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into flint and flinty slate. Its colours are gray, and the whole body, before and behind, and on white, red, yellow, green, or brown. The name the hands and wings, as well as the wheels of ("hert is sometimes limited to the finer varieties, their chariot, is spangled with innumerable eyes. and the corner are called Hornstone. - The name in the Revelation, four cherubim, covered with Chert is very commonly given to the siliceous con- eyes, and having six wings, surround the throne cretions which occur as nodules and layers in lime- of Jehovah ; the first has the face of a lion, the stone rocks, much in the same way as flints in the second of an ox, the third of a man, and the fourth chalk. When these materials exist to such an of an eagle. As the Gospel is a unity, but fourextent as to render the limestone useless for eco. fold, the four elements of the cherub came to be nomical purposes, it is said to be 'cherty.

divided among the four evangelists, the human

countenance being the symbol of Matthew, the Chertsey, a town in Surrey, near the right

lion of Mark, the ox of Luke, and the eagle bank of the Thames, here crossed by a seven-arch

of John. Most Jewish writers and Christian bridge (1785), 21 miles WSW. of London. It is

Fathers conceived the cherubim as angels ; and irregularly built, chietly consisting of two long

Dionysius the Areopagite, in his Celestial Cums streets, and is surrounded by villas. The

Hierarchy, makes them a separate class in the chief trade is in malt and flour. Many vegetables

first hierarchy. Most theologians also considered are raised for the London market. Chertsey arose

them as angels, until Michaelis showed them i in a monastery founded in 666, and refounded in

to be a poetical creation. Herder, in his Spirit 64 by Edgar for Benedictine monks. Charles

of Hebrew Poetry, compared them to the griffins James Fox lived on St Anne's Hill, an abrupt

that watch treasures and other fabulous figures. elevation about a mile from the town; and the In

In Christian art they are generally represented pot Cowley spent the closing years of his life in

as sexless figures, with wings from the shoulders, berts, in a house that is marked with an inscrip

the legs also being either covered by wings, or ton Pop. of parish (1861) 6589; (1881) 9215.

having wings substituted for them. Very often Cherub (Heb. k'rübh), in the plural Cherubim they have also an aureole round the head. or Cherubs, is the Hebrew name of a winged Cherubini, MARIA LUIGI CARLO ZENOBIO creature with a human countenance, which in the SALVATORE, an eminent composer, was born at Snaptures is almost always represented in con- Florence on the 8th or the 14th September 1760, bretion with Jehovah, and especially as drawing the tenth of a family of twelve children. He began his chariot-throne. In Scripture the cherubim to study music at the age of six, under his father,

o be quite distinct from the angels, who and at nine was sent to the academy of Bartolommeo arv Jehovah's messengers, while the cherubim are Felici. Church works to the number of seventeen found where God himself is personally present, proceeded from his juvenile pen at this period, anul are the living bearers of God manifesting and were mostly actually performed in Florentine himself in his glory on the earth. It is possible churches. In 1778 he went to Bologna and studied to trace a development both of their form and under the famous Sarti for four years, removing thrir significance. While they are always con with him in 1779 to Milan; here he was grounded relved as living creatures, their perfectly free in the old Italian contrapuntal style, and also frepower of movement seems to suggest a connec. quently assisted his master in writing minor parts

na with the thunder-clouds which reveal to the of operas. In 1780 his own first opera, Quinto

wurld the majesty of God. In the 18th Psalm Fabio, was produced at Alessandria, and for the it is said Jehovah rode upon a cherub, and did next fourteen years a succession of dramatic works

1: yes, he flew swiftly upon the wings of the followed. In 1784 he was invited to London, and nndand elsewhere the clouds are called the held the post of composer to the king for one year. chant of Jehovah. To the Hebrew idea of the In 1785 he visited Paris, and after another short cherub (in this aspect of it) is allied the Indian visit to Turin, returned in 1788 to Paris, which eigerption of the bird Garuda, the swift bearer remained thenceforth his home. 'p to this period of Vimhnu, and the swift-winged four.footed bird | his operas had been in the light Neapolitan style which in Eschylus carries Oceanus through the of Paisiello or Cimarosa; they are now forgotten. ether, as well as the (later) Greek and Roman But after his arrival in Paris a change becomes representations of the griffins bearing Apollo or gradually apparent, contemporaneously with and Artemis. According to Sayce, the word is prob- in the same direction as the development of the ably connected with the Assyrian kirubu, the style of Mozart in Figaro and Don Gioranni, asme denoting the winged bull which guarded | Cherubini, however, had no opportunity of hearing the house from the entrance of evil spirits, and these works at this time, and advanced quite at the same time with kurubu, the circling' bird , independently on the same path. This change is -ie, according to Franz Delitzsch, the vulture. I already distinguishable in his first Parisian opera, Phoniria took the idea from Babylonia, and 'Demophon, given in 1788, but is more distinctly the two cherubs made for Solomon (1 Kings vi. developed in Ludoiska, which was received in 1791 23- ) were wrought by Phonician artificers. with astonishment and admiration. Subsequent (herubin are mentioned in the Old Testament works were Elise (1794), Jedée (1797), Les deux

guards of Paraulise ; a cherub with a flaming Journées (or The Water-carrier,' 1800), his operatic sword hindered the return of the expelled human masterpiece, and Anacreon (1803). His lofty pour In the Holy of Holies cherubim wrought unbending manner, however, had excited a prei embossed metal were represented above the judice against him in the mind of Napoleon. He

rrey-seat, or covering of the Ark of the Cove. I visited Vienna in 1803, and made the acquaintnant, so that they appeared to rise out of it.ance of Haydn, Beethoven, and Hummel." Two Figures of cherubim were also wrought into the ' of his operas were produced there; but the war bayings of the Holy of Holies. The cherubim between Austria and Napoleon cut short his stay, thas appear in the visions of Ezekiel and the and he returned to France dispirited. In 1808, Revelation of John depart much from the early on a casual visit to Belgium, he entered on a representations. In Ezekiel they have the body, third period of musical activity with the composid. man, whose head, besides a human counten. i tion of the first of his great church works, the enre, las also that of a lion, an ox, and an engle ; : Mass in F. In December 1814 Louis XVIII. made they are provided with four wings, two of which him a knight of the Legion of Honour. Next year serve to fly, while the other two cover the body; he paid a short visit to England which left a bad for human hands and arms are under the wings, effect on his health. Shortly after, he succeeded 160



to the post of maître-de-chapelle to King Louis. odorata of the older botanists), a native of the south The list of his works from this period comprises of Europe and of some parts of Asia, common in a Mass in C (1816), and Requiems in C and D the neighbourhood of houses in Britain, although (1817 and 1836), all of the highest rank, besides probably not a true native, is frequently cultivated numerous other church pieces, and six string in Germany under the name of Spanish or Anise quartets. In 1822 he became director of the Con Chervil. In Scotland the plant is popularly called servatoire of Paris, which his energetic adminis. Myrrh. Its smell is considered attractive to bees ; trative talent soon raised to the greatness it still and the insides of empty hives are sometimes preserves. His work on counterpoint and fugue rubbed with its leaves, to induce swarms to enter. appeared in 1835, and remains a standard book. - The species of Chærophyllum, coarse weeds, are His severe rule over the institution continued till also called chervil. 1842, when, after only a month's retirement, he Cherwell, a stream falling into the Isis or died on 15th March. The universal feeling in Thames near Oxford (q.v.). musical Europe at the time was that its foremost Chesapeake Bay, in Maryland and Virginia, figure was gone. Though the greater part of his

and dividing the former state into two parts, is the career was run in Paris, and the most famous

largest inlet on the Atlantic coast of the United French operatic composers of the early part of the

States, being 200 miles long, and from 4 to 40 century, Boieldien, Auber, Halévy, &c., came

broad. Its entrance, 12 miles wide, has on the under his instructions, he has not permanently

north Cape Charles, and on the south Cape Henry, influenced the French school ; his music lives and

both promontories being in Virginia. The bay has preserves a strong hold rather in Germany, with

numerous arms, which receive many navigable the musicians of which he has more affinity. His

rivers, such as the Susquehanna on the north, the style has been aptly called that of effect, the

Potomac, Rappahannock, and York on the west, means employed being unusual harmonic and

and the James on the south-west. Unlike the orchestral combinations, the agreement of the

shallow sounds towards the south, this network of music with the dramatic situation, and a remark

gulfs and estuaries, with its noble feeders, affords able architectural structure in point of form. He

depth of water for ships of any burden, virtually is always careful, however, to keep within ortho

carrying the ocean up to the wharves of Baltimore dox limits. As already indicated, his operas have

and the arsenals of Washington.-For the Chesanumerous parallels with those of Mozart, but along

peake and Shannon sea-fight, see BROKE. with the lustre and polish of skilfully cnt gems,

Cheselden, WILLIAM, a great surgeon and they possess also somewhat of their coldness. The

anatomist, was born in 1688, at Somerby, near emotional element is often strong, but is always

Melton-Mowbray, and having in 1711 established dominated by the intellectual. His artistic ideal

himself in London as a lecturer on anatomy, was was a lofty one, and he never stooped from it.

next year elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He His music commanded high admiration from Beet.

was afterwards appointed surgeon to St Thomas's, hoven, who even took him as a model of style in

St George's, and Westminster hospitals, where he composition for the voice. His masses and over

acquired great reputation, especially by his lateral tures are well known, and frequently performed in

operation for the stone'in 1727 (see LITHOTOMY). this country, and at least Medée and the Deux Journées have kept a place on the stage. The

In 1728 he operated on a young man born blind,

and the successful result of the operation did much stern manner of the 'grim Florentine' finds illus

to develop the theory of Vision (q.v.). He died at tration in his stereotyped reply to all requests in

Bath, 10th April 1752. His four works included connection with his office, It cannot be done,'

Anatomy of the Human Body (1713), long a textfrom which, however, he frequently departed ; and

book on the subject in England ; and Osteolohe inspired almost enthusiastic attachment in many

graphia, or Anatomy of the Bones (1733). See an of his pupils. The antagonism between him and Berlioz, on the other hand, is strongly brought

artícle in the Asclepiad (1886). out in the memoirs of the latter; and he was

Chesham, a market-town of Buckinghamshire, prejudiced against Beethoven. See the Life of

18 miles NW. of London. Pop. of parish (1881) 6502. Cherubini by E. Bellasis (Lond. 1874); and also Cheshire, a maritime county in the west of the more recent Life by M. Arthur Pougin, which England, on the Welsh border, bounded N. by appeared first in Le Ménestrel (1882-83), and goes

the river Mersey, separating it from Lancashire, far to vindicate him from the repellent asperity

and partly also by the Irish Sea. Its greatest with which he has been reproached.

length from north to south is 48 miles; greatest

breadth from east to west, 32 ; total area of land and Cherusci, a German tribe first mentioned by

water, 1102 sq. m., of which 76 per cent. is under Cæsar, whose exact locality is somewhat uncertain,

cultivation. The coast-line is confined to the save that they touched the Weser and lay north

| hammer-headed peninsula, called Wirral, about 8 of the Harz Forest. They are chiefly memorable in

miles broad, between the estuaries of the Mersey connection with their great leader Arminius (q.v.).

and Dee. The surface forms an extensive nearly Chervil (Anthriscus Cerefolium), an umbelli level plain between the Derbyshire and Welsh ferous plant, which has been long cultivated, mountains, well wooded, and studded with small especially on the Continent, as a pot-herb, and lakes or meres. This plain, comprising fourused in soups and for a garnish, &c. in the same fifths of the surface, rests on new red sandstone, manner as parsley. The leaves have a peculiar, and is crossed, near the middle, by a tract of high somewhat sweetish, pleasantly aromatic smell and ground running south-west from a promontory overtaste, by which the plant may be known from its looking the Mersey, near the mouth of the Weaver, congener Anthriscus vulgaris or Scandix Anthriscus, to Beeston Castle rock, 366 feet high. On the east a poisonous weed, whose leaves have a disagreeable border of the county is a line of new red sandstone smell, and which is also distinguished by its hispid hills. In the east are large tracts of peat, and much fruit. A. sylvestris has large roots, for the sake of of the county is wet and rushy. Coal-measures which it is cultivated. The allied Venus' Comb or appear on the Flintshire border, and also on the Shepherd's Needle (Scandix pecten-Veneris), often borders of Staffordshire and Derbyshire The chief found in cornfields, as also S. australis of southern rivers are the Dee, Mersey, and we which are Europe, have a similar taste and smell, and are navigable. The Dee skirts the co

he west used in the same way on the Continent. Sweet for 55 miles, and the Mersey on

frar 40 Chervil or Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis odorata ; Scandix | miles. The Weaver rises in the






cousty, and runs 40 miles west-north-west to His first exploration of the route to India, by

be Hervey. In addition to its river navigation, way of Syria and the Euphrates, was made in the quanty has an almost unrivalled system of 1831, and he made three other voyages with the

male, and contains the greater part of the same object. The idea was taken up by govern. Maarhester Ship Canal. It is well intersected ment, who made a grant of £20,000 after his

nulways The chief mineral products are rock- | first expedition, but owing to the opposition of alt and coal. The rock-salt, discovered in 1670, Russia it was never brought to a practical issue. and mined by gunpowder, is found near the Weaver He commanded the artillery at Hong-kong from and its branches, especially near Northwich (q.v.), 1843 to 1847. In 1850 he published his Erpedition and at Middlewich, Winsford, and Sandbach. for the Surrey of the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris, Moch salt is also made from brine-springs 20 to 40 and in 1868 a Narratire of the Euphrates Expedi sands deep. Coal is worked near Chester and on tion. He died at Mourne, 30th January 1872. tbe stert borders of the county. Lead and copper General Chesney's Life by his wife and daughter, mining is now almost extinct. In almost every edited by Stanley Lane-Poole, was published in part of the county freestone, limestone, millstone, 1885.-His nephew, Colonel Charles Cornwallis and marl are found. The climate is moist. The Chesney (1826-76), was the author of the wellsie is mostly a clayey or sandy loam, with marl known Waterloo Lectures (1861), which were al peat, and very fertile. The soil and climate delivered by him as professor at Sandhurst. are well fitted for pasturing, and dairy-farming is A younger brother of the latter, General George largely carried on, the county being noted for its Tomkyns Chesney, who was born in 1830, was chreiser CHEESE). About 90,000 cows are kept appointed member of the Council of the Viceroy in (hrshire, capable of producing about 15,000 of India in 1886, and is known to be the author uns of cheese. In the cattle-plague of 1865-66 of the clever jeu d'esprit, The Battle of Dorking apsards of 70,000 cattle perished, 36,000 of these (1871), and of a remarkable novel, The Private being slaughtered as a preventive measure. Pop. Secretary (1881). ol) 194,306; (1841) 395,660 ; (1881) 664,037.

Chesnut. See CHESTNUT. Toate are extensive manufactures in the principal towns, especially Birkenhead, ('ongleton, Chester Chess (Fr. échecs ; Ital. scacchi; Ger. schach;

the county town), Crewe, Macclesfield, Staly. | Dutch schaak; Low Lat. ludus sraccorum. Originbrielge, and Stockport. The county is formed into ally from Persian shah, 'n king,'thus literally the eight parliamentary divisions, each returning one game of kings'), a game of skill for two players or mrinber, and includes the parliamentary boroughs parties, played with figures or pieces,' which are

Barkenhead and (Chester, with portions of the inoved on a chequered board. The game has acbetonghs of Ashton-under-Lyne, Stalybridge, Stockquired a great and unique importance throughout fort, and Warrington. It contains 503 civil parishes, the world; mainly, no doubt, in consequence of its and is mostly in the diocese of Chester. Cheshire extreme difficulty. It is the subject of a most ex. has some Roman roads, tumuli, barrows, remains tensive literature, and its study has become rather

as houses, and many old castles and halls that of a science than a recreation. The laws Egbert, in 828, added Cheshire to the Anglo-Saxon governing its play are identical in all countries. Kingdom of Mercin William the Conqueror erected History. The origin of chess is the subject of an (Cheshire into a county palatine, under Hugh Lupus, almost hopeless controversy. It has been claimed, with an independent parliament and eight barons. by writers and by legends, for (China, India, Persia, Henry VIII. subordinated it to the English crown; and recently with some show of reason, by a Spanish best Cheshire did not send representatives to the archæologist, for Egypt. As a matter of fact, traces Englash parliament till 1549. See Ormerod's History of the game extend beyond history, and are found of hestur (3 vols. 1819; new ed. 1875), and among races so widely different that any scientific Earwaker's East Cheshire (1877).

investigation of the matter may now be considered

impossible. The game was probably introduced Cheshunt, a large village of Hertfordshire, 14 into Western Europe by the Arabs, or about the muuales X. of London. It is famous for its rose.

time of the Arab invasion (8th century); at all andens, and is the seat of a college, founded in

events it was known among the cultured classes 1168 by the Counters of Huntingdon (9.v.) at before the (rusades (1095). As then played, it Trevecca in Brecknockshire, and removed hither in differed somewhat from modern chess and from the 1992 The buildings were much enlarged in 1868. game as played in the East. One of the earliest Pega, of parish (1851) 5579; (1881) 7735.

references to it in literature is in a work, written Chesil Bank or BEACH, a bank of gravel

about 1300, by Jacobus de Censolis, & preaching and shingle extending 16 miles from Bridport

friar, and entitled Liber de moribus hominum et barbour and Burton Bradstock to Portland. It

officiis nobilium super ludo Scaccorum. This work rare in height from 20 to 43 feet, and in width

seems to have found its way into several European tratu 170 to 200 yards. For some part of its course

countries, MS. copies of it existing in various lanit has the shore, but the Fleet comes between it

guages. An English translation from the French 5 tbr land for nearly 10 miles from Abbotsbury,

was printed by William (axton in 1474-75 under the famous for its swannery. Towards its west end the

title of The Game and Playe of the Chesse, and was ben is composed of sand, grit, and fine gravel,

the first book printed with metal types in England. Let the materials get gradually larger and larger

Modern chess-i.e. the game as now played, dates it is followed eastward. Good authorities

from about the middle of the 15th century. A MS. koeve this bank was formed by the sea as a

discovered in the university library of Göttingen and single beach in the ordinary way, that it formerly

dated 1490 is the earliest treatise extant, althongh teched the land throughout its entire course, and

frequent mention of chess is made by earlier ports that it has since been separated from the shore,

and writers. The game found its first bome in and converted into a bar, by the denudation of the

| Spain, where Vicent (1495) and Lucena (1497) pubLand behind it. (See map at BREAKWATER.)

lished two volumes, now of little value, of games.

They were succeeded in 1310 by Damiano, a Chesney, FRANCIS RAWDON, the explorer of the Portuguese, whose work, though restricted to a Eaparaten, was born in 1789 at Annalong in ('ounty : few openings, evinces considerable genius. It was

sem. He was gazetted to the Royal Artil. i plagiarised most unscrupulonsly by several later lery m INOX, la 1829 be inspected the route for writers. Damiano was followed by Ruy Lopez, a # Ngen maal, which he proved to be practicable. I cleric of Safra in Estremadura, who is perhaps

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the most valuable of the earlier masters. His advocate. He only partially recovered from us work, first published at Alcala in 1561, may be attack of insanity, and died at the age of forty. said to have laid the foundation of the modern seven. From this time the history of chess ceases theory of play, and the opening which bears his to be that of a few celebrated players, and must le name is that which modern analysis has shown gathered from the magazines and weekly new to be one of the soundest yet invented. Lopez's paper columns devoted to it in nearly every cima treatise was republished in Venice in 1584, and ised country. Public interest in it has of late from this date the game seems to have left Spain to years increased with great rapidity, keeping pace, find a home in Italy. Here should be mentioned it would seem, with the progress of intellectual Paolo Boi, a native of Syracuse, who, finding no development. In England, where at one time or worthy opponent in his own country, made a other nearly every great modern player has residedi. lengthened tour through the then most civilised the game has attained a dignity and importance part of Europe. He encountered and defeated altogether beyond that of a mere pastime, and its every master of the game, including the hitherto recognition by the state as a means of menta! invincible Ruy Lopez. His genius, added to a pre training has been seriously demanded. Every possessing appearance and a courteous demeanour, town and many villages have at least one clubgained for him general admiration ; he was pat London having upwards of twenty; and such ronised by Catharine de' Medici and by Sebastian, centres as Dublin, Glasgow, Liverpool, and Manking of Portugal, both of whom conferred high chester, five or six. There are also numerous ! favours upon him. The early Italian school, which county and district associations, holding periodical extended from about 1550 to 1620, is identified with meetings in different towns in their provinces, and the names of Polerio (1590) and his followers, offering prizes for competition among their meta Salvio, Greco, and others. It may claim to be the | bers. The British Chess Association, the most most versatile and prolific yet founded, some of the important federation of this kind, may fairly claim most brilliant openings having come down to us to represent national chess. Having its admin from it. At its close, about the time of the Thirty istrative centre in London, it is governed by a Years' War, the study of chess was somewhat committee of the most eminent players through neglected, and there are no writers of note until out the kingdom, and its masters' tournamente the middle of the 18th century. At this time, attract the strongest players from the Continent however, two powerful, and to some extent rival, and America. In Germany, where almost equal schools sprang up--the later Italian, led by Ercole enthusiasm for chess prevails, every town has its del Rio and his commentators, Lolli and Ponziani, club; there are many state and class associations : and the Northern school of Philidor. The former national tournaments are held at least once every still confined itself to the study of openings and year, and international tournaments in turn with end-games; the latter turned its attention more to other countries. One significant association is that the middle game, advocating what is now known of the university and college chess clubs, which, as 'play for position.' Both schools, though opposed supported by many of the professors and more in theory, were of the greatest practical benefit to advanced students, are already beginning to comstudents; their work was in a great measure compete with the lay clubs in their respective cities bined by Allgaier, of Eltern, in his well-known in France there are yet few provincial clubs, treatise published at Vienna in 1795.

though their number is now increasing. Paris is Begun in 1745 by Stamma, a Syrian, and led so the centre of a very strong circle of players, and powerfully by Philidor, the English school had, in the Café de la Régence possesses the most cele during this period, been steadily gaining strength brated chess resort in Europe. The French govern i and importance. Writers like Sarratt, Cochrane, ment has shown its regard for the game by pro Lewis, and Walker were doing their best to popu. viding prizes in more than one national tournament. larise the game, and they succeeded in giving it a Among other European countries where chess is footing in Britain which it has never since lost. studied, must be mentioned Austria and Italy. Of Throughout northern Europe its study became the former it is sufficient to say that the metrogeneral; in France, though there were few analyti.politan club can (1888) produce ten players (the cal writers-- Alexandre being the only one of import ordinary match team) who could probably defeat ance--such players as Deschappelles, Boncourt, and the same number from any club in the world. In De la Bourdonnais earned for the Parisian school a Italy the game is played in every town, and the very high reputation; the last-named player was Italian Chess Association holds an annual tournaby far the strongest of his day. In Germany, then ment. In the New World, the United States of as now, chief attention was given to theory; there America is, as may be supposed, in advance of were no very brilliant players, but the analytical all other countries. Besides numerons city clubs work of Bilguer and Von der Lasa still remains (New York alone having nine), there are six state the standard. England, however, continued to associations, and a recently organised federation maintain its supremacy. Some of the greatest of the university clubs. In Canada the game has European players crossed the Channel and settled gained entrance into the public schools; there in London, and Howard Staunton, who defeated are clubs in nearly every town, and a national the French champion, St Amant, came to be re association. In Australasia there are state garded as the leading player in the world. l'p to associations in Victoria, New South Wales, and this time America had produced no player of more New Zealand. A national tournament has been than local eminence; but at the congress held at held with great success, and it is probable will New York in 1858, the first prize in the chief now take place annually in one or other of the tourney was won by a youth of twenty-one, Paul chief cities. Morphy (1837-84), of New Orleans. This player, Description.—THE BOARD.-Chess is played on 1 who from the age of ten had shown a remarkable a square board divided by intersecting lines into aptitude for the game, is admitted to be the 64 squares. To facilitate calculation, every alter. greatest chess genius that has yet appeared. After nate square is black, or of a dark colour. The his victory in New York he came over to Europe, board should be placed so that each player has a meeting and defeating in turn the strongest players white square at his right-hand corner. of London and Paris. It must always be a source THE MEX.-There are 32 men : 16 white, or of regret that the world so soon lost his wonderful of light colour, and 16 black, or of dark colour. power. After his visit to Europe he abandoned | Each player has 8 pieces (one king, one queen, two the game in order to follow his profession, that of | rooks or castles, two bishops, and two knights)

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and 8 paions. The following diagram represents Laws.-Although the main rules governing chess the board and men properly arranged for play: I play are identical throughout the world, there are

several minor questions awaiting a general BLACK.

settlement. À complete code of laws (which would necessarily be complex), published with approval and authority of the various national associations, has become almost a necessity. Where no published code has been fixed upon, the following may be enforced without injustice :

(N.B.-In cases where no distinction is implied, the word 'piece' is to be understood to include piece and pawn.)

Lots to be drawn for first move, and afterwards throughout a match or sitting each player has the first move alternately, whatever has been the result of the previous game. The player having first move has a right to choice of men. If board or pieces have been wrongly placed at the beginning of a game, the mistake may be rectified before four moves have been made, but not after. A piece touched must be moved, if it can be legally, or unless, before touching it, the player say j'adoube, or words to that effect. (If the piece cannot be legally moved, the king must be moved, but may not castle.) If more than one piece be touched, the adversary may select which is to be moved. An enemy's piece touched

must be taken if it can be legally ; if not, WHITE.

the king must be moved, but may not castle.

Moving the king is a penalty enforceable Fig. 1.

by the opponent, who must, however, en(V.B.-The king and queen occupy the two , force it before he makes his next move. A false or middle squares, the queen being on the square of illegal move, and all moves made subsequently, her own colour.)

must be revoked, and legal moves made in their

stead. No penalty can be enforced if the opponent The King, = K, moves only one square at

has made a move or touched a piece in reply. If a a time, but in any direction.

player move out of his turn, he must retract the The Queen, = Q, may move any number of

move, but may be called upon by the opponent to squares in any direction in a straight

play the piece touched on his next move. If a line.

player touch more than one square with a piece, The Rook or Castle, = R, may move any

he may not, for that move, play it to any of the

squares so touched. If he touch all the squares to number of squares, but only in a direction

which it can be played, he must play it to any parallel to the sides of the board-not

one of them his opponent chooses. In castling, diagonally.

the king must be moved first, or both pieces toThe Bishop, = B, may move any number

gether. A pawn advanced to the eighth square of squares in a straight line diagonally.

must be exchanged for a piece (not a king) of (It will be seen that each bishop remains

the same colour, and the move is not complete throughout the game on squares of one colour.)

until a piece is demanded. It is not necessary The Knight, = Kt (or sometimes in American

to call check,' but the player neglecting to do so, literature, S, from the German Springer), cannot enforce a penalty if his opponent does not

moves to the next square but one of notice the 'check.' A player may at any time a different colour from that on which it rests. Its call upon his adversary to mate him within fifty move forts the diagonal of a parallelogram of three moves, and if at the expiration of such fifty moves, squares by two. (The knight is the only piece no capture has been made, no pawn moved nor having power to move over an intervening piece.) mate given, a draw may be claimed. Bystanders & The Pawn, = P, moves one square forward may not interfere unless appealed to by a player,

only, but captures diagonally. For its first unless board or men have been wrongly placed, o move, but not afterwards, a pawn mayor unless a false or illegal move has been made. more two squares, but if in doing so it pass an In the last case, however, they have no right to opposing pawn, the latter may take it as if it had interfere until a move has been made in reply. moved one square only. A pawn which succeeds in Notation. The necessity for some method of crossing the board must be exchanged for a queen recording moves and games of chess has been reor any other piece of the same colour, except a king. cognised from a very early period. It is to be

All pieces, except the knight, can move only 'regretted that no universal notation has been ACTO rinoccupied squares, and all pieces (not the adopted; as it is, the systems which are in vogue pawns) capture in the direction of their moves. ¡ are all more or less dependent upon the language

The object of the game is to take the opponent's of the nation using them. The modern systems king, and when the king is attacked, warning must of notation are separable into two classes, which be given by the call of check.' If the king can. I differ essentially : The first, that adopted by Dotaraid the check'-that is, if he cannot escape English and Latin speaking countries i France, capture by his opponent's next move, he is "check: ; Italy, &c.), has reference to the pieces. It is mate,' and the game is over. The game therefore somewhat cumbrous, but is more descriptive and y stops one more short of the actual capture intelligible. The second, adopted by Germany

I and northern Europe, has reference mainly to the

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