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feet. Here our Author finds great fault with a Consul-Genee ral, who had refided fix years at Cairo, for giving a bad design of this pillar, from the travels of Paul Lucass If he means Conful Maillet, it should be considered, that the editor, Abbé Malerier, added much of his own to the Conful's papers, which are known to be still extant; land great pity it is, that they are not publifhed as he left them
From hence our Author took the road for the Califh, or Canal of Cleopatra, which supplies Alexandria with fresh water all the year round. It was made for the convenience of trade, to transport merchandise from Cairo to Alexandria, without hazarding the dangerous passage of the Bogass, or mouth of the Nile. Decay of trade, and the ruin of the country, hinder the inhabitants from expending annually what is necessary to keep it in tolerable repair. It is now like a ditch, and scarcely serves to supply the refervoirs
, at New Alexandria. In the month of June it was so dry, that our Author walked thro' it. We are referred to the plates at the end of the book, for a view of one of the reservoirs. The pillars that fupport them are of different kinds, for the most part Gothic; which shews that they were repaired by the Saracens. The smallness of the prefent city of Alexandria, when compared with the old city, and the great expence and trouble of cleaning these reservoirs, is the reafon why so few remain, and so many have been demolished :: for if they were not cleaned, or destroyed, they would poison the country. The canal, tho' distinguished by the name of Cleopatra, is certainly as ancient as the old city of Alexandria; for the inhabitants could have had no fresh water without it, the Nile here mixing with the sea. Besides, such a canal was necessary for the conveyance of the materials for building. That it was called Cleopatra's canal, might have been owing to some considerable repairs she made, or to fome thews she exhibited there.
Where the ruins of the city end, the Burying-caves, or Sepulchral-grottos, begin. They are now all of them opens and unfurnished; they are hewn out in the rock, and extend to a great distance, along the sea-side: they are broad enough to have admitted two corps, and are in length about the fize of a man their height is as the rock permitted. There are other rocks which advance into the water, and form natus ral grottos, which, with fome artificial improvements are made cool and pleasant retreats for fhade, and bathing. At the distance of thirty or forty paces from the fhore, and opposite to the point of the peninsula that forms the port, is a subterranea: ous monument, which is commonly called a temple.” You
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enter with torches in your hand, thro'a Smaltr opening, and stoop as you go along a narrow, lowypaffage, whicho at the end of twenty paces, opens into a large square chamber, The top is regular, like the four fides; the bottom is covered with fand, and the dung of bats, and other animals that find a retrieat here. But you do not prrive at the temple till after going thro' another passage, you meets with a more beautiful room, having the top cut out like a vaulted roof, and four doors oppofite to one another, each ornamented with an archisi trave, a cornice, and a pediment; with a crescent, or half moon, over it. One of these doors ferves for the entrance, the others form a fort of niches, e which contain each of them a place hollowed in the rock, of a fize fufficient to admit a corpfes which thews it to have been the combcrof fome king, or other great person. There is no infeription, nor foulpture, to inform us for whom, or on what occafion, it was made.' 'There may be many more such ; some never opened fince they were firft fhut, and others choaked with fand; as this will be in time; for the entrance and passage seem to leffen from the increase of fand driven into it. In ascending, upon the top of the same rock, you fee large foffes or ditches; when or for what purpose cut, no one knows. They descend perpendicularly, and are about forty feet deep, fifty long, and twenty feet wide. Their fides are even; but the bottom is so covered with sand, that it is difficult to discover the heighth of a passage which, in some of these fosses, should seem to lead to some fubterraneous place: and a stranger, travelling into these countries, cannot be supposed to have it in his power to clean out one of these places, to satisfy his curiosity. In de
Before we take our leave of Old Alexandria, it may be worth while to consider, whence came all that quantity of marble and granite employed in building fo great a city; and what is become of it all, since the destruction of Alexandria?
To suppose that the workmen went very far for materials, which they might have had near at hand, were abfurd, nor, if they had sent a great way off for their materials, 'could'Alex der have raised the city to the magnificence with which it apa peared, even in his time ; nor could it have arrived, fo foon after, at the still greater splendor it acquired under the Ptolemies. It is, therefore, a probable supposition, that the gran deur of Alexandria, fprung from the ruins of Memphis. And this, fays Mr. Norden, may be the eafier admitted, because of the difficulty there would be to account otherwise for the prelent state of the ruins of that great city; of which little more femains than barely, fuffices to thew where it once stood.
Should it be objected, that fo great a Prince as Alexander, would never have destroyed one city in order to raise an other from its ruins ; this is granted: but he might well have employed the materials of a city, already decayed, in building another that was to bear his own name. That Memphis ftiii existed in the days of Alexander, no one can doubt; but it must have been then in a state of ruin: for it is not likely that the Persians, who carried destruction thro? the whole country, would thew more favour to Memphis than to the other cities in Egypt, Cambyses had carried away their Deities; their priests were gones and the splendor of religion was eclipsed at Memphis. What then must have been the condition of their magnificent temples, forsaken by their own inhabitants, and despised, and prostituted to the vileft purposes, by the PerJians? In this case, Alexander might have made use of them in building other temples: and the canal, finge called after Cleopatra, might aslift in conveying the materials from Memphis. But if from thence, how is it that they are not adorn. ed with hieroglyphics? This is, indeed, an objection that must be clearly answered, or it will deftroy this favourite hypothesis of Mr. Norden's, that Alexandria was raised from the ruins of Memphis. He obseryes, therefore, that in Alexander’s time, there was no longer any tafte, .even in Egypt, for the old Egyptian architecture, that Greece, tho' the de Fived the principles of that art from the Egyptians, had changed their way of building, into one that was more light, and ornamented in a different manner; and that she had neither the immense riches, nor quantity of materials and workmen, ne. cessary for such solid' edifices. Here, perhaps, our Readers will be ready to ask, what has this to do with hieroglyphics, and materials ready for use? Alexander, according to Mr. Norden, being accustomed, from his youth, to the Grecian architecture, would not change it for that of a country he had conquered; and, in cutting down, to a proper size, the materials with which the ruins of Memphis might furnith him, the hieroglyphics, must be lost: which, probably, gave the Greeks little concern, as they had no reverence for them on a religious account, and wereg, moreover, totally ignorant of their meaning. Befides, how improper would it be to make use of a pillar covered with bieroglyphics, together with a pilJar of the Corinthian Order?
If this answer prove not satisfactory to our Readers, as very likely, it may not, Memphis must remain in its own ruins, and the canal must be restored to Cleopatra. If you ask, what is become of the ruins of Alexandria itself? the answer is, great part of them are still on the spot, either aboven or under ground; and some have been transported to Europe. It is but little, indeed, that is carried away at once, but this in time will amount to a great deal.
If you enquire of Mr. Norden after the tomb of Alexand der, the Serapeum, Museum, &c, he will tell you, that he could find no traces of them, tho' he took all possible pains to discover them. Alexander's tomb is said, by one author, in the fifteenth century, to bave exifted at that time, and to have been respected by the Saracens ; but the inhabitants have no tradition left about it. Our Author enquired, and fearched for it in vain. This discovery, fays be, may be reserved for fome future traveller. The fame is faid of the Serapeum. Ha could discover'no traces of that magnificent temple; but thinks its ruins may be hid under one of the hills or mounts he has mentioned. From what the seventy Interpreters have said, he determines the situation of the Museum to have been where the Jeffer Pharillon now'is. However, adds he, you may, if you think proper, suppose it to have been between that and the palace; but he advifes you, in this research, to keep near the port, and then cautions you not to dispose of the different quan ters of the city, as the author of Remarks upon the Com, mentaries of Cæsar, published in England, has done. He is a little fevere upon this Editor, and upon the great architect, Palladio, whom that Editor is said to have followed, and whom Mr. Norden charges with having indulged himself in the same liberty that painters take, who, in designing the scene of an history piece, represent, by imagination, places they never faw.
Our Author opens his account of New Alexandria, in terms which we tranflate as follows. We may compare the new • city of Alexandria to a poor orphan, who has no inheri
tanice left him but the honourable name of his father. The & vast extent of the old city, is, in the new, reduced to a
small Nip of land, lying between the two ports. The fplendid temples, are changed into inelegant mosques : the mag
nificent palaces, into ill-built houses: the royal palace itfelf, • into a place of confinement for flaves: 'a numerous and s opulent people, are fucceeded by a few foreign traders, and a parcel of wretches, the fervants of thofe traders. A city
so famous for the extent of its commerce, is now no more than a place to take, shipping at. In short, it is not a phoenix raised out of its own ashes, but rather one of thofe vermin bred from the dirt, or duft, 'which has infected the whole country, by means of the Koran,
ods This is a sketch of what Alexandria appears to be at pre< sent. It does not deserve a more particular description. The
traveller to Egypt, however, could not well difpenfe with this task, as it is the first placerat which he difembarks? here he begins to experience the manners and customs of the
country, here he learns to support the rude behaviour of s a gross; ftupid people, ever averle to ftrangers ; and to form
some idea of the inconveniencies and difagreeabfeness that ¢ he may promise himself if he goes further ; "in fine, here
he enters; as a novice, on his travels into Egypt. air On your arrival you pay a trifle for your baggage. Nothing you carry there is contraband. The merchant to whom your goods are confignedy takes care of them, and provides you with lodging and entertainment. Merchandise, of all forts, pays a duty according to the money to be raised upon the subject, by order of the Grand Signor, or according to treaty
This duty is farmed out, generally, to a Jew. The Turk does not care to be concerned, for fear of appearing too rich, and of the confequences that would follow. One would ima: gine that those Europeans who are in alliance with the Porte, and pay fo much [our Author does not tell us how much] per cent. less than those who must pay the tax levied by the Grand Signor, would carry on a much more advantageous commerce than any other traders, but it is not fo; for the Jews and Turks at Alexandria, always under-sell them; which they are, in fome measure, enabled to do, by agreeing with the farmer of the duties, for the whole time he is employed : to which he is glad to agree, upon moderate terms, as he knows they would not otherwise import any confiderable quantity of merchandise for the two first years of his farming the duties. There may be about twelve principal Jew-merchants at Alexandria the rest of that people are retailers, and under abfolute fubjection to the richer Jews. The most respectable among them are foreigners, from Conftantinople, Portugal, or Leghorn, It is not to be imagined, that the Jews who reside at Alexandria are the heads of families ; fuch generally settle at Leghorn, and from thence extend their families and trade to Alexandria, Cairo, Aleppo, Conftantinople, Tunis, Tripoli, and every trading town in the Mediterranean, particularly in the Levant. At Alexandria they have neither privilege nor protection; but by their intrigues, and application to the chief persons in power, who refide at Cairo, they manage their affairs to great advantage. They pay dear for it at first, but these expences turn out to their advantage in the end.poledva 03 DEU
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