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Hebrew language, 88 a necessary part of a Our readers have already been informed, minister's professional knowledge, has been that the excellent Bishop of St. David's has adjudged to the Rev. Thomas Thomas, recformed a Society in his diocese, for pro- tor of Aberperth, Cardiganshire. The premoting Christian Knowledge and Church mium for the best essay on the question, Union. This society has various objects. What are the impediments which hinder Its main objects seem to be, to institute a professing Christians, who believe the clerical seminary, or college, to form a fund doctrines of the church of England, froin for exbibitions to divinity scholars, and to uning with the established church? has establish a college library, by means of be- becn adjudged to the Rev. Jolinson Grant, nefactions for these specific purposes. Ano- A. M. of St. John's College, Oxon. ther object is, to raise a fund to enable cu- The following are the premiums proposed Tates who are superannuated to retire from for the year 1811, viz. duties to which they are incompetent, to the “ A premium of ten pounds for the best relief, not only of the infirm curate, but of Essay on the Qualifications, Literary and the incumbent and the parish : applicants. Moral, of the Clerical Profession. to this jund must have contributed to it at " A premium of ten pounds for the best least five shillings a year for two years pre- Essay on the Origin and present State of ceding their application. Annual subscrip- Religious Sects in Wales, especially in the tions are also received for the purpose of Diocese of St. David's, with an account of distributing moral and religious tracts ; es.

all differences in the names, constitutions, tablisbing deanery libraries; and giving pre- ysages, and doctrines of such sects which miuns for dissertations on subjects relativeto have taken place since their origin, and the objects of the society, for superior pro. which prevail at present. llie exan inations of the licensed “The Essays are to be sent to the Rev. grammar schools in the diocese, and for W. H. Parker, Vicarage, Carmarthen, un or sermons to be preached on specified sube before the 1st of May 1811, with the name jects*. by referring to our volume for 1808, of the writer inclosed in a sealed paper, p. 202, our readers will learn what is the marked on the outside with the motto which nature of the proposed college, and the is prefixed to the Essay.' course of education to be given to the stu- Small premiums are likewise proposed for dents. The subscriptions hitherto received, the proficients, at the different grammar however, are noi adequate to the execution schouls, in Hebrew and Hebrew writing, in of the plan ; the whole amount, to the end Latin contposition in prose and verse, in of last year, being 5,2461 14s. In the Psalmody, in the recitation and abridgment nean time, this sum is yested in the public of sermons, &c. &c. &c. funds, and the interest of it applied in the Besides these," a premiuni of ten pounds way of premiums apd exhibitions. The pre- will be given by n friend to thie society, for mium for the best essay on the study of the the best Essay on Conversion, and on the

three following questions : Whether a mi. Ten pounds for eight sermons, to be mister of the Church can be an unconverted preached on the cight Sundays șubsequent professor of Christianity? What are the to Easter-day, on the principles and duties of marks of unconversion in a minister of the church union, on errors arising from unsei- church? What are the means most likely to iled notions in religion, and on the excel excite in the mind of such a niinister (if such lence of the liturgy of the church of Eng. can be) a sense of his unconverted stale? land; and eight guineas for each of eight ---The Essay to be sent as before direcied. courses, of sixteen lectures, to be preached “ A friend of the society has also emon week d.:ys, in iwo principal places of the powored the Committee to offer to the mas. fuur arch-deaconries, for the benefit of the ters of the licensed grammar schools of St. poor who cannot read,

David's, Penib:oke, llaverfordvest, Breçon.


Cardigan, Lampeter, and Swansea, the fol- the Highlands and Islands continue in a lowing premiuins, viz.

state of great ignorance; and ouly a sinall "Fifty pounds to the best of at least five proportion of the inhabitants can read in competitors;

any language. The informalion from which • Forty pounds to the best of four compe- this statement is drawn is very interesting,

and leaves no doubt of its accuracy. We " Thirty pounds to the best of three com- give, as a specimen of it, the following extract petitors;

froin a letter of the Rev. Dr. Ross, miuister • Twenty pounds to the best of two com. of Lochbrooin, to the society. petitors;

“ The parish of Lochbroom comprehends “ Ten pounds to any one without a com

a tract of country, the roughest and most petitor;

difficult in Scotland, as extensive as the who shall write, and deliver to the Bishop of whole synod of Ross, which employs the laSt. David's, on or before the last Thursday bours of twenty-three ministers, besides innu. in June 1811, the best transcript of the book werable schoolmasters, catechists, &c. : it of Genesis in Hebrew and English, and shall lias seven preaching places, separated by pass the best exainination in the same book. large arms of the sea, rapid rivers, extensive The examination and decision to be left

moors, and tremendous rycks; some of thein sulely to the Bishop.—The competitors must twenty, some thirty miles from the parisha exhibit, on the day of examination, their church, and without a single place of wor, licences to their respective schools.

ship capable of containing the congregation “ The master of Carmarthen school, who in the whole parish. There are nine bury, has long tiught Hebrew, and the second ing grounds. According to an enumeration master of Ystradmeirig school, who obtained taken the year before last, it contains near the first premiun for Hebrew at the ordina- four thousand inhabitants, of whom perhaps tion of 1809, will readily perceive why the hardly seven bundred possess even a sunatpremiums are not extended to Carmarthen tering of book knowledge, and comparatively and Ystradmeirig."

few speak any English. In this extensive We perceive will pleasure that the college district there can hardly be said to exist any library has been enlarged by benefactious and

means of religious or moral instruction, but bequests of books, as well as by donations of what results from my personal labours money. We feel chiefly solicitous, however, alone.” “ After such a detail, it is unnefor the erection of the college itself, which cessary to say, that the state of the people is will necessarily require a mucli larger sum deplorable-in a tract of ten or twelve miles, than his yet been procured, and we would well peopled, there may not be a single indipress it upon those members of the Church vidual found capable of reading the Scrip. of England who are blessed with atfluence, tures in Englisis or Gaelic, and these, perand wlw are attached to the interests of re- haps, from courteen to twenty five miles from ligion, lo sbew their liberality on an occa- the parish church!" sion which is in every way worthy of it.. “ Above three thousand precious souls in

Subscriptions are received by Messrs. this parish alone, are excluded from the Ilvares, Bankers, Fleet Street ; and by the word of life, excepting by the ear only. Res. 1. Pryce, Carmarthen.

Many of these cannot hear a sermon preached above iwice or thrice in the year; and many are not within ien miles of one who can read the Scriptures in any language !

What can I say more lo slew the importance A society has lately been formed at Edin. of your institutivu ? I will add, that the burgh for the express purpose of instituting people are deeply impressed with a sense of and supporting circulating schools, in which their own deplorable staie, and feel an arthe inbabitants of the Highlands and Islands deut desire after improvement : that they of Scotland shall be taught to read the Gae- travel ten, twelve, sometimes twenty miles, hy lic, which is the vernacular language. sea and land, to preaching. I will furthe.

The necessity for such au institution is add, that in this parisi alone there are seve!. grounded on this fact; that, botwithstanding different stations, in every one of which I the beneficial effects produced by the la- lave reason to think (a particular inquiry is besurs of the Society in Scotland for propagat- making) that 150 persons would gladly as. ing Christian Knowledge, for a century semble for instruction.” past, in promoting civilization and Christian The means to be employed for remedying kiuwledge in the Highlands and Islands this deplorable state of things are detailea (see our last volurse, p. 815), many parts of in the following regulations,



« Tlie schools to be established, shall be struction of our poor people to read their for the express purpose of teaching the inha- native language. Before that time, ttre bitants of our Highlands and Islands to read whole country was in 'a 'most deplorable their native language. The elementary state, with regard to the acquisition of rebooks shall consist of a spelling book in Gae- ligious knowledge. After the decease of lic; and the Gaelic Psalm book-to be suc- this very pious and laborious minister, A.D. ceeded by the sacred Scriptures of the Old 1761, the schools were continued on the and New Testament, in that language. same plan by a pious lady of fortune, an Before" a teacher is sent to any district, intimate friend of Mr. Jones, and a constant the attention of the people shall be awak- attendant on his ministry; her name was ened to the importance of their being Mrs. Bevan. In her will, that lady, who able to read, as well as to the danger lived several years after Mr. Jones, left ten and disadvantages of a state of ignorance.” thousand pounds, the interest of which was " Public intimation being previously given, to be applied, for ever, towards perpetuating when a school commences, the inhabitants those schools. Her executrix, a piece of shall be informed that it will continue only her's, disputed the validity of the will, so for a limited period, (not less than six nor far as it applied to this money. It was exceeding eighteen months), during which thrown into Chancery, where it continued time the schoolmaster shall teach those chil- for thirty years before a decrec was obdren to read, gratis, who attend well, or the tained. About two years past, a decree was children whose parents engage to secure and granted in favour of this charity; and the promote their regular attendance. When a interest of the ten thousand pounds, with circulating school is established in any quar- the accumulation of it by interest all the ter, another sehool shall be advertised at years it was in Chancery, is to be applied, the same time, for the important purpose of under certain specific regulations and restricteaching grown-up people, or such as may be tions, to the support of circulating charityunable to attend, owing to their avocations schools throughout the whole principality: or service through the day, or through the There are now forty schools erected in dif. week. This school shall be kept at a conve- ferent parts of the country, and the number nient hour on the Sabbath, or in the evening is contiuually increasing. In the course of of week days, or both-and the presence of a few years after the demise of Mrs. Bevan, those inhabitants who can read shall be re- the country gradually reverted into the same quested-at such times, to give any assistance state of stupor and ignorance in which Nr. in their power, under the directions of the Jones found it, when he first thought of those schoolmaster. When the time arrives for institutions. ' Besides, though Mr. Jones's The feacher's removal to another district, it schools increased to the amazing number of is expected, that, in consequence of the ex- two hundred and six before he died, yet ercises in the last-mentioned school, a proper there were many districts in this mountainous person may be procured to preserve and country, ncver visited by lvis schools, or but continue the benefits received. Every district once, and that for a very short time. In one in which a school has existed shall be revi- of these districts, it pleased Providence to sited occasionally, and aniniated to perse- place me. Suori after I assumed the care of vere; but in case of insuperable ditliculties the parish, I aitempted to instruet the rising on the part of its inhabitants, or the spirit at generation, by catechising them every Sunfirst infused being ready to expiré, a tencher day afiernoon: but their not being able to him at first near me, that his school might I could wish that of sbeing the work, by be, in a manner, under my constant inspec. the Lord's blessing, prospering far beyond tion. The next difficulty was, to obtain pro- my most sanguine expectations. The beginper elementary books. I composed three ning was small, but the little brook becaine elemeutary books, besides two catechisms, an overflowing river, which has spread widely which are now used in all our schools, and over the whole country in Sunday Schools, very essentially assist the progress of the (the wholesome effects of these previous inchildren. My teachers, as my lunds in- stitutions), fertilizing the barren -soil wherever creased, multiplied gradualy srom one to it flows. twenty ; but of late the number is decreased, “ As to the expediency of teaching young as the necessity of the week-day schvols is people in the first place to read the lansuperseded by ibe increase of Sunday schools, guage they generally speak and best underand my attention is drawn to the extension of stand, if imparting rcligious kuowledge is them as widely as possible. The circulating our primary object, as it nost certainly day schools have been the principal means of ought to be in instructing 'immortal beings, erecting Sunday schools ; for without the for- it needs no proof,_-1. The time necessary Iker, the state of the country was such, that to teach them to read the Bible in their we could not obtain teachers to carry on the vernacular language is so strost, not exlatter ; besides, Sunday schools were set up ceeding six months in general, that it is in every place where the day schools had a great pity not to give them the key been. My mode of conducting the schools immediately which unlocks all the doors, has been as follows:

may be sent to resirle among them once more, read, I found to be a grcat obstacle to ibe. for a short season."

progress of my work. This induced me to In adopting this plan, the society have pro- inquire into the state of the country, in this ceeded on the surc ground of experience. point of view. I soon found the poor peoThey have followed exactly the plain which ple to be in general in the same state of ig. las produced such wonderful effects in the

As Mr. Jones's schools had ceased principality of Wales; and of which a full to circulate, no relief could be obtained from account is given in the Report before us in that quarter. A thought occurred, that by a letter from Mr. Charles of Bala. We ex- the assistance of friends, I miglit obtain tract such parts of it as are necessary to fueans to employ a teacher, to be removed throw light on the system that has been from place to place, to instruct the poor ig* pursued.

norant people. When I had succeeded in “ The Rer. Griffith Jones, a clergyman of obtaining pecuniary aid, the great the establishment, about A. D. 1730, inade of obtaining a proper person to teach, octhe first attempt of any importance, on an curred. This difficulty was removed by inextensive scale, to erect schools for the in- structing a poor man myself, and employing



-My first greatest care and lays open all the divine treasures has been in the appoiutnsent of proper teach- before them. Teaching them Englisli reers. They are all puor persons, as my wages quires two or three years' time, during which are but small; besides, a poor person can as- long period, they are concerned only about similate hinself to the habits and mode of dry terms, without receiving one idea for living ausong ibe poor, as it is his own way. their improvement.2. Welsh words conof living. It is requisite he should be a per- vey ideas to their infant miuds as soon as son of moderate abilities, but above all they can read them, which is not the case that he be truly pious, moral, decent, when they are taught to read a language they humble, and engaging in his whole deport- do not understand.--3. When they can ment; not captious, not disputatious, not con. read Welsh, Scriptural terms become ceited, no idle saunterer, no tattler, nor intelligible and familiar to them, so as to giren to the indulgence of any idle habits. enable them to understand the discourses My care here has been abundantly repaid ; delivered in that language (the language in for my teachers in general are as anxious as general preached through the principality); myself for the success of the work, and for the which, of course, must prove more profitable eternal welfare of those they are eiuployed to then if they could not read at all, or read instruct in their most important concerns." only the English language.--Previous

“ At first, the strong prejudice which uni- instruction in their native tongue helps versally prevailed against teaching them 10 them to learn English much. saoner, read Welsh first, and the idea assumed, that instead of proving in any degree an inconthey could not learn English so well if pre- veniency. This I have bad repeated prooss viously instructed in the Welsh language, of, and can confidently vouch for the truth proved a great stumbling-block in the way of it. I took this method of instructing my of parents to send children to the Welsh own children, with the view of convincing schools, together with another conceit they the country of the fallacy of the general had, that it they could read English, they notion which prevailed to the contrary; and would soon learn of themselves to read I have persuaded others to follow my plan, Weish; but now these idle and groundless which, without one exception, has proved the conceits are universally scouted. This change truth of what I conceived to be really the has been produced, not so much by dis case.--5. Having acquired new ideas by prating, as by the evident salutary effects of reading a language they undeistand, exthe schools, the great delight with which the citement is naturally produced to seek for children attended themand the great progress knowledge ; and as our ancient language is they made in the acquisition of knowledge. very deficient in the means of instruction, The school continues usually at one time in there being few useful books printed in it, the same place six or nine months. This has a desire to learn English, yea, and other lanbeen my wode of procceding, subject tu some guages also, is excited, for the sake of inlocal variations, for above twenty-three creasing their stock af ideas, wild adding to years; and I have had the only satisfaction their sund of knowled. I can vuuch for

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