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tard. It is some cose an erre than the first bald follow these moves with a board and men,

and will see then that White can only move one of Tive formsg dizgram 71! expain the English his be-boje-ie the king's bisbop-and can only o Latin 100 natin:

more it to one bishop's fuarth square-ie queen's bebop's fourth The queen's bashop cannot of

course more at all, until released by the move of ***, A marry to y 14 y 9X 599 59 eitber the queen's pawn or queen's knight's pawn.)

Black's third move requires no further explanation.
White's fourth move, 4 B takes Pich , means that

his bisbop captures one of the enemy's pawns and R; K:: Bi Q7 EB: Kt7IB: gives check. It is not necessary to say which

Dawn, since only one can be captured-i.e. Black's 20:18

11 ya king's bishop's pawn. For his fourth move, Black E KEQB Q6 K. BOK KE ER

has little choice; he must avoid the threat of

capture, and he does so by taking the checking 17 a & XY1 ay

piece-ie king takes bishop BEKISQBS Q5 K5 KB5 K Kt 5 KB 5

The English notation is sbortened in some cases as SYSa $ 1 Say $*Y Y SU

| follows, the same moves being recorded in each case: CB 4K 4 QB4 Q4 K4 KB 4 K K 4 KB4 (a) White.

Black 1. P-K 4.

1. P - K 4. saya 96 97 98 99X SOI

2. Kt - KB 3.

2. Kt - QB 3. R% QK: >QB3 Q3 K3 KB 3 K K 3 K B3

3. B - B4

3. B - B4 4. B x P (ch.)

4 K x B. LH: 190 LO LY Lay!XXIX

Here the dash - signifies 'to,' and signifies QR2Q Kt 2Q B2 Q2 K2 KB2 K Kt 2 KB 2

"takes.' The numbers of Black's moves are omitted, 2703 .goo 87 88 X X8HY since they correspond with those of White QRW.QKt*. QB sq. Qsq. K . KBSG KKts, KR sq.

(b) In some cases the dash is omitted, and the

moves recorded simply P K 4, Kt K B3, B B 4, &c. WHITE.

(c) The moves are arranged in line, White's Fig. 2.

move being first, thus : 1 P to K 4, P to K 4, 2 Kt

to K B3, Kt to Q B3, 3 B to B 4, B to B 4, 4 B The squares on the first rank are named after the

takes P (ch.), K takes B. pieces which occupy them at the beginning of the

(d) The moves are written in the form of a game; thus (beginning at the left hand) the first

fraction, White's move being the numerator, and square is called the queen's rook's square = Q R sq.,

Black's the denominator, and the number of the since it is occupied by the queen's rook. The necond square is called queen's knight's square =

move is denoted by a figure prefixed-e.g: Q Kt sq.; the third, queen's bishop's square =

, P-K4 Kt - K B3 B-B4 Bx P(ch.) QB.; the fourth, queen's square = Q sq., and so

1.P-K4; 2. Kt-Q B 3; 3-B-B 4:4. Kx B on. The squares on the first rank are called home We give a diagram of the board after the above squares. The files are numbered according to their I moves have been played : distance from the home square, and take the latter's title. Thus the squares in

BLACK. front of the king's square are called king's second or K 2, king's third = K 3, and so on to K 8. Each player numbers the squares from his own side of the board, so that each square has two names (White K B square is Black K B 8, Black Q R4= White Q R 5, &c.). A reference to the diagram will make this clear.

In recording a game, the moves of White and Black pieces are each arranged in column, the name of the piece is then given, and the square is indicated to which it moves-e.g. : White.

Black 1. P to K 4.

1. P to K 4. 2. Kt to K B 3. 2. Kt to Q B 3. 3. B to B 4.

3. B to B 4. 4. B takes P (ch.). | 4. K takes B.

Here the figures give the number of the move, and 1 P to K 4 signifies that White for his first move plays a pawn to the king's fourth square. It is not necessary to say which pawn, since only one--i.e, the king's pawn-can be moved to the king's fourth square. Black then has to play, and makes a similar move, counting from his side of the board. For his second move, White plays his knight to king's bishop's

WHITE. third square, and again it is not necessary to say which knight, since only the king's

Fig. 3.-Position after Black's Fourth More. knight can move to K B3. Black's second move is his queen's knight to queen's bishop's The German notation (known sometimes as third square. White's third move is king's bishop Philidor's, from having been used in that master's to queen's bishop's fourth square. The student treatises on chess ) consists in denoting the ranks

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of squares by a figure, and the files by a letter, in Castling, a double move allowed once on the accordance with fig. 4:

| part of each player in a game. The rook is moved BLACK.

to the square next the king, and the a

king is then moved to the other side. Figs. 5 and 6 show the operation of castling :

The conditions under which castling is allowed are: (a) That neither king nor rook have been moved; (b) that no piece intervenes; (c) that the king is not in check; (d) that the king does not cross a square commanded by an opposing piece or pawn.

*Check, the warning which must be given when the opponent's king is attacked.

Checkomate, a position in which the king cannot avoid capture on his opponent's next move. Checkmate is from the Persian shah mát, 'the king is dead.'

Discovered check, an attack which is opened on the king by the removal of an intervening piece or pawn.

In the diagram (fig. 7) the king is not in check ; but if the rook be moved, the diagonal with the bishop is opened, and the rook is said to discover check.'

En passant.-A pawn which, having moved two squares for its first move, and thus passed an opposing pawn, may be taken, on the next move only,

by the latter, en passant de

En prise. -A piece is said to be en WHITE.

prise when it is in a position to be capFig. 4.

tured by an opposing piece or pawn,

and is not properly defended. Thus, referring to the English system, the White Exchange, the capture of a piece in return for the king's square is denoted by e 1, the Black queen's loss of one of equal value. To win the exchange square by d 8. In the German system all the squares are counted from White's side only.

Fig. 5.- Castling with King's Rook. To denote a move, the first letter of the piece

a, before castling is given, then the square on which it stands, and lastly, the square to which it moves. The moves of pawns are not preceded by any initial letter. A capture is denoted by a colon placed after the move, check is represented by t, or a check and capture by I. (astling on the king's side is denoted by () - (), and on the queen's side by 0 - 0 - 0.

0, after castling. Taking the same moves as before, the game would be recorded therefore as follows: White.

Black. 1. 2- 4.

1. e7 - e 5. 2 Ktgl - f 3.

2. Kt b 8 - c 6. 2 B 1 - c 4.

3. B f 8 - c 5. 4 Be 4-571

4. Ke 8 - $7: This system may be and is in some cases

Fig. 6. ---Castling with Queen's Rook. still further abbreviated by the omission (a)

a, before castling
of the initial letters of the pieces, or (b) of
the square from which the piece moves; and
the moves may also be written in line or
fractionally as in the Latin system.

TECHNICAL TERMS. –The following list is
Dot exhaustive, only the terms in general use
being given :
Blindfold Chess, or Chess sans roir, the

B, after castling. game played mentally, without sight of board or men. This almost inexplicable feat is not altogether one of memory, as is generally supposed; it is rather the result of a special faculty not necessarily corresponding with that for ordinary chess. Some great masters, notably Mr J. H. Blackburne, of London, can conduct as many as twelve games blind. fold simultaneously; and most players of first and is to capture a rook in return for the loss of a bishop second rate strength can play at least one in this or knight. To lose the exchange' is to capture a way.

| bishop or knight in return for the loss of a rook.

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Gambit, a game in which one player, at the be- another piece. (Of course a queen is selected in ginning, voluntarily sacrifices part of his force (often most cases, as the most valuable piece.) a pawn) for the sake of an ultimate advantage. Stalemate, a position in which the king, though

not attacked, cannot move without being subject to capture, and in which no other move by any other piece or pawn is possible The game in this case is drawn.

Time Limit, a condition of modern play under which each player is compelled to make a certain number of moves (generally twenty in each hour. The time is recorded by an ingenious arrangement of clocks, one being set going when the other is stopped.

Literature. The following works on chess may be consulted with advantage : For history and litera ture, The History of Chess, by Forbes; Quellos

studien zur Geschichte des Schachspiels, by Dr A. Fig. 7.-Discovered Check.

Van der Linde (Berlin, 1880). For laws, &c., Chess

Praxis, by H. Staunton. For theory, The Chess J'adoube, an expression necessary before a piece | Player's Handbook, by H. Staunton (1847–49), Handbuck or pawn may be touched for the purpose of adjust. des Schachspiels, by Bilguer and von der Lasa (Leip ment, &c. The rule otherwise is that a piece or

1843; 6th ed. 1880); Führer durch die Schachtheorie, pawn touched must be moved.

by O. Cordel ( Berlin, 1888). For practice, Cook's Synopsis, Opening.-The various methods of beginning the

Morphy's Games, and Book of the London Tournament, game have been the subjects of much study, and

1883. For problems, The Chess Problem, by Planck and are so complex as to elude anything like exhaustive

others. See also the Chess magazines. analysis. Openings are classed as : (a) Gambits Chest, or THORAX, in Anatomy, is the part of (see above), (b) Games, in which the line of play the body which lies beneath the neck and above does not involve any sacrifice, and (c) Defences, the Abdomen (q.v.), constituting the uppermost of which have reference to the line of play adopted | the two divisions of the trunk, or that which by the second player. Openings in which both contains the heart and lungs. The chest is some players move the king's pawn to king's fourth what conical in form. Its sides are rounded, but square for their first moves are arbitrarily classed in front and behind they are flattened. The apex, or as Regular,' all others as Irregular.' Åll open upper end, is truncated, sloping downwards and ings of repute have distinctive titles, often being forwards ; of small size, it permits of the passage named after their inventors or from some country of the gullet, windpipe, certain large veins and where they are popular. Steinitz Gambit, Scotch nerves from the neck into the chest, and of certain Game, French Defence, are examples. The study large arteries out of the chest. The broad or lower of openings is most difficult and practically end end of the cone slopes downwards and backwards, less, and should not be begun until the student and is shut in by the diaphragm-a large muscular has some practical acquaintance with the game. partition which projects upwards from the lower

Problem, an imaginary position in which the win- ribs, being convex towards the chest, and concave ning line of play is artfully concealed, and has to towards the abdomen. In Respiration (9.v.) the be discovered in accordance with given conditions. | diaphragm descends by its own muscular conBLACK (4 pieces).

traction, while at the same time the ribs are drawn upwards and outwards by the intercostal muscles.

The structures forming the walls of the chest are: (1) The backbone or spinal column ; (2) twelve pairs of ribs ; (3) the sternum or breastbone; (4) the Diaphragm (q.v.); and (5) the intercostal muscles. See SKELETON, SPINAL COLUMN, &c.

The contents of the chest are the heart, the great arteries and veins, the lungs, the trachea or windpipe, the bronchi or branches of the trachea, leading to the lungs, the csophagus or gullet, and the thoracic duct, or general terminus of the lymphatic system: of vessels, by which the chyle and lymph are discharged into the blood. For the organs of the chest, see the cut at ABDOMEN.

The very great importance of these parts to life, and their great liability to deranged action, renders the chest the seat of a large proportion of the diseases wbich afflict humanity, and especially of those which end in death; for of the three organs which Bichat called the 'tripod of life'-viz the brain, heart, and lungs—the chest contains two. The diseases of the chest depend in

some cases on alterations in its form, as WHITE (6 pieces). White to play and mate in two moves.

by Rickets (q.v.) and other diseases affectFig. 8. - Problem by W. Skinkian, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.A. ing the bones in early childhood or in

youth, as by too tight lacing in girls Queening a paurn, the promotion of a pawn What are commonly called chest diseases are which has crossed the board, to the power of mainly those of the lungs and air-tubes, of which

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CHEST

CHESTER

167

the principal are consumption, pneumonia, pleurisy, the Grosvenor Hotel, the general post-office, the and bronchitis. These are treated in special articles : | free library, and the music-hall. Suburbs of villas and for the diseases of the heart and other organs have recently arisen outside the walls ; and a public of the chest, see HEART, AORTA, ESOPHAGUS, park was opened in 1867. On the common called &e. The examination of the chest in disease is the Roodee there is a racecourse. The huge rail. largely conducted by Auscultation (q.v.) and way station, with a frontage of 1010 feet, is the Percussion (q.v.). For measurement round the centre of several important railways. Chester has chest, see MAN. See also DIAGNOSIS.

manufactures of lead, oil, and chemicals, ironChest, MILITARY, is a technical name for the

foundries, and an iron-shipbuilding yard. The

making of boots and shoes is an important money and negotiable securities carried with an

industry. The navigation of the Dee has lately Army, and intended to defray the current expenses. : In the British army it is in the charge of officers of

been greatly improved. The chief exports are

cheese, copper, cast-iron, and coal. Pop. (1851) the Army Pay Department. -CHEST AT CHATHAM was the name of a fund for maimed and super

27,756; (1871) 35,257; (1881) 36,788; (1888) about

38,000. The city is a county in itself. annnated seamen, administered at Chatham from

It has

returned members to parliament since the reign 1500 till 1803, and subsequently at Greenwich,

of Henry VIII., but by the Distribution of Seats till superseded by the regular naval pension

Act, 1885, it lost one of its two members. system.

Chester was Deva or Devana Castra, an imChester, an ancient episcopal city, municipal portant Roman station, and has yielded many and parliamentary borough, and river-port, the Roman remains-as masonry, coins, inscriptions, • capital of Cheshire, on the right bank of the Dee, fibulæ, altars, a hypocaust, and a statue of Pallas.

22 miles from the mouth of its estuary, 16 miles | The British name was Caerleon : Chester, alone or SE. of Liverpool, and 179 miles NNW. of London. in composition, represents the Anglo-Saxon Ceaster, (hester is one of the most picturesque towns in from the Roman Castra. After the departure of England. It stands on a rocky sandstone height, the Romans it was held by Britons, Saxons, and and is still surrounded by the entire circuit of its Danes ; and in 605 was laid utterly waste by Ethel

ancient walls, nearly 2 miles round, 7 or 8 feet frith of Northumbria. It remained an inclosure of " thick, and forming a promenade with parapets, waste walls-occupied at times, as in 894, by a body

where two persons can walk abreast. The ancient of marauding Danes, till in 908 it was rebuilt by gateways have been all rebuilt. The castle, with Ethelred of Mercia; and prosperity came after the exception of Carsar's Tower,'has been removed, 942. Chester was the last place in England that

ito site being occupied by barracks and county | held out against William the Conqueror ; not till i baildings. The Dee is crossed by

two bridges, the old picturesque bridge of seven arches, and the new or Grosvenor Bridge, with a noble

single arch of stone 200 feet in · length( see BRIDGE, Vol. II. p. 437).

Tbe two main streets cross each other at right angles, and were cut out of the rock by the Romans 4 to 10 feet below the level of the houses. These streets exhibit the curious arrangement called the

rows: the front parts of their second stories, as far back as 16

feet, form a continuous paved ! promenade or covered gallery,

open in front, where there are i pillars and steps up from the

street below, with private houses alore, inferior shops and ware

bouses below, and the chief shops I of the town within. There are a

omsiderable number of the picturesque old timber houses of the 16th century, and many of the more modern buildings are in

In the Rows, Chester. tbe same style of architecture. | Chester Cathedral is an irregular massive struc- its capture (1070) was the duke really king of tare of crumbling sandstone, 375 by 200 feet, with England. Henry Lupus, nephew of the Conqueror,

massive tower of 127 feet. It was formerly was created Earl of (Chester, and until the time of • the church of the abbey of St Werburgh, which Henry III. the Earls of (hester had their own

for 650 years was one of the richest in England. courts and parliaments at Chester, with eight It became a cathedral church after the dissolution subfeudatories and the superiors of the great of the monasteries. It is of various dates from religious houses, Cheshire being then a county Forman to Late Perpendicular, its most strik palatine. On the death of John, Earl of Chester,

ing feature being the fine Perpendicular window Henry III. made his eldest son Earl of Chester, i of the west front. The building has undergone and since that time the title has usually been held

extensive restoration under the direction of the along with that of Prince of Wales by the eldest sons late Sir Gilbert Scott. A part of St John's Church, of English sovereigns Llewelyn ravaged Chester 1 rained Norman edifice, has lately been restored. in 1255. The twenty-five famous (hester mysteries It was a cathedral church for some years during or religious plays by Randle, a monk (1230 60), the Ilth century, when the See of Lichfield was were acted in the church. After a long and temporarily transferred to Chester. The present, memorable siege (1643-46), the inhabitants, who bebopric of Chester dates from the reign of Henry held ont bravely for the king, were starved into VIIL Other public buildings are the town-hall, , surrender. A projected Fenian attack on the 168

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CHESTER

CHESTNUT

castle in 1867 proved abortive. Among the bishops on which the writer sets most store. The of Chester have been Pearson, Porteus, and Stubbs.expression is occasionally coarse, but the wors: Trinity Church contains the graves of Matthew feature of the book is the manner in which Chester Henry, the biblical commentator, and the poet field handles the topic of gallantry, a topic to Parnell.

which he recurs with a most disagreeable frequency Chester, a city of Delaware county, Pennsyl. | His letters were edited by Lord Mahon (5 vols vania, on the Delaware, 15 miles SW. of Phila- | 1845-53). See Sainte-Beuve's Critical Essay on delphia by rail, with a military academy, large Chesterfield (Eng. trans. 1870), and W. E. Brownshipbuilding yards, and manufactures of cotton ing's Wit and Wisdom of Lord Chesterfield (18741 and woollen goods, engines, &c. Originally called Chesterfield Inlet, a narrow gulf penetrating Upland, it was founded by the Swedes in 1643, and to the westward from the NW. of Hudson Bay, is the oldest town in the state. Pop. (1860) 4631 ; its extreme dimensions being 250 and 25 miles. (1890) 20,226.-SOUTH CHESTER, a inanufacturing | Chester-le-Street, a market-town in the suburb, had a pop. of 7067 in 1890.

county of Durham, near the left bank of the West, Chester, JOSEPH LEMUEL, genealogist, born 6 miles N. of Durham city. The seat of the Bishop in Norwich, Connecticut, 30th April 1821, was a of Bernicia from 883 to 995, it has an old collegi. newspaper editor in Philadelphia, and in 1858 came ate church (restored 1862), with a spire 156 feet to England, where he edited the Registers of West. high ; whilst in the neighbourhood are Lambton, minster (1876) and other registers ; part of his Lumley, and Ravensworth Castles, the seats of the copy of the Oxford matriculation register has been Earls of Durham, Scarborough, and Ravensworth. printed (1887), and his extracts from the Bishop Coal-mines and ironworks are numerous. Pop of of London's register were published under the township (1851) 2580 ; (1881) 6646. title London Marriage Licenses (1887). Chester Chestnut, or CAESNUT (Castanea), which was an LL.D. of Columbia College, and D.C.L. of must be clearly distinguished from the Horse Chest! Oxford, but always retained the title of Colonel, a nut described below, a genus of Cupuliferae, closels reminiscence of the honorary post of aide-de-camp allied to the Beech (Fagus ), and distinguished from to a Pennsylvania governor which he had once it by long male catkins, longitudinally set with held. He died in London, 26th May 1882. See groups of flowers, a 5-8-celled ovary, and com Dean's Memoir (1884).

pressed rounded nuts. The name is derived from Chesterfield, a municipal borough in Derby. the town of Castanum, in Thessaly. The Common, shire, on the Rother rivulet, 127 miles SSE, of Sheffield by rail. All Saints' Church (circa 1350) has a curious crooked spire, 228 feet high, and 6 feet off the perpendicular; in Trinity Church (1838) is buried George Stephenson. Other buildings are the town-hall (1857), the Stephenson memorial hall, and the grammar-school (1574; rebuilt 1846). There are manufactures of silk, lace, earthenware, and machinery ; and the neighbourhood is rich in coal, iron, and other minerals. Brindley's Chesterfield Canal (1776) extends 46 miles to the Trent. Pop. (1851) 7101 ; (1881) 12,221.

Chesterfield, PhilIP DORMER STANHOPE, EARL OF, statesman, orator, wit, and man of letters, was the eldest son of the third Earl of Chesterfield, and was born in London, September 22, 1694. He studied at Cambridge, made the grand tour, and sat in the House of Commons as member for St Germains in Cornwall from 1716 to 1726, when he became Earl of Chesterfield. In 1730 he was made Lord Steward of the Household. l'ntil then Chesterfield, who was a Whig, had supported Walpole; but being ousted from his office because he had objected to an excise bill introduced by that minister, he went over to the opposition, and proved himself one of Walpole's bitterest antagonists. He joined the ministry formed by the Pelhams in 1744, and was in 1746 one of the principal secretaries of state. In 1748 he Branchlet, with Catkins, of Common Chestnut was compelled by ill-health and deafness to retire

(Castanea rulgaris): from public life. He was at one time on terms of

a, fruit; b, seed. intimacy with Swift, Pope, and Bolingbroke. Later in life, by obtruding on Samuel Johnson the patron. Spanish, or Sweet Chestnut (C. vulgaris), is said to age which he had withheld till the publication of have been first brought from Asia Minor, but has the Dictionary, he drew from the lexicographer long extended over the south of Europe, where the indignant letter which will keep his name in it has become completely naturalised, and formats remembrance while English literature is read. extensive woods. It is an ornamental and stately, Besides writing the well-known Letters to his Son, or, in exposed situations, a very spreading tree, of (hesterfield contributed several papers on subjects great size and longevity: the famous chestnut of of the hour to The Craftsman and The World. He | Tort worth in England was known as a boundary died on March 24, 1773. The object of the Letters mark in the reign of King John; while a yet more wils to form his natural son, Philip, into an celebrated tree on Mount Etna is said to have accomplished man of the world. They contain a measured 204 feet in circumference. The timber is good deal of shrewd and solid observation, but durable and hard, and is used in house-building, their teaching is not of an elevating nature. To for making furniture, and for many other purposes shine in the world, to conform to the minute code The timber described as chestnut in ancient buildof etiquette which then ruled society, are the ends lings is usually, however, really oak. The bark is

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