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from the firft Philippic what he ftill here admits to appear as the latter part of it, tho' Dionyfius affures us, and himself is perfuaded of it, that it is a feparate and complete piece, and was, indeed the fixth Philippic. Had this been done, we fhould not only have had in reality, but in appearance too, which is a circumftance that may well attend reality, eleven intire Orations of the twelve fo juftly ftiled Philippic. And that we have not the compleat twelve, may, as we prefume, tho' our Author takes no notice of it, be imputed to this; that, along with Libanius, he looks upon the Oration intitled περι ̔Αλόνησε, and which in common editions precedes that on the Cherfonefus, as not the genuine production of Demofthenes, but of Hegefippus, or fomebody elfe. Yet we should have been pleased to have had our Author's reasons for determining thus; as he might have thrown, perhaps, more light on the fubject than Libanius does.

We proceed next, to what is of more importance, to select a few of the many obfervations, fentiments, and reafonings, which dignify thefe Orations; and which, if duly attended to, might then have faved Athens, and may now be of fervice to us.

First then, Athenians! these our affairs must not be thought defperate; no, tho' their fituation feems entirely deplorable. For the most shocking circumstance of all our • past conduct, is really the most favourable to our future expectations. And what is this? That our own total indo⚫lence hath been the cause of all our present difficulties. For were we thus diftreffed, in fpite of every vigorous effort ⚫ which the honour of our state demanded, there were then no hope of a recovery.-And if you (my countrymen !) ⚫ will now at length be perfuaded to entertain the like fentiments; if each of you, renouncing all evafions, will be ready to approve himself an useful citizen, to the utmost that his ftation and abilities demand: if the rich will be rea<dy to contribute, and the young to take the field: in one word, if you will be yourselves; and banish those vain hopes which every fingle perfon entertains, that while fo many others are engaged in public bufinefs, his fervice will ⚫ not be required: you then (if heaven so pleases) will regain your dominions, recall thofe opportunities your fupinenefs hath neglected, and chaftife the infolence of this man. -Talk not of your ten thousands, or twenty thousands of foreigners; of those armies which appear fo magnificent on paper; but let them be the natural forces of the ftate.-In • affairs of war, and warlike preparations, there is no order,

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no certainty, no regulation. So that when any incident. alarms us, firft, we appoint our Trierarchs *; then the sup•plies are confidered. These points once fettled, we refolve to man our fleet with ftrangers and foreigners; then, find it neceffary to fupply their place ourselves. In the midst of thefe delays, what we are failing to defend, the enemy is already master of: for the time of action we spend in preparing and the junctures of affairs will not wait our flow and irrefolute measures. These forces too, which we think be depended on, until the new levies are raised, when put to the proof, plainly discover their infufficiency. By these means hath he arrived to such a pitch of infolence.They who conduct a war with prudence, are not to follow, but to direct events; to direct them with the fame abfolute authority, with which a general leads on his forces that the course of affairs may be determined by them, and not • determine their measures. But you, Athenians, although poffeffed of the greatest power of all kinds, fhips, infantry, cavalry, and treasure; yet to this day have never employed < any of them feasonably; but are ever the laft in the field. Juft as barbarians engage at boxing, so you make war with Philip: for when one of these receives a blow, that blow engages him if he is ftruck in another part, to that part his hands are shifted: but to ward off the blow, or to watch his antagonist; for this, he hath neither fkill nor fpirit. Even fo, if you hear that Philip is in the Cherfonefus, you refolve to fend forces thither; if in Thermopyla, thither; if in any other place, you hurry up and down, you follow his ftandard. But no useful scheme for carrying on the war, no wife provisions ever thought of, until you hear of fome enterprize in execution, or already crowned with fuccefs. This might formerly have been pardonable, but now is the very • critical moment, when it can by no means be admitted.To me it is astonishing, that none of you looks back to the • beginning of this war,, and confiders that we engaged in it to chastise the infolence of Philip; but that now it is be6 come a defenfive war, to fecure us from his attempts.-So fhamefully are we degenerated, that each of our commanders is twice or thrice called before you, to answer for his life, though not one of them dared to hazard that life, by once engaging his enemy. No; they chufe the death of robbers and pilferers, rather than to fall as becomes them (a).

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* Admirals.

(a) Taken from his first Philippic, p. 1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16.' • How

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How is it that our affairs were once fo flourishing, and now in fuch diforder? Becaufe, formerly, the people dared to take up arms themselves; were themselves masters of their minifters; themfelves difpofers of all emoluments: fo • that every citizen thought himself happy, to derive honours and authority, and all advantages whatever, from the people. But now, on the contrary, favours are all difpenfed, affairs all tranfacted, by the minifters: while you, quite enervated, robbed of your riches, your allies, ftand in the . mean rank of fervants and affiftants.-It never has, nor <could it have been moved by me, that the rewards of the diligent and active, fhould be bestowed on the useless citizen: or that you should fit here, fupine, languid, and irrefolute, listening to the exploits of fome General's foreign troops; for thus it is at prefent. Not that I would reflect on him who ferves you, in any inftance. But you yourfelves, Athenians, fhould perform thofe fervices for which you heap ⚫ honours upon others; and not recede from that illuftrious rank of virtue, the price of all the glorious toils of your anceftors; and by them bequeathed to you (b).

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It is not the conqueft of Athens which Philip aims at: no; it is our extirpation. He knows full well, that flavery is a ftate you would not, or if you were inclined, you could. not fubmit to; for fovereignty is become habitual to you. Nor is he ignorant, that at any unfavourable juncture, you have more power to obftruct his enterprizes, than the whole world befides.-I fhould not have thought myself a good citizen had I propofed fuch measures as would have made me the firit among my countrymen, but reduced you to the last of nations. On the contrary, the faithful minifter should raise the glory of his country; and, upon all occafions, advife the moft falutary, not the easiest measures. You fhould fend Embaffadors into all parts, to inform, to remonstráte, to exert all their efforts in the fervice of the state. But, above all things, let thofe corrupt Minifters feel the feverest punifhment; let them at all times, and in all places, be • the objects of your abhorrence. (c)

What is the caufe of all this? (for there must be some caufe, fome good reafon to be affigned, why the Greeks were once fo jealous of their liberty, and are now fo ready to fubmit to flavery.) It is this, Athenians! Formerly ⚫ men's minds were animated with that, which they now feel no longer, which conquered all the opulence of Perfia,

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(b) Olynthiac the fecond, p. 46, 47, 48.--

(c) On the state of Cherfonefus, p. 103, 105, 106.

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* maintained the freedom of Greece, and triumph'd over the powers of fea and land: but now that it is loft, universal ruin and confufion overfpread the face of Greece. What is this? ⚫ nothing fubtile or myfterious; nothing more than an unani• mous abhorrence of all thofe who accepted bribes from Prin⚫ces, prompted by the ambition of fubduing, or the bare intent of corrupting Greece. To be guilty of fuch practices, was < accounted a crime of the blackeft kind; a crime, which called for all the feverity of public juftice; no petitioning for mercy, no pardon was allowed. So that neither Orator nor General could fell thofe favourable conjunctures, with ⚫ which fortune oftentimes affifts the fupine against the vigilant; and renders men, utterly regardless of their interests, fuperior to those who exert their utmost efforts: nor were • mutual confidence among ourfelves, diftruft of tyrants, and • barbarians, and fuch-like noble principles, fubject to the power of gold. But now are all thefe expofed to fale, as in a public mart: and, in exchange, fuch things have been introduced, as have affected the fafety, the very vitals of • Greece. What are these? Envy, when a man hath received a bribe; laughter if he confeffes it; pardon, if he be convicted; refentment at his being accused; and all the other appendages of corruption. For as to naval power, troops, revenues, and all kinds of preparations, every thing that is esteemed the ftrength of a ftate, we are now much better, and more amply provided, than formerly: but they have loft all their force, all their efficacy, all their value, by means of these traffickers (d).

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(d) As the above paffage is that of the largeft extent we have cited, or fhall cite, in our extracts from thefe Orations, we here fubjoin to it the Greek text, that Judges may difcern the precifion and spirit of our Tranflator, and recommend the performance> accordingly a performance, which we have compared, through whole orations, with the original; and with fo much fatisfaction, that we may here collate at a venture.

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Τι ουν αίτιον τούλων ; 8 γαρ ανευ λόγου και δικαιας αξίας δε του είως ἐσχὸν ἑλοίμως προς ελευθερίαν απανίες οι ελληνες, ούτε νυν προς το δουλευειν. την ην, ω άνδρες αθηναίοι, εν ταις των πολλων διανοιαίς, ο νυν εκ εσιν, ο και το περσων εκράτησε πλείς, και ελεύθεραν ηγε την ελλαδα, και ουδέναυ μαχίας εξε πεζής μάχης εδεμιας ητταῖο. νυν δ' απολωλος, απανία λελύμαν ται, και άνω και καλω πεποίηκε τα των ελληνων πραγματα. τι εν ην τελο ; εδὲν ποικίλον οὐδὲ σοφον αλλ' οτι τους παρα των αρχειν αει βελομένων η και διαφθειρείν την ελλαδα, χρημαία λαμβανονίας, απαίίες εμίσουν και χαλε πώδαλον της, το δωροδοκώνα εξελεγχθηναι και τιμωρια μεγιση τόξον εκολα ζαν και παραίλησις υδεμια ην, υδε συγγνώμη τον εν καιρον εκασία των πραγμάτων, οι η τυχη και τους αμέλεσι καλα των προσεχονίων, και τοις μηδεν εθέλουσι ποιείν, καλα των παλα οι προσήκει πραιτονίων πολλάκις τας

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While the veffel is fafe, whether it be great or fmall," the mariner, the pilot, every perfon fhould exert himself in his particular station, and preferve it from being wrecked, either by villainy or unfkilful nefs. But when the fea hath once broken in, all care is vain. And therefore, Athenians, while we are yet fafe, poffeffed of a powerful city, favoured with many refources, our reputation illu• ftrious, what are we to do? (perhaps fome have fat with impatience to afk.) I fhall now give my opinion, and propofe it in form; that if approved your voices may confirm it. Having, in the first place, provided for your defence, fitted out your navy, raised your fupplies, and array❝ed your forces: (for altho' all other people should submit to flavery, you should ftill contend for freedom.) Having made fuch provision, (I say) and this, in the fight of Greece; then we are to call others to their duty; and for this purpose, to send Ambassadors into all parts, to Pelo< ponnefus, to Rhodes, to Chios, and even to the King: (for he is by no means unconcerned to oppose the rapidity of this man's progrefs.)-(e)

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At prefent, your conduct muft expofe you to derifion. Nay, I call the powers to witnefs, that you are acting as if Philip's wifhes were to direct you. Opportunities escape you; your treasures are wafted; you fhift the weight of public business upon others; break into paffion; criminate each other.-If from the variety of merchandizes, and plen< ty of provifions, you flatter yourselves that the State is not • in danger, you judge unworthily and falfely. Hence, we might determine whether our markets were well or ill fupplied: But the ftrength of that State which is regarded by all who aim at the fovereignty of Greece, as the fole ob• ftacle to their defigns, the well-known guardian of Liberty, is not furely to be judged of by its vendibles. No; we should enquire whether it be fecure of the affections of its allies whether it be powerful in arms. Thefe are the points to be

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ρασκευάζει, εκ ην πρίασθαι παρα των λεγονίων, εδε των σφαλαγουνίων, εδε την προς αλλήλους ομονοιαν, υδε την προς τις βαρβάρους και τους τυραννους attisian, ουδ' ολως των τοιείων εδέν. νῦν δ' απανθ, ωσπερ εξ ayogas, EXTEπραlαι ταύτα αντεισηκίαι δε αντι τελων, υφ ων απολωλε και νενόσηκεν η ελ

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ταύτα δ' εσι τι ; ζήλος εἴ τις ειληφε τις γέλως, αν ομολογή συγγνωμη τοις ελεγχόμενοις° μιςος, αν τελοις τις επίιμα ταλλα παλα οσα εκ τ8 δωροδοκειν ηρτηται. Επει τριήρεις γε και σωμάτων πλήθος, και χρηματων προςοδοι, και της αλλης κατάσκευης αφθόνια, και τάλλα οις αν τις ισχυεις τας πολεις κρινοί, νυν απανία και πλείω και μείζω επι των τότε πολλω. Αλλ απαλα ταξίά αχρησα, απρακία, ανονήτα, υπο των πωλείων, γινεται (e) Philippic the third, p. 119, 120, 126.

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