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part of it, and a just compensation can be estimated. But to save this sum, the congregation appoint A, B, and C. The consequence is, the work is not done, and the congregation and the cause of Jesus Christ suffer. The church cries, “Inefficient Elders!” but will not the Lord cry, Inefficient church, unfaithful servants, false to the interests committed to you, less prudent than the children of this world! Why have you not put out the talents committed to you for true usury—and with the uri profitable mammon made for yourselves friends in heaven! But we are digressing from our present purpose!
8th. Elders are not only to be supported, but also submitted to, not indeed in a servile spirit, but out of respect and reverence. The authority of scripture, the nature of the office, the efficiency of discipline, and the very peace and perpetuity of the church require that congregations shall“submit themselves to those that have authority over them.” Any thing else is faction.
9th. Every church must have its Deacons- a plurality in al cases—and for the same reasons as in the Eldership, we think, never less than three—and as many more as expediency may require.
10th. The duties of the Deacons are to collect the bounty of the church, appropriate it to the necessities and comfort of the destitute brethren, and execute whatever function that may be proper and necessary to the discharge of these. A general care for and supervision over the sick, and a discreet provision for the wants of all such as are needy, are among the arduous and responsible duties of this office; and it is in the faithful and benevolent performance of these, that they procure for themselves a good degree and great boldness in the faith. But besides this, the most important and honorable part of the Deacon's duties,—they are also to serve the church in its public worship, ministering upon the Lord's table, and in other ways, essential to the good order and comfort of the body. This, the nature of the office, the example of the synagogue, and the history of primitive usage require.
11th. Besides Deacons, every church should have also Deaconesses, whose duty it is to perform such offices to the females as could not, with propriety, be performed by the Deacons. This both scripture and decency require.
Such are the stated officers of the Christian church, and such their prescribed duties. Besides these, a church may of course appoint persons to perform specific duties, and for the time they are agents of the church; but this does not come properly under the category of stated church officers, and is therefore no part of the
organization. They are created for some unusual service, and their office expires as soon as it has been performed. Thus Paul and Barnabas, with certain other disciples, were appointed by the church at Antioch to go up to Jerusalem, unto the Apostles and Elders, about the question of circumcision; and these again, after it had been fully discussed in solemn council assembled, appointed Judas and Silas to accompany Paul and Barnabas, and act as the nuncios of their decree. Under this class of officials comes the Evangelist; but of this more in its place. Our concern for the present is the proper scriptural organization of a church for the discipline of its members—and not the provisions and means it must make and employ for the illumination and conversion of the destitute portions of the world.
Having said so much as to the officers of a church and their respective duties, it is proper now to turn our attention to the manner of selecting them. Upon this and its kindred topics we beg leave to trouble our readers in another number. Meanwhile, let the churches inquire whether the churches are scripturally organizea not.
W. K. P.
ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN
SLAVE TRADE. The following impartial account of the origin of North American Slavery, places this institution, and its connection with the American people, in its true light:
In A. D. 1620, a Dutch ship sailed into the Chesapeake, and landed a cargo of slaves on the James River. From that time to the present, negro slaves have been found in North America. During the first century of colonial life, a few negroes were from time to time introduced into the plantations. But the eighteenth century opened with events deeply affecting the future fortunes of the black race, and strangely connecting slaves with the career of popular government. By the beginning of that century, the once mighty empire of Spain had grown weak. The line of her ancient monarchs was drawing to an end, in the person of a feeble and dying sovereign; and the war of the Spanish succession lashed the elements of strife into a foam. Louis XIV wished to płace his grandson on the vacant throne of Spain; but England and Germany resisted his wish, and all Europe was thrown into the uproar of ten years war.
When it ended, England obtained, as her share of the spoils, a magnificent prize. Her prize was the monopoly of the slave trade. By the treaty of peace at Utrecht, in A. D. 1713, she gained the exclusive privilege of bringing African slaves into the Spanish West SERIES II1.-VOL. V.
Indies, and to Spanish America. Immediately companies were chartered, ships built, and for thirty years England was the active slave merchant of the world. Her ships, and her ships exclusively, visited the African coast for slaves; and an immense harvest of profit was reaped from the unholy traffic. The western shores of Africa every where bore witness to the activity of the traders; and with British manusactures the Christian nation purchased slaves from the black pagan kings on the African coast. These slaves were shipped to the West Indies, to the Spanish Main, and to the North American colonies. Their importation into the plantations was found a profitable mercantile speculation; and the English slave ships entered with their cargoes into every port of the Atlantic, south of Maine.
But the provinces at an early day dreaded the introduction of negroes. They tried at first to legislate upon the subject, and passed laws prohibiting their importation; but slaves were an article of commerce, and Britain had undertaken to regulate the crade of America. The anti-slavery legislation they attempted consequently came into collision with the legislation of the mother country, and was nullified. Repulsed here, they tried remonstrance upon the subject; but what did English merchants and manufacturers .care for a colonial remonstrance? It was opposed to their interests, and was not worth the paper on which it was written. The enduring Quaker might talk of the light of God in the soul, and assert that man was of divine right free; the Puritan might remonstrate against trafficking in the image of his Creator; and the planter of the south might send his petition to the throne, that he might not be overrun by negro slaves; but all these petitions, remonstrances, and sublime truths, were unheard and unheeded in the onward thụndering of the great Juggernaut of commercial interest. English merchants, counting their money, and eating their beef and pudding, thought only of making yellow guineas out of black Africans.
The colonists were, however, strenuous in their opposition to the slave trade, notwithstanding their legislation had been disregarded, and their remonstrances treated with neglect. The Penns tried to abolish slavery, and prevent the introduction of negroes into the province of Pennsylvania, but the attempt failed. Oglethorpe excluded slaves from Georgia, till the British government ordered their introduction. Virginia persevered in her opposition; "but,” says Mr. Madison, the British government constantly checked the attempts of Virginia to put a stop to this infernal traffic.” South Carolina, like Virginia, tried to close its ports against slave-ships; but South Carolina had recognized the right of the British government to regulate colonial commerce, and her resistance the slave trade was ineffectual. These efforts did not set bounds to the dark current which interest caused to flow from the African coast. The entire commercial policy of England in reference to this trade may be announced in a single sentence as follows:
“We cannot allow the colonies to check or in any degree discourage a traffic so beneficial to the English nation.”
So said the Earl of Dartmouth, in A. D. 1777, when the American jewel was falling from the crown. His earlsbip felt the passion
which urged the negro upon our country, and cleared at a bound all the hedges and obstructions raised by the people.
But, beside this commercial motive for forcing the negro upon the provinces, there were others powerfully operative in bringing about the same result. “Negroes,” said the British statesmen, “negroes cannot become republicans; they will be a power in our hands to retain the unruly colonists." Here was the germ of the opposition of the British government to a cessation of the slave trade. Mercantile interest, without doubt, suggested the argument; but the government, by adoption, made the suggestion its rule of action, and slave-ships continued to visit every port from Rhode Island to Florida. The colonies were thus kept as an open market for slaves, both for a commercial and political reason-the commercial reason was, rich profits; the political reason was, that negroes could not “become republicans.” These two powerful motives kept the whole seacoast open to the slave-ships; and it was not until the assembling of the Continental Congress, at the breaking out of the Revolution, that the aggregate opinion of the country was announced in an effective manner. Among the first transactions of that body was an act which forbade the introduction of slaves.
The irritation of the provinces in this matter is energetically set forth in a clause introduced by Mr. Jefferson into the original draft of the Declaration of Independence, and which reads as follows:
“He (the King of Great Britain) has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty, in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to in. cur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratica) warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where men should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to restrain this execrable commerce. And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished dye, he is exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he has obtruded them; thus paying off former crimes committed against the liberties. of one people, by crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another."
This clause, for reasons affecting Georgia and the Carolinas, was, with several others, stricken out of the Declaration, by Congress, before that instrument was signed; but it is a faithful exposition of the opinion of the provinces upon this subject. They knew, as well as statesmen in England, that negroes could not here “become republicans;” and their knowledge of the motive which induced the British government to persevere in bringing slaves into America, rendered them more averse to their importation.
The grievances from this source co-operated with others to drive them finally to an assertion of their independence.—M'Cartney's Origin and Progress of the United States.
OUR EXCURSION THROUGH OHIO. AFTER spending a few days at Frankfort Springs, Beaver co., Pa., drinking freely of these very salubrious waters, and by them and the quietude of the locality,having been considerably recruited,myself and wife set out to attend the annual meetings in Northern Ohio, making a circuit, via Zanesville, Columbus, and Sandusky Plains and City to Cleaveland, and thence to Canfield, Mahoning county, where the annual meeting of churches and brethren in Trumbull and Mahoning counties was this year to be holden.
The State of Ohio still grows in all the elements of worldly greatness. Some dozen years have passed over the towns of Zanesville and Columbus, and the country from the Ohio river to those flourishing centres of trade and commerce, since last we travelled over this section of the State. How great the change for so short a time! But, indeed, the State of Ohio, whose territory was first settled by a white family the year of my birth, is one of the greatest States now in the world of that age, and probably that ever was in the world. Possessed of a rich and greatly diversified soil and genial climate, almost all arable; settled by an active, enterprising, worldly population, its wealth and advancement are passed into a proverb. It will soon have two millions of as intelligent, enterprizing, and efficient citizens, possessing in the aggregate some eight hundred or a thousand millions of taxable property, as can be found in any State of the same territorial limits in the New World or in the Old.
But I hasten to our meetings. At Canfield we found the brethren assembled under a magnificent circular tent, one hundred feet in diameter; with a circumference, of course, of three hundred feet; well' seated; in the environs of a stately forest, full of shade and comfort, for some twenty acres, of horses and carriages in attendance. On Lord's day it was genes. ally computed some seven thousand persons were in attendance, as not more than half the audience could find admission into the tent.
We had the pleasure of seeing at Canfield meeting, and at the Bedford annual meeting, many of our Ohio brethren, long known to us, and dear to us from many pleasant associations. Of those that labor in the word, were, brethren Bosworth, the Hadens, Lamphear, Errett, Pow, Robinson, Gaston, Green, Perkey, J. Smith, C. Smith, Regal, Shafer, Bartholomew, &c.
On inquiry for some zealous and constant attendants at these meetings, whose faces I did not see in the great congregation, I was informed that several of them, during my absence from the United States, had passed over Jordan. Amongst these, at Canfield, were Fathers Hays and Dean, whom I always saw in their place for the last quarter of a century. Brother Young also, of the same congregation, an Elder of great worth, had joined the great congregation that never breaks up and whose Sabbaths never end. Besides these, many of whom attended at Bedford, I saw at hat meeting, Father Bentley, Elders Williams, Blish, and Matthew Clapp.
The meeting at Bedford, though not so large as that at Canfield, was also a very great concourse. At these meetings there were many very excellent