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at Nevers in 1763. He was some years a seaman, Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, with bat the opening of the Revolution found him a clerk directions for forming local circles in connection at Paris. He attached himself to Camille Des. | therewith, may be obtained from the secretary of moulins, and soon gained such popularity by his the institution at Plainfield, New Jersey. The extravagant sansculottism that he was appointed Chautauqua College of Liberal Arts' is another procurator of the commune of Paris. In his zeal he department of the work. A faculty of able prorejected his own Christian name, Pierre, as having fessors gives instruction by correspondence, and been sullied by saintly associations, and styled after rigid examinations the regular collegiate himself * Anaxagoras.' The institution of the degrees are conferred under charter from the state tribunal of the Revolution, the decree for a revolu- of New York. The Chautauquan, a magazine of tronary army, and the law against suspected large circulation, the organ and exponent of The aristocrats, were largely due to his efforts. One Chautauqua Idea,' is published at Meadville, Pa. of his proposals was that all Parisians should wear | See F. L. Armstrong's Chautauqua (Brattleboro, sabota, another that the Tuileries and Luxembourg | 1886). mandens should be planted with potatoes. His Lake Chautauqua is a beautiful sheet of water antics in connection with the worship of reason' about 20 miles long, with an average breadth of excited the disgust of Robespierre, who devised 2 miles, lying about 700 feet above Lake Erie, from measures for bringing the whole company of actors which it is distant 10 miles. The Chautauqua under Hebert to the scaffold. He was executed | Assembly Grounds, situated upon the northern April 13, 1794
shore of the lake, comprise about 165 acres, con. Chanmont, a town in the French department taining over 500 attractive summer cottages, a fine of Haute-Marne, on an elevation (1023 feet above hotel, a museum of archæology, an amphitheatre sea-level) between the rivers Marne and Suize, 140 with a seating capacity of over 5000, several halls miles SE of Paris. There are manufactures of for meetings, and numerous other appliances for gloves, cutlery, &c. In 1814 the allied powers combining recreation with instruction. Large bere bound themselves by treaty against Napoleon. numbers of students and visitors congregate here in Pop. (1872) 8474; (1886) 12,333.
the summer season. “Chautauquas,' more or less Chauny, a town in the French department of
on the plan of the original, with buildings, lectures, Aisne, 77 miles NNE. of Paris by rail, partly
&c., have been established in various parts of the
United States. on the navigable river Oise. It is an old, rather uninteresting place, with manufactures of glass,
Chauvinisme, a term that has come to mean beetroot sugar, gloves, &c. Pop. 8847.
an extravagant and absurd patriotism and pride in Chausses, in the armour of the middle ages,
one's own country, with a corresponding enmity to.
wards and contempt for foreign nations. It is the from the 12th to the 16th century, were defence
French equivalent for the Jingoism of the London pieces for the legs. Some were made of padded
music-halls after Lord Beaconsfield's return from and quilted cloth, with metal studs; some of chain.
the Congress of Berlin in 1878. The origin of the mail: and some of riveted plates. It was not
word is due to Chauvin, the name of a figure in the angsunl to fasten them by lacing either below the
comedy La Cocarde tricolore (1831), by the brothers knee or behind the leg. The word is used also
Théodore and Hippolyte Cognard, the action in n the general sense of hose, and when armour is
which includes the conquest of Algeria. Chauvin runt in the Norman romances the phrase is
is a young recruit who speaks much, displays great chaures de for.
courage, and sings several couplets with the reChautauqua, a celebrated summer-resort on frain : J'suis Français, j'suis Chauvin, j'tape sur ("sutauqua Lake, in a county of the same name le Bédouin.' The authors of the comedy, however, be the south-west extremity of Copyright 1889 in C.s. | borrowed the name from that of Nicolas Chauvin, the state of New York, is famous by J. B. Lippincott an old soldier of Napoleon. well known in his time as the seat of the Chautauqua Company.
in Paris for his devoted enthusiasm for the Assembly, founded in 1874 by John H. V'incent,
emperor. Calrin is a Latinised form of the same DI)., and Lewis Miller, to provide systematic
family name. Instruction for Sunday-school teachers, together
Chanx de Fonds, a town of Switzerland, in mth popular lecture courses in literature, science,
the canton of Neuchâtel, 18 miles by rail VW. and art. In 1878 the Chautauqua Literary and
of the city of that name. It is situated in a bleak Sarntific ('ircle was organised. The distinctive
valley, at an elevation of 3254 feet above the sea, D ion of this cirele' is stated to be * to direct the
and is scattered over a large area, almost every roulang habits of grown people, both those who
cottage being surrounded by a garden. It has for have received the best that the educational institu
two centuries been one of the chief seats of the uns can give, and desire to pursue an “after.
manufacture of watches in the canton. The whool" course, and those who for any reason
mechanists work chiefly at home, each devoting tuuled to receive a college education in early life,
himself to a particular portion of machinery. Pop. at who now desire to secure to themselves the
(1834) 6500; (1880) 22,456. llege student's general outlook upon the world al life, and to develop the habit of close con
Chay Root, CHOYA, or SAYAN (Oldenlandia berte persistent thinking.' The system compre
umbellata), a perennial herb of the order ('in. bends & four years' course of home reading and
chonacer, cultivated on the (oromandel coast and tady, to be parsued under the advisory supervision
in Java for the sake of its long, orange-coloured the officers of the institution, on the completion
roots, the bark of which affords a beautiful red dye. of which diplomas are awarded. Post-graduate
It is the Indian madder. and special courses are also provided for those who Chazars were a people of the Finnic stock deature to prosecnte particular branches of study known in the 7th century on the shores of the beyond the limits laid down in the regular course. ('aspian ; in the 9th century their kingdom occu
e the tenth anniversary of the Circle's organisa. | pied the south-east of Russia from the Caspian then, it was stated that about 200.000 persons, I and the Volga to the Dnieper. Their capital was attered through all parts of the world, belonged long at Astrakhan, called by them Balandshar.
the association ; most of them are members of They were singularly tolerant of all religions, al direly
in accordance with the general Jewish, Christian, and Moslem ; and a large part in the more efficient prosecu. ! of the nation formally adopted the Jewish faith
Particulars concerning the i from Jews who fled from the persecutions of the 140
Emperor Leo. Cyril converted many to Chris. only be explained in the light of a knowledge of tianity in the 9th century. The power of the science, chiefly chemistry. Cheeses may be roughly Chazars was ultimately broken in the 12th century divided into two great classes-hard and soft. by the Byzantine emperors and the Russians. The various English, Scotch, and American cheeses Chazy Epoch, the name given by American
belong to the first class, and are made so that they geologists to that division of Silurian time during
will generally keep for months, and often continue which the Chazy limestone of New York, Canada,
to improve in quality. Soft cheeses are those which &c. was formed.
prevail in some parts of the Continent. Many of
them require to be consumed immediately after they Cheadle, a market-town in the moorland dis
are manufactured. Their rapid decomposition is trict of Staffordshire, 14 miles NNE. of Stafford.
associated with a strong and to most people an obLying in a pleasant vale, engirt by wooded hills, it ljectionable smell. Cheese is made from the solids has a parish church, rebuilt in 1837-38, and a
of milk-viz. the casein or chief albuminoid conRoman Catholic Church, erected in 1846 from
stituent, along with the greater part of the cream or designs by Pugin, at a cost of £60,000. Pop. of
butter-fat, and much of the mineral ash. In fresh parish (1881) 4724.
milk, which is slightly alkaline, these substances Cheating. In the technical language of the maintain a sort of indescribable union with the English law, cheating means the offence of fraudu-watery portion and the milk-sugar—the whole, as lently obtaining the property of another by any is well known, being liquid. The presence of an deceitful or illegal practice short of felony, but in acid, or of Rennet (q.v.), counteracts the natural such a way that the public interest may possibly affinity of the substances for each other, and the be affected. In order to constitute cheating, the bulk of the solids separate out, forming a soft jelly fraud must be of such a kind that it could not in the early stages, leaving the bulk of the water be guarded against by common prudence. Cheat containing the sugar as a greenish liquid called ing, in this sense, is an offence at common law, and Whey (q.v.). The chemical processes involved are indictable, which is not the case with imposition in as yet only very imperfectly understood. a private transaction. The law of Scotland has no Milk in decomposing, as it rapidly does in hot and such distinction. The following are instances of sultry weather, becomes sour in virtue of a natural cheating : Selling by a false weight or measure process of fermentation. Rennet induces another (which is also a statutory offence under the Weights form of fermentation which does not end when the and Measures Act, 1878); selling unwholesome product ceases to be milk, but is carried on in the bread as if it were wholesome. Cheating seems, | cheese during the period of its ripening or mellow. therefore, to be distinguished from obtaining pro ing. In the early stages of the process of hard perty or credit on false pretences by the absence of cheese-making, the incipient acidity which induces any definite false statement. Cheating is also that condition in milk termed . ripeness,' aids and technically used in connection with frauds at play hastens the action of the rennet. As the work prowith cards or dice, but is popularly applied to almost ceeds, and the acidity intensifies, it hardens and every form of fraud. In Scots law, cheating is contracts the curd, giving it a leathery character, generally prosecuted under the name of falsehood, thereby aiding in the expulsion of the whey. One fraud, and wilful imposition, and has by one | of the most important matters in cheese-making is authority been called practical cheating, as distin to watch the development of acidity both in the guished from those cases in which a spoken or | milk and its first product, the curd. If this is written false pretence occurs. See FRAUD, FALSE allowed to go too far, the quality of the cheese PRETENCES.
is seriously injured, and its keeping power is Checkerberry. See WINTERGREEN.
reduced. It cracks through becoming too dry Checquy, or CHECKY, in Heraldry, a term
and brittle. The delicate flavouring oils seem applied to a field or charge divided into small
to be expelled, and the smell becomes high and squares by trans
the taste 'acrid' or 'biting. The formation verse perpendicu
of the acid is one of the great helps in cheeselar and horizontal
making so long as it is kept in due control. If lines. Checquy or
the acid develops rapidly, as in hot weather, in a and azure is the
temperature which suits the germs producing it, coat of Vermandois
the whole process of manufacture has to be pushed in France, and of
on quickly, whereas in cold weather acidity comes Warren, Earl of
slowly, and the operator must wait until it has Surrey, in Eng.
come sufficiently. There are several methods land. The well
| adopted in inducing acidity. Acid used to be Checquy. Fess Checquy. known coat of the
largely added, as sour whey or buttermilk, but Scottish family of
greater uniformity is got by delaying until natural Stewart, or, a fess checquy azure and argent, is
acidity develops. This it does most quickly when allusive to the checkers of the Steward's board, by
the temperature of the material is kept up near
| to blood heat. Chilly draughts paralyse the active which money computations were in old times made.
organisms producing acidity. Cheddar, a village in Somersetshire, on the
Heat is communicated to milk or to its products south side of the Mendip Hills, 21 miles SSW. of
| in the early stages of cheese-making by two Bristol by rail. It lies at the entrance of a deep methods-either by warming a portion of the milk rocky gorge, nearly 1 mile long, whose stupendous
| or whey (though not allowing it to rise much above limestone cliffs contain caverns-one 300 feet long
long | 100° F.-say a limit of 150° F.-as to boil it would
100 — filled with fantastic stalactites and stalagmites.
| do injury by changing its constitution), and For the famous Cheddar cheese, originally made
putting it into the main bulk, or by having an here, see CHEESE. Pop. of parish (1881) 2366.
outer shell of wood to the tin or iron cheese-tab, Chedu'ba (or Man-aung), a well-wooded island with a space between into which steam or hot water of Arakan, in the Bay of Bengal, with an area of
can be injected. This arrangement possesses the 240 sq. m., and a pop. (1881) of 23,867. The soil is
additional advantage of being clean and of saving fertile, rice and tobacco being the chief crops; and labour, although the cost of the apparatus is petroleum is found in several localities.
greater. When the temperature of the evening's Cheese is a highly nutritious food substance milk requires to be reduced to insure its keeping made from milk by elaborate processes which can overnight, as is weather, cold water can be
employed in the same manner as hot water or The curd is finally packed into a 'chesset' or
press vat, which has as a temporary lining a cloth It would be misleading to fix definite tempera of open texture called a 'cheese-cloth.' The vat, tures or assume definite rules of any kind in speak. which is a strong wooden or tinned-iron vessel ing of the broad principles and practices of British with perforations in the sides and bottom to allow cheese-making, because there are so many systems of the escape of any little surplus moisture, is which differ materially in important particulars. placed in a press, and the cheese subjected gradu
A thermometer should be used at all times and ally to a pressure of about one ton. The curd in all systems. The old method of testing by the soon assumes the form in which it is to remain as han hardly now exists, and certainly not among a cheese. For a few days the cloths are taken off pun cheesemakers. The ordinary temperatures at regularly and changed; the cheese being turned which milk is set or steeped vary with the system over each time to make it keep its shape. Ripening alopted and the temperature of the atmosphere is the next process of importance. Deep cheeses are from so to 90', more or less, is the nearest indica bandaged, and some are covered with cotton cloths Ders that it is safe to make. High temperatures (caps) made to fit tightly. They are then placed are used in making deep cheeses, such as Cheddars ; in the curing or ripening room, which should be low temperatures in making shallow cheeses, as the dry, well ventilated, and maintained at an even old-fashioned Dunlops. The Gloucester is a well temperature of about 70° F. There the green indi. known variety set at a temperature nearer to 80° gestible and insipid curd changes naturally into than 90° F. By setting at too high a temperature the sweet, mellow, nutty, and full-flavoured protbe curd gets hard and tough, though it needs a duct cheese, which, if taken in moderation, and considerable amount of consistency if it is to retain especially towards the end of a meal, is an aid a symmetrical form in a deep cheese. If worked to digestion. The ripening process, which is ton cold, the curd is soft and the whey difficult to also associated with drying and shrinkage of get out of it, the processes of rennet fermentation about 10 per cent. in weight, varies in length and acid fermentation do not go on sufficiently, and from a few weeks to a few months. Acid cheeses their work is imperfect. In all cases the greatest are soon ready for market, and spoil if kept for regularity in method should be maintained from a long time. Sweet cheeses are slow in maturday to day.
ing, and continue to improve even if kept for After beating, the colouring matter (now almost years. The tendency in cheese-making both in mvanably Annatto, q.v.) is put in. This is not Great Britain and in America has recently been to considered an adulteration, as it is innocuous. early maturity, the strong inducement being that Is in no way improves the quality of the cheese, of early returns. the effect being only upon the colour. All cheeses The Cheddar system of cheese-making, which are not coloured, though the practice is widespread. first originated in Somersetshire, is, if we embrace Rennet is put in about the same time, and after Great Britain, Canada, and the l'nited States of thorough stirring for the purpose of mixing these America, the most widely practised system of all. added ingrelients, as well as for keeping down the The old methods have been much altered in recent creann, it is left for 40 or 60 minutes.
times to suit the tendency in the market for early Breaking the curd to let out the whey is the next maturity. The following is an account of the process Networks of thin wire, or series of thin system as now practised, with improvements sug. knives, are passed through it in various directions gested by American and Canadian experience. with great caution, to prevent the curd substance. The cream is removed from the evening's milk being carried off with the whey, which would give after standing overnight, and is only returned to it a white rather than its natural green hue. As the the full bulk immediately before putting in the rund hardens it is more quickly worked and finally rennet; the object is to prevent the cream being broken into small particles, so as to allow the whey made oily by heating to a high temperature. The in ecape. The expulsion of the latter is helped rennet is added at a temperature ranging from 8:9 on by the contraction of the curd, due to the to 88° F., but the milk is heated a few degrees gradual increase of acidity. Acidity develops above the point fixed upon for steeping, and left to naturally if time is allowed, but it is judicious to ripen. The temperature falls to the required point hasten it by the addition of warm whey during the meanwhile. The higher range of temperature is procre of working. Another method of bringing adopted when the milk is sweet and recently about the necessary amount of acidity is to expose drawn from the cow. Low temperatures suit old the card to the air for a time before it is salted milk or warm weather. If the cheese is to be Salt, besides giving a flavour, stops the action of marketed within twenty days, enough rennet the acidity in cheese after it has done its work should be added to induce the initial stages of of expelling the whey. If allowed to go on, the coagulation within eight to twelve minutes. After acidity would destroy the cheese by curtailing the this it should be left for twelve to eighteen ripening action of rennet. Excess of salt retards minutes, then breaking begins with the perpen. the laster process.
dicular and horizontal cutting knives. It is stirred After the card has been broken thoroughly, on I for about fifteen minutes with a hand-rake. and bring allowed to settle so as to drain off the whey, the temperature afterwards raised to 96-98 F.,
adheres together into an india-rubber-like mass; or even by some up to 102 F. The whole is allowed the is cut and broken up into small pieces by its to settle and remain nearly an hour to 'cook'the p age throngh a curd-mill.' The finest quality curd. As soon as the latter is elastic enough for
dairy salt should be used; the crystals being the particles to retain their independent shapes on large is an indication of its purity, especially from being grasped and squeezed by hand, the bulk of
ezia salts, which give a bitter taste and other. the whey is run off. What remains and the curd, Wine injure all dairy products. The quantity em still in small pieces, are removed bodily from the
ed is, more or less, about 1 lb. of salt to 36 lb. steep-tub or vat, and placed in a flat cooler & cani dry enough to be made up and put into the with an inner movable, sparred, false bottom, to desse press Its amount should vary with the secure drainage. The vessel is lined with a cheese begree of acidity and the amount of moisture cloth. On this the curd is exposed to the air and ant. In some cases salt is applied wholly or in well worked by hand, so as to press out the whey
dry, or as a brine, to the outside of the cheese and keep the particles from adhering to one another ter is has been so far pressed. In very rare cases at too early a stage. After being well worked and brat into the milk before coagulation. I exposed it is left to run together, being covered up
to preserve heat. It is subsequently cut, piled, made Cheddar, Cheshire, and other popular kinds and left covered with a cloth for perhaps half an | The system practised in American factories is hour. The curd then smells and tastes slightly an improved Cheddar process, and prominent acid. It is either milled or put through Harris's | English experts have at times referred to the stamp lever breaker, which cuts it into pieces like American system as being worthy of imitation in fingers. It is subsequently weighed, and should | English dairies. Under the prevailing system the amount to fully 1 lb. to the gallon of milk, and is manufacture of cheese in America (the United again exposed to the air to get quit of taints, and States and Canada) increased more than 100 per to toughen before salting, which should be done cent., as the following figures will show : when a velvety feeling is noticeable. The salt is
United States added dry at three separate times, and well mixed. Product of CheeseThe curd is then left to cool down to about 70° F. In 1860...........
# before being put into the vat. Pressure for about
6,000.00 IS h 1880.....
199,022,984 · 15,000,000 two and a half days is followed by ripening or
Number of Factoriesseasoning. The whole operation of making up the
In 1851..... curd may be over in five hours, or may take six or # 1800.....
37 seven hours, according to circumstances. A good
501 Cheddar cheese contains when ripe about 28 per
105 cent. of casein, and nearly 34 per cent. both of
Exports of Cheesebutter and of moisture.
10,000 lb. Cheshire Cheeses are manufactured in Cheshire,
15,000,000 # Staffordshire, and Shropshire. In their deep shape # 1860...
23,159,891. ($600,000's worth and also in many details of their working they
imported from t.8) resemble Cheddars. Setting is done in a square
# 1870........... .... 49,755,842 lb. 12,000,000 lb
# 1880....... ...... 120,584,981 40,000,000 covered vat, and after making up they are often put into an oven to cook for a night before going to Since 1880 up to 1888 the manufacture and press. In the latter they remain for nearly a week. export of cheese from the United States has Derbyshire Cheeses are steeped and worked in a fallen off, but that from Canada has increased manner which closely corresponds to the Cheshire | The decrease in exports from the United States system. The salt, however, is applied externally. has been due to the too prevalent adulteration Gloucester Cheeses are made by a sweet process of cheese with oleo-margarine and land oils, very much the same as the Derbyshire process. through which the quality has fallen off and an Double and Single Gloucesters are identical, with unfavourable reputation has been acquired, while the exception of the thickness and the consequent Canadian cheese has been kept pure. In 1879 rate at which they ripen. After a time they are Canadian cheese carried off the Sweepstakes prize scraped clean and painted with Spanish brown. at the International Exhibition held in New York Leicester Cheeses are small and flat, and made by against the competition of both United States and a sweet process. They are at first lightly salted, English cheese. Since 1880 Canadian cheese of the but salt continues to be added externally. They | best autumn makes has sold in England for more take a long time to mature.
than the average English Cheddar. Stilton Cheeses are made mostly in Leicester. The American system of cheese-making has been They used to be double cream cheeses, but are now reduced by improved mechanism and association in successfully made of the milk as it comes from the the form of the factory method to the most ecocow. The curd is not subjected to pressure like nomical point. This method of manufacture was a that used in making the previously mentioned growth by necessity rather than a discovery. A forms. While on the shelves ripening it is sup- large dairy was divided by the death of the owner, ported by a bandage, and during that time the who left three sons. The sons united and manucharacteristic blue mould should form throughout factured their milk at the old dairy, and in time its substance.
neighbours joined, and the first factory was estab Gruyère Cheese, made in the canton of Fribourg, | lished in 1851 under the management of the oldest Switzerland, is a whole-milk cheese, as are also the of the three brothers. In course of time the basi. Dutch cheeses of Gouda and Edam. The fancy ness increased and became reduced to a most cheeses of the Continent, as Camembert, Brie, Roque economical basis, while by the employment of fort, Limburg, Gorgonzola, &c., command a high skilful operatives the quality of the product was retail price in Britain because of their perishable gradually raised. The factories were gradually nature and because their consumption is restricted enlarged until the milk of 1200 cows could be to a limited and wealthy class. "Imitations have worked up in the largest, and an average factory been made, but of a spurious and imperfect kind, received the milk of about 400 cows. One Canaowing to the impossibility of securing the secrets dian factory makes 216,000 lb. of cheese yearly of their manufacture. The broad facts are known, from the milk of 1300 cows. but not the details. For example, it is quite The curing occupies about three months, the understood that some soft cheeses are made by temperature of the curing-room being kept at 65° F. mixing old and new curd together. The quality of Gang presses are used, in which a large number of the natural pastures also affects some, notably the cheeses laid on their sides are pressed at once by Parmesan cheeses from northern Italy. See the turning one screw. A common test by which the works on dairying named at BUTTER; and Harris's ripeness of the curd for pressure is determined is Cheese and Butter Maker's Handbook (1885). by touching it with a hot iron, and when long
AMERICAN CHEESE AND CHEESE-MAKING.-- The strings are drawn from the curd by the iron, the art of cheese-making in America has undergone curd is ripe. a radical change. Previous to the Copyright 1999 in Us! Milk is brought to the factory twice daily, and introduction of the factory system by J. B. Lippincott is weighed and run into the vat from the delivery American cheese was pungent in Company.
window. The milk is either bought by the factory, flavour and decomposed rapidly. Consequently or is worked up at a stated charge, or the factory American cheese was not popular in foreign mar is managed on the co-operative plan in which the kets, and met with a very restricted sale. Since the net proceeds are divided periodically. Under this factory system has been brought to a high condition factory system the quality of the cheese is uniform of excellence, American cheese competes favour. and as high as is secured in any well-managed ably, in even the English market, with the home private dairy. About one-fifth of the cheese pro
duced in America is made in private dairies in times infested. Of these the most notable are the which the same system prevails.
larvæ of the Bacon Beetle (see DERMESTES), and There are several other kinds of cheese made in of another species of dipterous fly, Musca corvina. both factories and private dairies, as Edam (the round Cheese-mite (Tyroglyphus siro), familiar on Dutch cheese), a small cylindrical cheese similar to old dry cheese. It is a true Mite, and belongs the English Wiltshire, weighing 10 to 14 lb.; a flat to the division without special breathing organs. cheese called English dairy cheese, similar to the The body is rounded behind, conical in front, double Gloucester cheese and coloured as highly; a with a well-marked groove between the second few Stilton cheese ; cream cheeses for iminediate and third pairs of legs, and with relatively long use; and very good imitations of the European smooth hairs. The male differs slightly from Limburger, Schweizer, Neufchatel, Brié, Gouda, the female, for instance in the possession of two Camembert; and some other fancy makes to supply posterior suctorial pits. The larvæ have only three the French, German, and other immigrant popula- pairs of legs, and pass through an immature eight
| legged nymph' stage before becoming like the The cows used in the cheese dairies in the adults. The cheese-mite is not confined to cheese, I'muted States and Canada are mostly 'grade' but attacks dried fruits and the like. See ACARINA shorthorns, or native cows improved by crosses of (with cut), ARACHNIDA, MITE; also Michael, barthorn, Devon, Ayrshire, and Dutch breeds. Journ. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 1884, 1885. Jerver and Guernsey cows, and the best of the Cheetah, or HUNTING LEOPARD (Felis jubata begter bred animals, are used for the highest class
| or Cynailurus jubatus), an animal of the feline of cherse of the fancy kinds. The profitable ex. family, distinguished by its longer and narrower plesitatuin of the dairy in America has raised the value of lands suitable for grazing cows to an average value of nearly $100 (£20) per acre for the lee simple, which is twice as much as that of gain farms. The cheese-dairy business prevails mostly in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Iowa, and Wisconsin, and in the province of Ontario, Canada. The cows are chiefly fed upon pastorage aided in the latter part of the summer by siling crops, of which maize is almost uni. versally chiefly depended upon. The cheese-making reason begins in April and continues until November. See X. A. Willard's Practical Dairy Husbandry (1875), L. B. Arnold's American Dairying 1570), and Henry Stewart's American Dairyman's Janual.
(HEESE-PRESS.—The most common form is the rrer press. A powerful steel coil or spring is wortimes substituted for the lever. In large
Cheetah tartories the gang press is employed to press a Large number of cheeses at one time by means of a feet and less completely retractile claws, which are puwerful horizontal screw. The old method was also more blunt and less curved. It also differs be placing a heavy stone (hence the name stoning from other Felidae in certain dental characterscheese) on the lid of the chesset, or by hanging it e.g. of the upper sectorial tooth. With these pecu. by a ring fixed to its upper side from the end of a liarities are associated a greater length of limb wooden beam which acted as a lever and passed | than is usual in feline animals, and the habit of over the lid of the cheese-press vat.
taking its prey by running rather than by leaping. Cheese-hopper, the larva of Piophila casei,
The cheetah is in size about equal to a leopard, but * small dipterous (two-winged) fly, of the large
the body and limbs are longer. The colour is yelfamly Muscidæ, to which the house-fly, blow-fly, lowish brown, with black and brown spots. It is &r. belong. The perfect insect is about a line and
very widely distributed, being found in Senegal, a half in length, mostly of a shining black colour;
South Africa, Persia, India, Sumatra, &c. Its geountenna, forehead, and some parts of the legs red.
graphic range extends from the Cape of Good Hope hat. It is a pest of dairies and store-closets, lay.
as far north as the Caspian Sea and the steppes of ing its eggs in cracks or crevices of cheese, the
the Kirghiz Tartars. The African form is somedestined food of its numerous, active, and voracious
times distinguished as C. guttatus, but the differlarva. To preserve cheeses from this pest. it is of ences are trivial. The animal has been long domes. advantage to brush or rub them frequently, and to
ticated and employed in the chase, both in Persia, where it is called Youze, and in India. Deer and antelopes are the game principally hunted, and packs of cheetah are kept for this purpose by Indian princes. The head of the cheetah is kept covered with a leather hood till within 200 yards of the game. When the hood is taken off, the cheetah stealthily creeps towards the herd, taking advan. tage of every bush and inequality for concealment, till, on their showing alarm, he is amongst them at a few bounds, and striking down his victim with a
blow of his paw, instantly tears open its throat, Cheese-hopper :
and begins to suck the blood. It is then somewhat em satural siar: 1, larva, magnified, preparing to spring; difficult to withdraw him from his prey, which is perfect insect, natural size; d, magnified.
generally done by offering him meat. If unsuccess.
ful, the cheetah does not attempt to follow the herd are all cracked or injured cheeses from large by running-nor does this animal seem to possess ure, besides keeping them dry and in a well-aired the power of maintaining speed through a lengthlass The same rules are applicable in regard to ened chase, but slowly, and as if ashamed, creeps
other in eet larvae by which cheeses are some back to the hunters. In a domesticated state it is