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from the first Philippic what he still here admits to appear as the latter part of it, tho' Dionyfius assures us, and himself is persuaded of it, that it is a separate and complete piece, and was, indeed the sixth Philippic. Had this been done, we should not only have had in reality, but in appearance too, which is a circumstance that may well attend reality, eleven intire Orations of the twelve so justly stiled Philippic. And that we have not the compleat twelve, may, as we presume, tho' our Author takes no notice of it, be imputed to this ; that, along with Libanius, he looks upon the Oration intitled περι Αλονησε, and which in common editions precedes that on the Chersonesus, as not the genuine production of Demofthenes, but of Hegesippus, or somebody else. Yet we fhould have been pleased to have had our Author's reasons for determining thus; as he might have thrown, perhaps, more light on the subject than Libanius does.
We proceed next, to what is of more importance, to select a few of the many observations, sentiments, and reasonings, which dignify these Orations; and which, if duly attended to, might then have saved Athens, and may now be of service to us.
« First then, Athenians! these our affairs must not be • thought desperate; no, tho' their situation seems entirely
deplorable. For the most shocking circumstance of all our ( past conduct, is really the most favourable to our future ex« pectations. And what is this? That our own total indo
lence hath been the cause of all our present difficulties. For ( were we thus distressed, in spite of every vigorous effort ( which the honour of our state demanded, there were then
no hope of a recovery.-And if you (my countrymen! • will now at length be persuaded to entertain the like senti'ments; if each of you, renouncing all evasions, will be ' ready to approve himself an useful citizen, to the utmost " that his station and abilities demand : if the rich will be rea<dy to contribute, and the young to take the field: in one
word, if you will be yourselves; and banith those vain • hopes which every single person entertains, that while so
many others are engaged in public business, his service will • not be required : you then (if heaven so pleases) will re
gain your dominions, recall those opportunities your supine? ness hath neglected, and chastise the infolence of this man. «-Talk not of your ten thousands, or twenty thousands of « foreigners; of those armies which appear so magnificent on paper ;
but let them be the natural forces of the state.--In affairs of war, and warlike preparations, there is no order,
no certainty, no regulation. So that when any incident
alarms us, first, we appoint our Trierarchs *; then the sup<plies are considered. These points once settled, we resolve
to man our fleet with strangers and foreigners; then, find
it necessary to supply their place ourselves. In the midst of < these delays, what we are failing to defend, the enemy is al
ready master of: for the time of action we spend in pre<paring: and the junctures of affairs will not wait our flow cand irresolute measures. These forces too, which we think
may be depended on, until the new levies are raised, when put to the proof, plainly discover their insufficiency.
By these means hath he arrived to such a pitch of insolence.--* They who conduct a war with prudence, are not to follow, - but to direct events ; to direct them with the same absolute < authority, with which a general leads on his forces : that (the course of affairs may be determined by them, and not < determine their measures. But you, Athenians, although • poffeffed of the greatest power of all kinds, ships, infantry,
cavalry, and treasure ; yet to this day have never employed any
of them seasonably; but are ever the last in the field. « Just as barbarians engage at boxing, so you make war with Ć Philip: for when one of these receives a blow, that blow engages
him: if he is struck in another part, to that part 6 his
hands are shifted : but to ward off the blow, or to watch « his antagonist; for this, he hath neither skill nor spirit, · Even so, if you hear that Philip is in the Chersonesus, you < resolve to send forces thither; if in Thermopylæ, thither; - if in any other place, you hurry up and down, you follow 6 his standard. But no useful scheme for carrying on
war, ( no wise provisions ever thought of, until you hear of some en• terprize in execution, or already crowned with success. This
might formerly have been pardonable, but now is the very o critical moment, when it can by no means be admitted. * To me it is astonishing, that none of you looks back to the - beginning of this war,, and considers that we engaged in it
to chastise the insolence of Philip; but that now it is become a defensive war, to secure us from his attempts.-So shamefully are we degenerated, that each of our command
is twice or thrice called before you, to answer for his « life, though not one of them dared to hazard that life, by
once engaging his enemy. No; they chuse the death of robbers and pilferers, rather than to fall as becomes them (a).
* Admirals. (a) Taken from his first Philippic, P. 1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16.
« How is it that our affairs were once so flourishing, and (now in such disorder ? Because, formerly, the people dar«ed to take up arms themselves ; were themselves masters of " their ministers; themselves disposers of all emoluments :: fo • that every citizen thought himself happy, to derive honours 6 and authority, and all advantages whatever, from the peo
ple. But now, on the contrary, favours are all dispensed, affairs all transacted, by the ministers : while you, quite enervated, robbed of your riches, your allies, stand in the
mean rank of servants and assistants. -- Įt never has, nor < could it have been moved by me, that the rewards of the di
ligent and active, should be bestowed on the useless citizen:
or that you should fit here, supine, languid, and irresolute, « listening to the exploits of some General's foreign troops ;
for thus it is at present. Not that I would reflect on him < who serves you, in any infance. But you yourselves, A
thenians, should perform those services for which you heap • honours upon others; and not recede from that illustrious « rank of virtue, the price of all the glorious toils of your ancestors; and by them bequeathed to you (b).
• It is not the conquest of Athens which Philip aims at : (no; it is our extirpation. He knows full well, that flavery • is a state you would not, or if you were inclined, you could (not submit to; for sovereignty is become habitual to you. « Nor is he ignorant, that at any unfavourable juncture, you
have more power to obstruct his enterprizes, than the whole < world befides.--I should not have thought myself a good citi"zen had I proposed such measures as would have made me the 'firit among my countrymen, but reduced you to the last of
nations. On the contrary, the faithful minister should raise • the glory of his country ; and, upon all occasions, advise
the most falutary, not the easiest measures. You fhould < send Embassadors into all parts, to inform, to remonstrate, ( to exert all their efforts in the service of the state. But, « above all things, let those corrupt Ministers feel the feverest
punishment; let them at all times, and in all places, be • the objects of your abhorrence.(c)
• What is the cause of all this? (for there must be some ''cause, some good reason to be assigned, why the Greeks
were once so jealous of their liberty, and are now so ready
to submit to slavery.) It is this, Athenians ! Formerly « men's minds were animated with that, which they now feel
no longer, which conquered all the opulence of Persia,
(6) Olynthiac the second, p. 46, 47, 48.-
maintained the freedom of Greece, and triumph'd over the powers
of sea and land: but now that it is lost, universal ruin and confusion overspread the face of Greece. What is this? • nothing subtile or mysterious ; nothing more than an unani• mous abhorrence of all those who accepted bribes from Prin
ces, prompted by the ambition of fubduing, or the bare intent ('of corrupting Greece. To be guilty of such practices, was « accounted a crime of the blackest kind; a crime, which
called for all the severity of public justice; no petitioning for mercy, no pardon'v
was allowed. So that neither Orator «nor General could sell those favourable conjunctures, with « which fortune oftentimes assists the supine against the vigi• lant ; and renders men, utterly regardlefs of their interefts, « fuperior to those who exert their utmost efforts: nor were 6 mutual confidence among ourselves, distrust of tyrants, and • barbarians, and fuch-like noble principles, fubject to the
power of gold. But now are all these exposed to fale, as
in a public mart: and, in exchange, such things have been < introduced, as have affected the safety, the very vitals of • Greece. What are these? Envy, when a man hath re<ceived a bribe; laughter if he confeffes it ; pardon, if he • be convicted; resentment at his being accused; and all the • other appendages of corruption. For as to naval power,
troops, revenues, and all kinds of preparations, every thing " that is esteemed the strength of a state, we are now much • better, and more amply provided, than formerly: but they • have lost all their force, all their efficacy, all their value, by means of these traffickers (d).
6 Whi'e (d) As the above paffage is that of the largest extent we have cited, or shall cite, in our extracts from these Orations, we here fubjoin to it the Greek text, that Judges may discern the precision and spirit of our Translator, and recommend the performance accordingly: a performance, which we have compared, through whole orations, with the original ; and with so much fatisfaction, that we may here collate at a venture.
Τι ουν αίτιον τούλωνι και 8 γαρ ανευ λογου και δικαιας αλιας ελε το9 εως είχον ελοιμως προς ελευθεριαν απαλες οι ελληνες, ουζε νυν προς το δουλευειν. ην
ην, ω ανδρες αθηναιοι, εν ταις των πολλών διανοιαις, ο νυν 8κ εςιν, ο και τα σερσων εκρατησε πλαίε, και ελευθερων ηγε την ελλαδα, και ούτε ναυμαχίας ελε σεζης μαχης εδεμιας ητταλο. νυν δ' απολωλος, απανία λελυμανται, και ανω και καιω εποιηκε τα των ελληνων πραγμαία. τι 8ν ην τελο και υδεν ποικιλον ουδε σοφον" αλλ' δει τους παρα των αρχειν αει βαλομενων η και διαφθειρείν την ελλαδα, χρημαία λαμβανονίας, απαλες εμίσουν και χαλες πωλειον ην, το δωροδοκανα εξελεγχθηναι και τιμωρια μεγιση τείον εκολαζον και παραίτησης εδεμια ην, υδε συγγνωμη" τον αν καιρον εκασία των πραγμαίων, ω η τυχη και τους αμελεσι καλα των προσεχούλων, και τους μηδεν εθελουσι σοιειν, καια των παλα και προσηκεν αραιτολων πολλακις τσα
( While the vessel is safe, whether it be great or small, • the mariner, the pilot, every person should exert himfelf • in his particular station, and preserve it from being wreck." ed, either by villainy or unskilful ness. But when the 6 sea hath once broken in, all care is vain. And therefore, • Athenians, while we are yet safe, possessed of a powerful • city, favoured with many resources, our reputation illu< ftrious, what are we to do? (perhaps some have fat with ( impatience to ask.) I shall now give my opinion, and « propose it in form; that if approved your voices may con« firm it. Having, in the first place, provided for your de• fence, fitted out your navy, raised your supplies, and array", ed your forces: (for altho' all other people should submit to • slavery, you should still contend for freedom.) Having
made fuch provision, (I fay) and this, in the fight of • Greece; then we are to call others to their duty; and for « this purpose, to send Ambassadors into all parts, to Pelo
ponnesus, to Rhodes, to Chios, and even to the King : (for he is by no means unconcerned to oppose the rapidity of this man's progress.)-(e)
At present, your conduct must expose you to derifion. « Nay, I call the powers to witness, that you are acting as if
Philip's wishes were to direct you. Opportunities escape
you; your treasures are wafted; you shift the weight of • public business upon others; break into paffion; criminate • each other.-- If from the variety of merchandizes, and plen
ty of provisions, you Aatter yourselves that the State is not ' in danger, you judge unworthily and falsely. Hence, we
might determine whether our markets were well or ill « fupplied : But the strength of that State which is regarded .. by all who aim at the sovereignty of Greece, as the sole ob
stacle to their designs, the well-known guardian of Liberty, ' is not surely to be judged of by its vendibles. No; we should
enquire whether it be secure of the affections of its allies; 6 whether it be powerful in arms. These are the points to be ρασκευαζει, εκ ην τριασθαι παρα των λεγούλων, εδε των σραλαγουνων, εδε την προς αλλήλους ομονοιαν, εδε την προς τες βαρβαρους και τους τυραννόυς απιςιαν, ουδ' ολως των τοιέτων εδεν. νυν δ' απανθ, ωσπερ
arogas, EXTEπραίαι ταύλα" αυθεισηκαι δε αι τελων, υφων απολωλε και νενοσηκεν η ελλας. ταύθα δ' εςι τι; ζηλος ει τις ειληφε τι γελως, αν ομολογη" συγγνωμη τους ελεγχόμενους μισος, αν τελoις τις επιδομα ταλλα σανία οσα εκ τα δωροδοκείν ηριηίαι. Επει τριηρεις γε και σωμαίων αληθος, και χρηματων προς οδοι, και της αλλης καθασκευης αφθονια, και τάλλα οις αν τις ισχυειν τας πολεις κρινοι, νυν απανία και πλείω και μειζω εςι των τότε πολλω. Αλλ' απανία ταυλα αχρησα, απρακία, ανoνήλα, υπο των σωλείων, γινεται. (e) Philippic the third, p. 119, 120, 126.