ashes. Strange to tell, this prediction or guess, or what any one pleases to call it, was literally verified within ninety days; for early on the morning of the 29th of May, 1546, he was by a small band
assassinated in his own couch-exclaiming to the fierce band of twelve persons who did it, “I am a priest-fy-fy-all is gone." His body was exposed on the same tower from which he saw Wishart expire, and heard the annunciation of his own catastrophe.Beaton died unlamented, though the manner of his death was much regretted; as sung Sir David Lyndsay
“As for the Cardinal, I grant
And we'll forget him soon;
The deed was foully done."
The Doctor, however, returning, came to our meeting on the next evening, being Lord's day; and calling at my room, I enjoyed his company for some time before meeting. When we approached the Hall, we both found ourselves excluded by a large crowd filling up the street before the door. We did not expect this. In the morning, indeed, we had a very crowded house and a most interested audience. The Doctor and myself keeping together, pushed our way up to the door with much effort, but could not then have got in had we not been recognized as the preacher. After a great struggle through the aisle, the Doctor still holding to my coat, we succeeded in making to the stand, on which we both merely found room.
After the meeting, which continued, with some queries and responses, publicly propounded, almost three hours, the Doctor returned to my room and continued with me until about 10 o'clock, when we were constrained to take the parting hand. He is a Christian philosopher on every subject on which we conversed, and I presume we might have touched in religion, as well as in science, upon a thousand points on which we would have as fully coalesced as, we did, in all that we heard from one another.
It was while in Dundee we were constrained to address a letter to the Editor of the Edinburgh Journal touching the persecutions of Mr. Robertson and the Antislavery Society, who had, meantime, as I learned, at a special meeting passed some resolutions approbatory of his course. This measure of self-defence, I need not again say, was the basis on which prosecution was added to persecution.
On the Lord's day there were some two or three young converts added to the church, and during our whole meeting there was ex
pressed a st.ong desire on the part of brethren of the Scotch Baptists and of brethren on the part of the Disciples, to unite, and of the two communities to form one church. I left the brethren under a strong hope that such would be the happy result of their kind interviews. It has not yet, however, occurred; at least at my last ad. vices. Some twenty only of the Baptists have united with the brethren.
From Dundee, after a most affectionate parting, in company with Elder Ainslie, we proceeded to Fifeshire, and first addressed the church and citizens of Cupar. We had a pleasant interview with Elder Dowie, of that church, and with a few of the brethren, and spent the night with brother Mitchell and his interesting fam.ily, at their rural residence some four miles on the way to our next meeting place.
Thence our next station was at the most interesting village of Auchtermuchty. I could have wished that some more poetic genius had given it a more musical name. Still, words are but signs; and under many an antiquated and uncouth combination of vowels and consonants, we sometimes find that which is more acceptable and interesting than that which is represented by a more alluring and prepossessing name.
At “Bethany Cottage,” the residence of the brethren Drons, we were received with all the welcome and affection of primitive times. The family of the Drons, consisting of the brothers George and John, and the widow of a deceased brother and her daughter Euphemia, is most favorably known amongst all the brethren in Scotland and many of those in England. Brother John Dron spent some time in the United States, and is favorably known to a good many brethren in the Western Country. He was much esteemed and beloved by us at Bethany for his Christian excellencies, though they were not known to us as fully as they are now to me, and to very many brethren in Great Britain. Sister Paton, mother of my kind host in Glasgow, and sister Gilmore of Belfast, Ireland, mother of an excellent family, with several of whom I became acquainted, and ne of whom, with her cousin. Margaret Paton, we had the pleasure of being somewhat instrumental in inducting to the honor of citizens in the kingdom of heaven, while in Glasgow, are sisters of the brothers Drons. With these five persons, the two brothers, the two sisters, and their widowed sister-in-law, I enjoyed as much Christian fellowship as with any other persons in Scotland. I do not wonder, as I once did, that the Apostles, and especially Paul, should often with admiration refer to certain households and con