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the truth of it, that there are twenty to one they are candidates for another world, and. who can now read English, to what could that the things pertaining to their eternal fewhen the Welsh was entirely neglected. licity there, are of infinitely greater importThe knowledge of the English is become ne- ance to them, than the litde concerns which cessary, froin the treasures contained in it. belong to our short existence. The negleet English books are now generally called for; of this is, I apprehend, a very great defect there are now a hundred books, I am sure, in the education of children. for every one that was in the country when “ In certain instances, I have been I removed from England, and first became a obliged to continue the teacher in the same resident of these parts. English schools are place nine or twelve months; but, iu geneevery where called for, and I have been ral, six months is quite sufficient to teach obliged to send young men to English all the children that are of proper age to schools, to be trained up for English receive instruction. I prefer a quicker cirteachers, that I might be able, in some de. culation to a long stay; frequent returus of gree, to answer the geveral demand for them. the school to the same stations are necessary, In short, the whole country is in a manner unless a Sunday school prevents the necesemerging from a state of great ignorance sity of it.--Our children will learn their and ferocious barbarity, to civilization and vernacular tongue in three months, beiter piety, and that principally by muans of than they will learn English in three years, the Welsh schools. Bibles without end are -Numbers of old poople have learnt to called for, are read diligently, learned out read their Bible in Welsh within these two by beart, and searched into with unwea- years: and, in many instances, the parents ried assiduity and care. One great means have been instructed by the children.” of this blessed change has been the Welsh " I lately visited a district between our schools.--6. By teaching the Welsh forst, mountains, in which a good woman, a wiwe prove to them that we are principally dow, and her two children, a girl of twelve concerned about their souls, and thereby na- years of age, and a boy of eighteen, have . curally impress their minds with the vast im- been the chief instrumenis of teaching all portance of acquiring the knowledge of di- the inhabitants to read well, and to undervine truths, in which the way of salvation, stand the first principles of Christianity; our duty to God and man, are revealed; and that only by Sunday and Niglit whereas, that most importan! point is left to- schools.” tally out of sight by teaching them English; for the acquisition of the English is connect

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. ed only with their temporal concerns, and The annual mecling of the above Society, which they may never want, as tijey may, will be held on Wednesday the 1st of May, as the majority do, die in intancy. In my at the FREEMASON'S TAVERN, Great Queen opinion, in the education of children, it is Street, Lincoln's-Inn Fields, at eleven o'clock. of the utmost importance, in the first place, - The president will take the chair precisely to impress their winds with a sense that at twelve.

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

CONTINENTAL INTELLIGENCE.

amounting to 2,000, was left in possession

of the height, while the remaining 3,000, On the morning of the 25th instant, intel- which were almost entirely British, noved ligence was received of a very brilliant dowu to secure the communication with the action which was fought between a part of the Isle of Leon, acriss the Santi Petri. On French army betore Cadiz, under Marshal the march, General Grahaid received notice Victor, and a body of Britishi and Spanish that the eneny were advancing to the height troops under General Graham. The French of Barrosa. He immediately countermarchforce amounted to 8,000 men, that of the ed to support the Spanislı troops left for its allies to 5,000. The latter had landeld in defence, whom he found to have abandoned the vicinity of Gibraltar, and after a inarch their position as the enemy ascended the of sixteen hours, arrived at the height of hill. Retrcat, in the face of such a force, Barrosa, near the mouth of the Santi Petri appeared to General Graham likely to in. river. The Spanish part of our surce, volve the allied arıny in ruin. He therefore

resolved, trusting to the known valour of Spaniards as comparatively small. --- On the British troops, to attack the enemy, although 22d of January, Olivenza surrendered to they were nearly three to one, and had also the Frenclı, although a few bours before, the advantage of ground from having gained the governor had written in the most entbt beight. A powerful batrery of ten guns couraging terms, aud ibe' beseiged were in was soon opened on them, and admirably want neither of provisions uor ammunition, served ; and a succession of charges of the -After the fall of Olivenza, the French most heroic description ended in the con- prepared to besiege Badajoz. General plete deseat of the French. No expręs. Mendizabel, with the Spanish force which shorts of mine," observes Gen. Graham, had been under the command of the Mar" could do justice to the conduct of the quis Romana, was detached for its relief troops throughout. Nothing less than the and took post on the heights of St. Christo. almost unparalleled exertions of every o!i- val near Badajoz. In this position he was v, the invincible bravery of every soldier, attacked by the French on the 19th, and and the most determined devotion to the although the enerny had two rivers, the honour of bis majesty's arms in all, could Guadiana and Evora, to cross, his army was lave achieved this brilliant success against completely surprized, and therefore easily macb a formidable enemy so posted. In less defeated and dispersed; and the Spanish than an hour and a huf from the commence- camp, which was standing, was taken, with ment of the action, the enemy were in full the baggage and artillery. A part of the Sparetreat." The eagle of the eighth French ish troops, effected their escape to Badaregiment, eight pieces of cannon and a joz, the garrison of which has thus been howitzer, remained in our possession. One increased to 9,000 men. The siege general was killed, together with other offi- coinmenced on the 1st of February. A cers of distinction, and about 3,000 of the large convoy of provisions which was ad. eneroy were either killed, wounded, or taken vancing from Ciudad Rodrigo, under an es. prisoners. The prisoners consisted of two cort of 3,000 men, for the supply of Masgenerals (one since dead of his wounds) sena's army, was ailacked by a small body of and about 30 officers and men. Our loss Portugueze nilitia, under Lieut. Col. Grant, consisted of 7 officers and 195 men killed ; which had planted itself in an advantageous 54 officers and 986 men wounded, most of position near a defile at the Estrada Nova, shom it is said are likely to do well. The through which the convoy bind to pass. two thousand Spaniards rejoined Gen. Gra- Upwards of 200 of the enemy were killed, bat's division after the conclusion of the ac- and nearly the whole of their baggage, and tion, and the next morning the whole force the cattle that were under their escort, were crossed the Santi Petri, into the Isle of abandoned.--The operation of the Guerillas Leon. On the retreat of the Spaniards in in Spain, as well as of the Ordenanzas in the first instance, the Commissariat mules, Portugal, continued to give considerable anwhich were under their care, were dispersed, noyance to the enemy. yo that it became necessary to cross the A son has at length been born to Bonativer in order to obtain sopplies.

parte. This event took place on the 20th. An attack was made, about the same time, instant. on the French lines before Cadiz, by some British gun-boats and a party of marines,

NORTH AMERICA. who succeeded in demolishing several bat- Mr. Pinkney, the American ambassador, ueries and spiking the guns.

has had his audience of leave of the Prince Accounts have also been received, tbat Regent. His mission to this country he Massena had begun his retreat from San- considers as having terminated by the refutarem, and that Lord Wellington was in sal of our government to relax its commerparsuit of him : but no farther particulars cial decrees. The negociation however will have reached this country.

be renewed, and we hope with better sucPrevious to this, several transactions had cess, by Mr. Foster, who is about to proceed taken place which require to be noticed.-- to America, with proposals from our governOn the 25th of January an engagement ment. In the mean time, a bill has been introwas fought pear the Guadiana, between a duced into the American congress, and has Spesish force under Gen. Ballasteros, of passed through several of its stages, for proabuut 4,000 men, and double their number hibiting the importation of any goods of of French. The Spaniards were forced to British growth or manufacture, or the engive way, but the field was well contested, trance of any British ships, except in cerat the retreat order' y. The loss of the tain specified circumstances, into any part kreuch is stated at 2,000 men, tial of the of the United States. The correspondence,

cease.

however, between the American fonction- 'tically been carried into effect, several vesaries, and the French government, which sels having been condemned under those has recently Iveen laid before the Congress, decrees, subsequently to the period when it and published in the American newspapers, was declared that their operation should plainly shews, that Bonaparte's repral of huis Berlio and Milan decrees has not prae

GREAT BRITAIN. PARLIAMENTARY PROCEEDINGS. selons with transportation for fourteen years, 1. We are trapny to observe that measures or with imprisonment and hard labour for are aboint to be adopted in parliament for five, all wire are concerned in the slave amending the law respecting ins/rent trade as principals ; that is to say, as owner, debtors, both in England and Scotland. or part owner, factor or agent, captain, mate, Olle subject has been taken up by Lord Re- surgeon, &c.; and to punishi, as guilty of a desdale tur :gland, and by the Lord' Adve- misdemeanour, all who shali assist in any incate for Scotland. Lord Reddesdale's bill ferior capacity, as periy officer, seaman, or provides, that a barrister of not less than six

We rejoice to say, that in none of years standing shall preside in a court, which its stages lias this bidt net with the smallest shali be a court of record, to be called “The opposition. Court for the Relief of losoivent Debtors ;" 4. The case of a man of the name of Col. that any person applying to this court, after ville, who has been contined for some time in having been confined three ninnths, may be the prison in Cold Bath Fields, by a warrant liberated, on assigning his whole property from the secretary of state, was brought before for the benefit of his creditors, and engag- the house of commons by Sir Francis Buring to pay, when atle, whatever sum may dett, A secret committee was appointed to still remain owing. Persons wantonly wast- examine the case, consisting, among others, ing their effects, or fraudulemly disposing of of Sir Francis himself and Lord Folkstone. them whaile in prison; persons having ob- The result was a report, in which all the tained credit on falso pretences, or imprison- members of the committee concurred, stared for danrages for adultery or seduction; ing that the arrest and detention of this also persons having lost by gaming, since in man were perfectly justified by the circunsprison, ten poundsin one day, or fitty pounds stances of the case ; that on public grounds in the whole ; shall not have the benefit of it was necessary he should remain in confine this act until after five years imprisonment. meat ; and that he had suffered no inconPersons in custody for sunis enbezzled in venience which was not necessarily incident Iweach - in trust are not 10 be discharged to a prison. until they have been confined ten years. 5. A motion was made by Mr. Wardlo, roNo one, having taken the benefit of any specting the trial by court martial, of a corformer insolvent act, or who shall take the poral in the Oxford Militia. The circumbenefit of the prosent act, shall be en- stances, as stated by Mr. Wardle, bore every titled to a similar benefit till after an in- mark of cruelty and oppression. When they terval of five years. A judge from each of came, however, to be sified, they proved to the courts of King's Bench. Common Pleas, be so utterly gronudless, and the proceed. and Excheqner strall form a court of final ings with respect to the corporal-appeared appeal in all cases arising under this act. It to have been marked by so much moderen is proposed to be enacted, that no arrest shall tion and forbearance on the part of his ofo issue except on bills of exchange and pro- fects, that only one man in the House could missory notes where the original debt, ex- be found to vote in favour of Mr. Wardle's clusive of custs, did not amount to twenty motion for inquiry; and that was Colonel Gore pounds.

servant.

Langton, the cominanding officer of the re 2. Sir Samuel Romilly has again bronght giment to which the man belonged. It apa forward his propositions for the improve. peared in the course of the debate, that Mr. ment of our criminal code, and for the insti. Wardle had written to the commander tution of penitentiary houses in different in chief demanding that the culprit might parts of the kinganm; and we are happy to not be punished, until he, Mr. Wardle, say that they have met with a more favour. should have an opportunity of bringing bis able rereprion than formerly.

case before parliament. The commander 3. A bill has been brought into the house in chief begged to know what the grounds of commons by Mr. Bronghain for rendering were of so novel and extraordinary a request, more efficiual the acts abolishing the and assured Mr. Wardle, they should receive jane trude Its object is to punish as from bim all due consideration. Mr. Wardle

tefused to condescend to any explanation, for its interference. The Catholic Commitand insisted, rather whimsically, on his tee, formed at firsi expressly and exclusively tight, as a representative of the people, for the purpose of petitioning parliament, to suspend the man's punishment without had of late assumed a very different characassigning his reasons.

ter; and seemed to aim at different objects. 6. Mr. Whitbread brouglıt forward his They had begun to erect themselves into promised motion for inquiry into the con- protectors of the Catholic soldiery, and had duct of the servants of the crown in the actually appointed a Sub-Committee to ida year 1804, when he alleged that many quire generally into the grievances of the acts of state had been done in the king's Catholic body. They had, in short, been narne when the king was incompetent to allowed to proceed much farther than ang signify his pleasure upon ihen, and was un- Protestant association would have been alder the entire controul of his physicians. He lowed to do, merely lest the government grounded his assertions on the evidence of Dr. should incur the imputation of intolerance. Heberden, who had stated that his majesty's 'The necessity at length became urgent, and indisposition lasted from the 14th of Febru- it was determined by the lord lieutenant, ary, to the 23d of April in that year. During with the entire concurrence of the lord the whole of the month of March, the king's chancellor and the attorney and solicitor genea name had been used, acts passed and mes- ral, that while the utmost latitude of liberty sages delivered, and other things done; al. should be allowed to the Catholics in respect though he was then, according to Dr. He: to petitioning, they should be restrained berden's evidence, in umsound mind. The from transgressing the bounds of law. defence made by those who had then been 9. The number of seamen voted by the iu office, was that they had taken no step House, for the service of the present year, without the opinions, and full consent, and including marines, is 145,000.' Various imconcurrence of the physicians in attendance provements have been introduced by Mr. bn bis majesty; and that his majesty was Yorke; into the mode of voting the estimates never called 10 transact business, but when of the navy, wbich have given general satisall the physicians declared him fully compe- faction. tent.co do so. Mr. Whitbread's molion was 10. The restriction whicla existed last negatived on a division, by 198 to 81.

year on the distillation of barley, has been 7. On the suggestion of the lord chan- removed ; and it is now left to the option of bellos, a committee has been appointed the distiller; whether he shall use sugar or by the house of lords, to take into consi- grain. The duties are so regulated, as lo deration the case of suitors in Chancery, and make the pecuniary advantages equal, in in the House of Lords as a high court of both cases. appeal, and to provide some remedy for the 11. A very great defalcation appears to delays, which, in consequence of the vast have taken place in the Irish revenue accumulation of business, have unavoidably during the last year. The net revenue of arisen, in the decision of suits iu both these 1810, was near 800,0001. less than in 1807, courts. lp the common law courts it ap- although additional taxes, calculated to pro pears that delays have not arisen, except 'duce 862,000l. had since been imposed. turough the negligence or dishonesty of law The revenue of last year was considerably agents. These courts almost always clear less than the interest of the public debt. A uff in every term the whole of the business conmittee is to be appointed to investigate which comes before them in that term, unless the matter. when they are induced to grant a delay, 12: Lurd Holland has brought before the from a wish to suit the couvenience of the House of Lords, a shocking case, of a man parties, or to forward the ends of justice. who died lately in the Marshalsea prison,

8. A discussion has taken place in the and who, it appears, was literally starved to bouse of commons, with respect to the death. It is likely to lead to some proSteps taken by the Irish government, as spective measure, which will prevent the Rated in our last number, to check the un possibility of the recurrence of sc cruel and lawful proceedings of the Catholic Commit- disgraceful a transaction. ter. The explanations of Mr. Wellesley 13. A subsidy of two millions has been Pole , the chief secretary of Ireland, appeared voted to Portugal

, which is double the to give general satisfaction, both as evincing amount of last year's subsidy, to enable the habitual moderation and forbearance of that power to maintain troops, and defray the Irish government towards the Catholics; other expenses of the war. nad the necessity which had at length arisen 14. A variety of papers have been moved Christ. OBSERV. No. 111.

2D

for, with a view to elucidate the late disas- amount of goods, particularly cotton goods, trous occurrences at Madras. The conduct exported to South America and elsewhere, of Sir G. Barlow was severely censured by for which little or no return had been made, some members, and as warmly defended by and from the want at present of a vent for others. We could perceive, however, that our manufactures: and recommended the the approbation which he obtained from his issue of exchequer bills for the relief of majesty's ministers, was by no means an un- such as could give adequate security for their measured approbation. They defended his repayment at periods to be fixed, in the same administration generally, þut expressed manner as had been done iu 1793. Ac. themselves adverse to that principle on cordingly' a yote has passed the house of which the Madras government liad acted, of cominons, to enable his majesty to issue six giving to inferior officers a right to delibe- millions of exchequer bills for this purpose. rate on the orders of their superiors. Where We are certainly very far from anticipating the legality of the order was so plainly con- from this issue the advantages which matrary to law as to produce an impression of its ny are disposed to expect from it. In 1793, illegality at first sight, there the inferior might the issue of exchequer bills was a wise mea. be justified in hesitating to obcy; but where sure, because it was a measure, exactly the illegality was constructive merely, and adapted to meet the evil which then existed, not obvious and palpable, there the interior and which was not either the failure of comcould not be considered as having a choice, mercial speculations, or the want of good and and the responsibility of the act must rest tangible securities, but such a want of citwholly with his superior. This we under- culating medium, that even the best securistood to be the general colour of the opinion ties could not command a sufficient portion expressed by Mr. Dundas, the president of of it to carry on the ordinary transactions of the board of control. ' lu consistency with commerce. At present there exists no such this principle, it appeared in the course of want; on the contrary, money may be raised, the debate, that Colonel Boles, whose sus- if the merchant's securities are unexceptionpension by Sir G. Barlow for having pub- able, with the utmost ease, at the legal intefished, in his capacity of deputy adjutant rest, and even for less. If, therefore, the general, an offensive and highly reprehen- present" applicants for parliamentary aid sible order of his commanding officer, Gé- possess those securities which will justify tie neral M‘Dowal, had greatly contributed to commissioners in granting them an issue of the discontents of the army, had recently exchequer' bills

, they' might easily at this been restored to his rank in the Company's moment obtain, by the ordinary channels, the service, and had received the arrears of pay, accommodation which they want. If they which had accumulated from the period of cannot obtain it, it can only be, because the his suspension. This decision, though it may 'securities they propose are not satisfactory: inculpate the propriety of Sir G. Barlow's We admit that it might be a measure of conduct in that particular case, yet of course good policy, as well as beneyolence, to grant does not involve ihe propriety of his con- some relief to the working manufacturers of duct in the dispute withi General M.Dowal, Manchester and Glasgow, whose distress is neither does it form the smallest justification certainly great; but bevond tliis we greatly for those most unwarrantable acts of insub. doubt whether the bounty of parliament ordination and violence, to which some of ought to extend. The present embarrass. the officers of the Madras arıny afterwards ments are allowed to have been produced had recourse.

partly by wild speculations, which have led 15. The only parliamentary proceeding to heavy losses. It never can be wise to ex. which we have still to notice is that wiich cite an expectation in those who are prone jespects the state of commercial credit, and to engage in such speculations, that they the means adopted for its reliet.

In conse

may look to the national purse to deliver quence of numerous representations made to thein from the effect of their own imprugovernment of the distresses existing in the dence. As for those who can find no iparcoinmercial, but more especially in the ma- ket for the manufactures which fill their nufacturing, classes of the community, and warehouses, it cannot be expected, nor is it chiefly in Glasgow, Paisley, and Manchester; to be wished, that they should increase a committee was appointed to investigare their stuck of unsaleable commodities, the the causes of these distresses, and to report only way in which relief can descend from their opinion to the House. The report of them to the working manufacturers. They the committee stated the distress to be may be enabled, it is true, by a loan, to pay considerable, and to arise from the large their bills as they becomie due, but still this

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