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will not produce benefit to that class of the price was 14 or 15 per cent. above the mint community, who are chiefly to be commise- price of silver, bas served to confirm the rated; we mean, the labouring class. We reviews which we are disposed to take of cur, however, to our doubt, whether even the state of our paper currency as labourthat relief which is here supposed will acerue ing under a depreciation. There appears to from the measure, and for this reason, that be no reason for raising the price of a dolin the present state of the nioney market no lar to 5s. 6d. which would not be as strong person possessing such securities as will avail a reason for raising the price of the guinea to procure for him a luan of exchequer to 26 or 27s. ; this being in fact its intrinsic bills, would find any difficulty in raising value, when measured by paper at the money by the ordinary means. He must present moment. But our limits will not have exhausted all his good tangible securi. allow us to pursue the subject. Lias, before he could find it no longer possi- We mentioned in a former number that ble to obtain the necessary accommodation, Mr. Finperty, who had been prosccuted for --Io another point of view, the 'inconve- a libel on Lord Castlereagh, had pleaded nience of the present measure strikes us as guilty to the charge. He has been sentenced very great. One of the chief evils which to eighteen months imprisonment for his ofwe have to contend withi, at present, ap- fence, and at the end of that time to give pears to us to be an excess of circulating surety for his good behaviour for five years, medium. It is to this excess that we thinks himself in five hundred pounds, and two suremay principally be referred, the increas. ties in two hundred and fifty pounds eache ing tate of foreign exchanges, amounting The affidavits which he produced in mitigaHow to from 30 to 35 per cent. against this tion of punishment were so ofiensively ex. country, the advance of about 25 per cent. pressed that Lord Ellenborough with great which has taken place in the market-price forbearance allowed him time to amend then, of gold and silver above the mint price, and on their reproduction, however, they were ibe consequent disappearance of our coig. still deemed by the court to be rather an agThe evil, in fact, as it appears to us, is nei- gravation than an alleviation of bis offence; ther more nor less than this, that the circu. and in the speech which he made for himdating medium of the country, in other words self, it became necessary for the judges frebank-notes, are depreciated in value, not quently to interfere in order to repress liis from any doubt of the solvency and sta irregularity and to confine him to the point bility of the bank, but simply from their in hand, which was simply to produce such exces. The present measure of issuing ex- circumstances as might operate to mitigate chequer bills to the merchants, we fear, will punishnient. Mr. Finnerty's cause bas since only serve to aggravate the evil. We have been taken up by Sir Francis Burdett and no intention, however, of entering further his friends, who have held a meeting for the jatq this question than merely to give our purpose of raising a subscription to indemreaders a cursory view of our impressions re- nify him from the expenses of his prosecuspecting it.

ţion, and to support him while in confige

ment. In the Baronel's speech on täis ocPOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE.

casion at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, We are concerned to state, that the king's, where he presided, he represented Lord bealth has not improved su rapidly during Ellenborough's adherence to the customary the present month as was expecied, and that rules of the court, in preventing Mr. Finnerty during the last fortnight, he has rather lost from wandering from the point at issue into than gained ground. The alteration, how- the wide field of unsupported assertion, as ever, we understand to be extremely slight; an arbitrary and unauthorized violation of and that there is still every reason to look the liberty of the subject. This is in the forward at no distant period to his complete true spirit of Jacobinisin, whose object it is,

per fus et nefas, to degrade thc constituted au. Sir John Cradock is appointed governor, thorities of the state. and commander in chief at the Cape of

The selfish and mercenary spirit which Good Hope, in the room of Lord Caledon. actuales some of the journalists of the preMr. Farquhar is appointed governor of

sent day was curiously exemplified in an

other recent trial for a libel, wbich was pubnotice, issued by the directors of the lished in the newspaper called the Day. In bank, that dollars

, which have hitherto pass the course of the proceedings in this case, ed at 51, will in future be received at 55. 6d., it was given in evidence, that during the being a rise of 10 per ceut, though the former discussions which preceded the commitinent


the Isle of France.

of Sir F. Burdett to the Tower, a general dividnal might act from such a motive ; * meeting of the proprietors of this paper, (the that two or three individuals might combine whole number of whom is said to be three on such terms, but we could hardly have hundred) was held to determine what should imagined beforehand that a considerable be their line of conduct as to Sir. F. Burdett, body of men, some of them moving in reand it was resolved to adopt the popular side spectable lines of life, could have been found of the question ; not, as it would appear in this nietropolis who would unblushingly from a conviction that it was the side of avow to each other, at a public meeting, that truth and justice, but because such a course they meant to pursue a line of condaet, so was likely to increase the sale of the paper. little consonant to honesty and fair dealing, We could casily have supposed that an in- to say nothing of patriotism.


pleasure and delight in attending on public to the great grief of her parents

, died on worship, and at the Lord's table ; and though the 25th of October 1810, Jane Norton always fully employed, she generally conRayley, aged 23 years, daughter of the Rev. trived to devote some time for attending the Dr. Bayley of St. James's church, Manches. daily public prayers at the church. From tør. This amiable young person obtained, her earliest years she had heen remarkable in very early life, a deep acquaintance with for an affectionate and unreserved submisthe most important truths of Christianity.- sion to parental authority, and during her the necessity of repentance towards God, last tedious affliction, she evinced the most and faith in onr Lord Jesus Christ, of the exemplary patience; and suffered the paintfruits of the Spirit, and holiness of heart and ful sensations incident to it with such pious life. She also felt the power of them in resignation, that many of her acquaintances her own soul, and adorned them by an hum: were scarcely apprized of her illness, before ble and faithful conduct. Her modest, re they were astonished at her death: she died, tired, and unobtrusive turn of mind, tended as she lived, in the love of God. After reto conceal many of lier most valuable qua- ceiving thie holy sacrament from the bands lities. While others were seeking their hapi of her beloved father, and intimating the piness in worldly amusements, her delighit pieace and consolation which she enjoyed, was in devotional exercises, and in searching it might trily be said she fell asleep in Jesus : the Scriptures in the original tongues. with a smile expressive of the most exalted She was considered by those who knew her affection and delight directed towards het well, as a critic in Hebrew, and could read father, she gently reclined on her sister's the Greek Testament with ease and fluency. arw, and, apparently in a tranquil slumber; At all times she manifested a bigh regard expired almost imperceptibly. for divine ordinances, and had a peculiar


MANITA; OMMA; T. A. M.; THEOGNIS; and Anti-JULIANUS, are under consi

deration. We have received Tatil's letter, which we shall defer inserting, until he shall have an op:

portunity of considering Mr. Faber's paper in the present number. We were aware of the difficulties which T. W. R. has pointed out, as standing in the

way of the ordination of Missionaries by our Bishops. But what we complain of is, that the difficulties are not removed, even by a legislative provision, if that be neces: sary. Why could not men be ordained for foreign service, without deriving from such ordination any legal title to exercise their ministerial functions in the United

kingdom? H. N.; T. S.; H. T.; the account of the Spitalfields Benevolent Society; and An Execu

TOR, will appear. On the subject of T. Y'si two communications, we shall take the liberty of addressing

him privately. We do not conceive that the passage nuentioned by DisciřULUS, is liable to the misconi

ception which he supposes. We would advise A DISTRESSED READER to state her case to some pious Minister.


No. 112.]

APRIL, 1811.

[No. 4. Vol.x.



For the Christian Observer.

lish church of the honour which

some have assigned it, of an Apos. ON THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRIST1

tolic foundation, we may truly apANITY INTο GREAT BRITAIN, BY

propriate the words of an author*, THE PREACHING OF ST. PAUL. whom I shall hereafter have occaNimia et incerta vetustate obscuras, non a sion to quote: “ Our church has no coævis et antiquis scriptoribus, sed fallaci- necessity for surreptitious claims to bus conjectaris erutas rerum gentiumque distinction and antiquity. Tradia origines respuo: figmenta, ut ridiculus tionary honours are valuable, only suspiciones odi: denique onnis, nisi indu. when founded upon truth; which, bitatis atque incorruptis fulta documentis, facessat Historia.--BARTUOLINUS.

as Tertullian observes, neither the

lapse of time nor the influence of In perusing, some time since, a value authority can destroy." able work*, written by a most re

As it may be proper to exhibit a spectable minister, I was a little general view of the subject, I cannot surprised to meet with an unquali- do it better than in the words of fied assertion, that ... St. Paul first Bishop Gibsont; who, it will be planted the tree of life on our own perceived, espoused the affirmative shores, t." The same assertion, side.—~ Many have been the opithough somewhat restricted in its nions concerning the first plantation force, recurs in some of the subse of Christianity in Britain, and quent essays

great the differences of learned m Having been accustomed to consi- concerning them. The latter end der the fact as extremely doublful, of Tiberius Cæsar, i.e. about thirtyif not improbable, I was induced to

seven years after the nativity of our examine such sources of informa. Lord, is the time which several of tion as were within my reach (and our writers have fixed on (Stillingwhich, perhaps, include as many as fleet. Orig. Brit. p. 2.), upon the may be necessary), in order to ob- authority of a passage in Gildas, lain further satisfaction.

who was a Briton, and therefore to sult of my inquiry has been the

be credited in British affairs. "In. confirmation of my original opinion, the mean time, Christ, the true which I have found sanctioned by Sun, displaying his glorious rays the best authorities. To the con- upon the whole world, in the latter necting of these authorities, and the end of Tiberius Cæsar (as we are opposing of them to those on the assured), did first vouchsafe his rays contrary side, my remarks will be to this cold frozen island, situated chiefly confined. And although at so vast a distance from the visithey may tend to deprive the Eng. ble sun.' But, not to observe that Practical Essays on the Collects, &c.

this disagrees with the account By the Rev. T. T. Biddulph.

which Scripture gives us of the + Essay on the second Collect for Good

** M. De Chiniac. Collects for Whitsuoday and the Con.

+ Camden's Britannia, by Gibson. Introd. Fusion of St. Paul.

Christ. Obsery. No. 112.

The re


p. 84. 2d edit,

2 E

propagation of the Christian faith, bius it is made the bounds of the viz. that after the martyrdom of Gospel to the west.

From these St. Stephen, the disciples for some authorities (especially that of Cletime* preached the word to the mens Romanus) it follows, pot Jews only, and that Cornelius (six only that the Gospel was preached years after) is said to be the first in Britain in the times of the aposfruits of the Gentiles (before which tles, but that St. Paul himself was time, according to this supposition, the preacher of it. This is further there would be Gentile converts in confirmed by observing :—that from Britain);- not to observe this, the time of his being set at liberty, the above passage of Gildas has in the 5th year of Nero, to his rebeen evidently misunderstood, and turn to Rome, were eight years; misapplied. For he speaks of a which, the ancient writers of the double shining of the Gospel; one church generally agree, were spent more general to the world, in the in the western parts:--that, having latter end of Tiberius Cæsar; the taken his solemn leave of the eastern other more particular to this island, parts, and assured them, that at the time he is then speaking of, they should see his face no more,' about the middle of Nero's reign t. it cannot be supposed that 'he reSo that what he affirms concerning turned thither, but that he employthe first preaching of the Gospel, ed his time in planting the Gospel has been unduly applied to the par- elsewhere :--that Gildas saith, ibe ticular preaching of it in the island Gospel was here received before the of Britain. It is affirmed (Suillingfl. fatal defeat of the Britons by Sue Orig. Brit. p. 35), upon very good tonius Paulinus,' which was the seevidence, that a Christian church venth or eighth of Nero; i. c. the was planted in Britain, during the third or fourth of those eight years, times of the apostles. To this pure which, ancient writers say, St. Paul pose, it is alleged, that Eusebius spent in the western parts:--that. (Demon. Evan. l. iii. c. 7.) expressly the traditions about St. James, Sisays, that some of the apostles mon Zelotes, and Philip, as preachpassed over the ocean • to those ing the Gospel here, are all destiwhich are called the British isles:' tule both of ancient testimony, and

that Theodoret expressly of probability.”-Upon this long names the Britons among the na- quotation (which seems to compretions converted by the apostles; hend all that can be advanced in and saith elsewhere, that • St. Paul favour of the opinion in question), brought salvation to the islands I would be permitted to make three that lie in the ocean:'--that Cle- observations. mens Romanus saith, that St. Paul L Chronologers have differed so

preached righteousness through materially in the dates which they the wbole world, and, in so doing, have assigned to the various trans

went to the utmost bounds of the actions of St. Paul's life (the exwest:' which Britain was at that treme variation respecting that of time understood to be, and is there. his conversion, being nine years), fore called by Catullus, · Ultimam that but little force can be allowed occidentis insulam;' as by Arno. to Bishop Gibson's difficulty of dis- ,

posing of the eight years after Paul's Some think twelve years. In reference release at Rome. It is, however, to the first preaching of St. Paul at Antioch the opinion of Dr. Lardner (who (A. D. 43), Witsius, as quoted hy Dr. Lard quotes Basnage, Pagi, and Du Pia der, has the following passage. ... Hoc pri as holding the same) that the marmum exemplum est evangelii publice gentibus prædicati

. Nam alierum illud Corne tyrdom of St. Paul took place in the lii non nisi domesticum fuit." De Vita Paul. year 65 at the latest, and his liberaSect. 3. Num. 3.

tion in 63; which leaves little more 1 A. D. 641

than two years to be accounted for.


Bossuet and Du Fresnoy fix his when spoken of things future, does martyrdom in 66. Pearson, Percy, not (as it is used by St. Paul) alWitsias, and some others, in 68. ways signify a certain knowledge, But the largest space of time allow. or å prophetic certainty; but often ed between these two events, by means only thas much: I take it any (Baronius excepted, whose for granted: I am fully persuaded : chronology Stillingfleet chiefly fol. I foresee it highly provible: I have lows), is five years.

no other 'erpectation : and the like.' , II. This space we find thus ac- Besides Capellus and Wall, already counted for by Dr. Lardner*. "I alleged, I might refer to others, am apt to think that Paul came from who hesitate not at all to allow, that Rome to Jerusalem, as soon and as Paul came again into this country, directly as he could. But he made particularly Le Clerc, and L'Enfant, there a short stay only. From Ju- and Beausobre (upon Acts xx. 25), dea I think it likely that he went to and Pearson. Not now to mention Ephesus, and there left Timothy, any more." whom about two years before he Dr. Paley also, in arguing upon had sent for to come to him from this point, adduces the following Ephesus to Rome. From Ephesus, striking instance of the small weight Paul might go to Laodicea and Co- that attaches to the mode of exlosse. And possibly, he returned to pression here used by the apostle. Rome, by Troas, Philippi, and Co. - In the first chapter of the Epistle rinth. Some have hesitated to al. to the Philippians, and the twentylow, that St. Paul ever came again fifth verse, I know,' says St. Paul, into this country, because he says that I shall abide and continue (Acts. xx. 25), • And now, be- with you all, for your joy and furhold, I know, that ye all, among therance of faith. Notwithstanding whom I have gone preaching the this strong declaration, in the sekingdom of God, shall see my face cond chapter and twenty-third verse no more. But Lewis Capell has of this same epistle, and speaking well removed that difficulty. I also of the very same event, he is therefore have placed below, a part content to use a language of doubt of bis observationst. And says and uncertainty: Hiin, therefore, Wall (Notes upon the N.T. p. 255.) I hope to send presently, so soon spon the place: · Eyw olda, I know, as I shall see how it will go with me;

but I trust in the Lord that I also Hist. of the Apost. and Evang. Vol. ii. myself shall come shortly. And a P. 134. + " Sed respondere potest, Paulum non

few verses preceding these, he not semel ex hunana conjectura, atque ex hu- only seems to doubt of his safety, mano spiritu, concilio, et proposito, multa but almost to despair; to contemejusmodi cogitasse, putasse, proposuisse, ac plate the possibility at least of his dirisse. Quæ tamen postea, Deo ita dispo

condemnation and martyrdom: tente, aliter ceciderunt. Itaque mirum vi- · Yea, and if I be offered upon the deri non debet, si cum Spiritus Paulum oppi- sacrince and service of your faith, datin moneret vincula ei aflictiones graves I joy and rejoice with you all.'” manere eum Jerosolimise sentiretque se Horæ Paul. Chap. ii. spiritu ligatum, ut eo piliilominus profiscere.

Bishop Pearson has given us an tut, Desciens quænam essent illic ventura, apostolic Itinerary, nearly similar desperavit de reditu suo ad eos, quos post se relinquebat, licet Deo ita disponente...

to that of Dr. Lardner. We have, fa aliquot post annis ceciderit aliter, quam that St. Paul visited Judea, after his

however, no authority for supposing ipse tum credebat. Non est itaque tam validum adversus nos argumentum illud, liberation, since from the three ut to subvertatur sententia nostra de Pauli epistles written subsequently to that reditu in Oricnten, post soluta Romana ejus event, it does not appear that he vincula." Lud. Capel. Hist. Apost. illustrat. either proposed to himself, or had A 34.

accomplished such a design. "Upon

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