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used for tanning, but is worth only about half the also been introduced, of which Æ, indica is prob. price of oak-bark. Young chestnut-trees are much ably the handsomest. Æ. rubicunda, the so-called esteemed for hop and espalier poles. The chestnut scarlet-flowered horse-chestnut, although sometimes is therefore frequently grown in England as coppice. described as a native of North America, is perhaps wood; but it succeeds well as a timber-tree even in only a variety of the preceding. The American Scotland, although it does not generally ripen its species of Esculus and its practically indistinguishfruit. In Devonshire, however, and in some other able ally, a sub-genus Pavia, are popularly termed parts of England, it is planted as a fruit-tree. It Buck-eye. None is so beautiful, or at least possesses succeeds throughout all the middle latitudes of such a combination of beauties, as the common Germany, but dislikes a damp foggy atmosphere. horse-chestnut; but P. californica, although only It prefers a dry light soil, and succeeds only where reaching a height of 12 to 15 feet, has a singular there is a dry subsoil. The nuts are generally three wealth of fragrant blossom. P. rubra, with its in each husk. They form an important part of the many varieties, is the Red Buck-eye. food of the poor in the south of Europe, being used In Queensland the seeds of Castanospermum, a either roasted or boiled, and are ground into flour, leguminous tree, are sometimes eaten like chestnuts, and made into a kind of bread. They contain 15 and so called ; similarly is it at the Cape with the per cent. of sugar, and by pressure yield a fer seeds of Brabejum stellatum, a Proteaceous plant. mentable sugary juice. When cultivated as a The so-called water-chestnut of Europe is the truit-tree it is generally grafted, by which means curious horned nut of Trapa natans (order Halorathe better varieties are secured. A variety with giaceae), and is an article of food in southern golden-edged foliage, and another with thin thread. Europe, China, and Cashmere. See TRAPA. like divided leaves, are sometimes cultivated for

Chetham, HUMPHREY (1580-1653), a Mantheir foliage. Other species also bear eatable

chester merchant and cloth manufacturer, founder fruits : those of the American Chestnut (C. ameri.

of a bluecoat hospital and of a public library at cana), a tree much resembling the common chest

Manchester (q.v.). See BOOK-CLUB. nut, and of the Dwarf Chestnut, or Chinquapin (C. pumila), a low tree, or more generally a shrub

Chettle, HENRY, a dramatist and pamphleteer of 7-8 feet high, are used in America. - A number

of the 16th century, was editor of Greene's Groat'sof species are natives of the East. The inhabit.

worth of Wit (1592), wrote thirteen plays of conAnts of the mountains of Java eat the fruit of the

siderable merit, and was part author of thirty-five Silvery Chestnut (C. argentea), and the Tungurrut

others, including Robin Hood in two parts, Patient 10. Tungurrut), boiled or roasted, like the common

Grisel, The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, and chestnut. Both of these are large trees, the Tun

Jane Shore. In Meres's Palladis Tamia (1598) he gurrut reaching a height of 150 feet. ('losely akin

is mentioned as one of the best for comedy to the true chestnuts is the Californian Chinquapin

amongst us.' Of his other works, his Kind. Hart's l'astanopsis Chrysophylla).

IDreame (1593 ?) and Englande's Mourning Garment The HORSE-CHESTNUT ( Æsculus Hippocastanum)

(1603) are of interest, the former as containing an is a wholly distinct Sapindaceous tree, supposed to

apology undoubtedly intended for Shakespeare as have been introduced from Asia about the middle

| one of those whom Greene had attacked ; the latter, or latter half of the 16th century; and of which

a stanza supposed to be addressed to Shakespeare the exceptionally magnificent foliage and blossom,

as 'silver-tonged Melicert.' Chettle died about rapid growth, stately size, and general effect have made it a favourite among arboriculturists, though Chevalier, an honorary title given, especially the timber is soft and of little value. It forms in the 18th century, to younger sons of French singularly effective avenues : those of Bushy Park noble families. Brought up in comparative luxury, at Hampton Court Palace near London are well and left at the death of their fathers almost entirely known and largely visited, particularly when in unprovided for, these men generally lived at the

expense of others, as a sort of aristocratic parasites, even when they did not prefer recourse to such less honourable means of livelihood as gave occasion to the synonym for swindler, chevalier d'industrie. In the plays of the 18th century the chevalier is a constant figure.- Both the Old and Young Pretender were called the Chevalier by their partisans.

Chevalier, MICHEL, an eminent French economist, was born at Limoges, January 13, 1806, and was trained as an engineer. At first an ardent St Simonian and busy contributor to the Globe, he attached himself to the party of Enfantin, and took an active part in the compilation of the famous propagandist Lirre Voureanu. After six months' imprisonment in 1832, he had the prudence to retract all that he had written in the Globe contrary to Christianity and against marriage. Soon after he was sent by Thiers to inquire into the systems of water and railway communication in

the l'nited States. In 1837 he published his chief Branch, with Blossom, of Horse-chestnut

work, Des Intérêts Matériels en France. He was (Esculus Hippocastanum):

made a councillor of state in 1838, and was vertical section of single flower; b, fruit; e, a single seed,

appointed in 1840 to the chair of Political Economy its coat partly removed.

in the ('ollège de France. In 1845 he was returned Bower. The palmate leaves and terminal racemes by Aveyron to the Chamber of Deputies. After of panicles need no description, while the charac | the revolution of 1848 he made onslaughts that were Serístic 3-lobed, thick, prickly capsule, with its one never met upon the socialism of Louis Blanc in or two (rarely three fully developed ) beantifully i Questions de Travailleurs, as well as in the Rerue marked and coloured seeds, is among the most des Deux Mondes and the Journal des Debats. feiliar recollections of childish treasure-trove in A number of these vigorous and masterly articles cat satunn. Orber species and varieties have were collected under the titles, Lettres sur

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l'Organisation du Travail (1848) and Questions at the Gobelins. In 1826 he took his seat in the politiques et sociales (1852). A free-trader in Academy of Sciences, and in 1830 became director economics, Chevalier in 1860 aided Cobden in carryof the Museum of Natural History. One of his ing into effect the commercial treaty between earliest discoveries was that of margarine, oleine, France and England. For this he was created a and stearine in oils and fats. His studies in fatty senator and Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour. bodies and his theory of saponification have opened He took an active interest in the great exhibitions up vast industries. Between the years 1828 and at London (1862) and Paris (1867). He died at 1864 Chevreul studied colours, publishing important Montpellier, 28th November 1879.

memoirs from time to time. This patriarch of the Chevaux-de-Frise (Fr., Friesland horses,' scientific world, le doyen des étudiants de France,' so called as having been first used in Fries. | as he loved to be called, kept up his studies to an land during the wars of the 17th century) is a

age seen by but few. In 1886 the hundredth anni. military obstacle of the form shown in the versary of his birth was celebrated with great enthu

siasm. A medal was struck, and a grand fête given at the Museum in his honour, while he was presented with his bust by his colleagues at the Academy of Sciences. Chevreul was F.R.S. and a Commander of the Legion of Honour. Besides papers and memoirs innumerable in the learned journals, he pub. lished works on dyeing (1831), on the optical effects

of silk stuffs, on colours and their application to the Chevaux-de-Frise.

industrial arts (1864), and histories of chemical sci.

ence (1866) and of theories of matter (1878). His De figure. It is difficult to make unless skilled

la Baguette divinatoire, du Pendule explorateur et labour and the necessary materials, such as iron

des Tables tournantes (1854), is the best book on the railings, gas-pipes or hop-poles, are at hand, but subjects which it treats. Died April 10, 1889. is kept in a fortress as an article of store. The Chevron, in Architecture, a moulding in the pattern used by the British army consists of a form of a succession of chevrons, otherwise called cylindrical iron tube, 6 feet long and about 5 inches a zigzag moulding. In general, it is characteristic in diameter, pierced with 12 holes to receive as many spears of the same length, which are packed

waitinin in the tube when not required. Several lengths connected by chains may be used as barriers or as obstacles in the ditch of a fort, or in any place where required. It is, however, generally easy to roll them out of the way, though at the siege of Badajoz, during the Peninsular war, one formed of sword-blades fixed into beams of wood, and placed in the breach, was found to be a very

Chevron or Zigzag, Andover, Hants. serious obstacle by the British storming party.

of Norman architecture, but is also found with the Chevet. See APSE.

pointed arch, during the transition period from Cheviot Hills, a mountain-range occupying Norman to Early English. contiguous parts of the counties of Northumberland CHEVRON, in Heraldry, an ordinary formed of and Roxburgh, on the English and Scotch borders, two bands, joined together at the top, and descend. and running 35 miles from near the junction of the ing to the extremities of the shield in the form of Till and Tweed, in the NE., to the sources of the Liddel, in the SW. The principal points are Cheviot Hill (2676 feet) and Peel Fell (1964). West of Carter Fell, these hills chiefly consist of Silurian rocks overlaid by Old Red Sandstone, and Lower Carboniferous strata, with which various igneous rocks are associated. The east portion of the range, including higher and more or less conical and

Chevron. Chevronel. Per Chevron. abrupt hills, is built up almost exclusively of ancient lava-flows and tuffs (porphyrite and por: a pair of compasses. Chevronel, a diminutive-half phyrite-tuff), which are traversed by a mass of | the size-of the chevron. augite-granite, and by veins of felsite, dikes of CHEVRON is also the name of a V-shaped band basalt, &c. In the Cheviot Hills are the sources of of worsted braid or gold lace, worn on the sleeve the Liddel, Tyne, Coquet, and some of the branches by non-commissioned officers of the British army as of the Tweed. Grouse abound, and the golden a badge of rank. Four chevrons indicate a ser. eagle is occasionally seen. These hills afford pas- geant-major or staff-sergeant, three a sergeant, two ture for the Cheviots, a superior breed of sheep. à corporal, and one a bombardier in the artillery, They have been the scene of many a bloody contest a second corporal in the engineers, and a lancebetween the English and Scotch, and the name is corporal in other branches. Good-conduct badges commemorated in that of the famous old ballad of are precisely similar, but the point is upwards in. Chevy Chase, for the history in which see OTTER stead of downwards. They are worn by non-comBURN. See five articles by Professor James Geikie missioned officers below the rank of sergeant, and in Good Words (1876).

by private soldiers as well. A similar use is made Chevreul, MICHEL EUGÈNE, a great French

of chevrons in the army of the United States and chemist, born at Angers, August 31, 1786. At other countries. seventeen he went to Paris, where he pursued the Chevrotains, or MOUSE-DEER (Tragulidæ ), a study of chemistry at the College of France, under family of small ungulates, intermediate between the famous Vauquelin, with such zeal and success true deer and hogs. The family includes two that at twenty he was allowed to take charge of genera, Tragulus and Hyomoschus, often confused the laboratory. He next lectured at the Collège with musk-deer, with which they have no special Charlemagne, and was appointed special professor connection. As to characters it may be noted that of Chemistry in charge of the dyeing department | they have no upper front teeth, but well-developed





pointed canines, especially in the males ; there are tion of Jeremiah and Lamentations (1883); and The foar complete toes on each foot; there are no horns | Book of Psalms, or Praises of Israel (1888). por mask-glands; the stomach has no distinct Chhatisgarh is the south-east division of the many plies, and thus only three chambers; the Central Provinces of India, with an area, including placenta is diffuse. Tragalus is represented by a

| feudatory states, of 39,761 sq. m.; pop. (1880) number of small species from southern and south

4,612,705. Dongargáon is the capital. eastern Asia, Malay Archipelago, &c.; T. javannicus is manch eaten. Hyomoschus is represented by a

Chhota Nagpur. See CHOTA NAGPORE. single species (H. aquaticus) from the west coast

Chiabrera, GABRIELLO, an Italian poet, born of Africa. It is rather larger and stouter than

| at Savona, 8th June 1552. He was educated at Trarulas, and has aquatic habits. The family Rome under the care of his uncle, after whose death dates from the Miocene period. See UNGULATES.

he entered the service of Cardinal Cornaro, but was Chevy Chase. See OTTERBURN.

obliged to leave it for revenging himself upon a Chewing-gum, a preparation the use of which | Roman nobleman who had wronged him. He has become & widespread habit in the United married at fifty, and after an easy and well-spent States. It is made from a gum called Chicle, pro life, died at eighty-five, 14th October 1637. Chia. daced by a Mexican tree allied to the india-rubber brera's poetical faculty blossomed late. An en. tree, and first imported in 1867 with a view to its thusiastic student of Greek, he conceived a great employment in india-rubber manufacture. The admiration of Pindar, and strove not unsuccessfully rum is sweetened, and may be flavoured with to imitate him. He was not less happy in catching peppermint, liquorice, tolu, or other flavouring the naif and pleasant spirit of Anacreon ; his cansubstances. Spruce-gum is also much used in its zonette being distinguished for their ease and manufacture.

elegance, while his Lettere Famigliari was the first Cheyenne, the capital of Wyoming territory,

attempt to introduce the poetical epistle into

Italian literature. Chiabrera also wrote several t.s, situated on the eastern slope of the Laramie Mountains, at the height of 6000 feet above the sea.

epics, bucolics, and dramatic poems. Collections It is an important station of the Union Pacific

of his lyrics, under the title Rime, were published Railroad at its junction with the Denver Pacific and

at Rome in 1718 (3 vols.), at Venice in 1737 (5 Colorado Central railroads, and is 106 miles N. of

vols.), and at Milan in 1807 (3 vols.). Prefixed is Denver, and 516 miles W. of Omaha Coal and

a naïf but interesting fragment of autobiography. iron are found in its neighbourhood. Cheyenne,

Chia'na (ancient Clanis), a river of Central Italy, settled in 1867, had in 1870 a population of 1450;

originally a tributary of the Tiber, watering the in 1x0, 3456; in 1890, 11,690.

perfectly level Val di Chiana, which its overflow

(see CHIUSI) rendered once the most pestilential Cheyenne Indians, a warlike branch of the

ict of Italy. The bed was deepened in 1789Algonquin stock, originally on the Red River

1816, and in 1823 extensive hydraulic works were of the North, later on the Cheyenne River in

undertaken for further improving the river-course, Wyoming, and as far south as the Arkansas. From

and for leading a northern branch, through canals, 1961 to 1867 the government had frequent wars

to the river Arno, a few miles below Arezzo, the and other troubles with them. They are now

southern stream reaching the Tiber through the partially settled in Indian Territory.

Paglia at Orvieto. The double stream is 60 miles Cheyne, GEORGE, physician, was born in 1671 long, and 1 to 1 mile broad; and the district has & Mechlick, in Aberdeenshire, and, after studying since become one of the most fruitful in all Italy. & Edinburgh under Pitcairn, started a London Chianti, an Italian mountain-range, in the practice in 1702, in which year he was elected a province of Siena, clothed with olive and mulberry Fellow of the Royal Society. Full living made him

trees and vines ; the mountain gives name to an Durmasly fat (thirty-two stone weight), as well

excellent red wine grown here. - asthmatic, but from a strict adherence to a milk

Chiapas, Las, a state of Mexico, on the Pacific, and vegetable diet he derived so much benefit that

adjoining Guatemala. Largely a part of the tablehe recommended it in all the later of his dozen

land of Central America, it enjoys a delicious medical treatises, which included A New Theory

climate ; and where the navigable Rio Chiapas cuts of Ferers (1701); Philosophical Principles of Vatural Religion (1705); Essay of Health and

through the middle of the plateau, the valleys are

among the most fertile portions of the republic, Long Life (1725), and The English Malady, a

although the country is still almost everywhere Troutine on Verrous Disorders (1733). Cheyne

clothed with primeval forest. Area, 21,275 sq. m.; died at Bath, 13th April 1743.

pop. (1882) 205,362, chiefly aborigines. Capital, Cheyne, Thomas KELLY, one of the foremost San Cristobal. Near Palenque, one of its towns, Old Testament scholars in England, was born in are most extensive and magnificent ruins. London, September 18, 1841. Educated at Merchant Taylors' School and Worcester College,

Chiaramon'te, a town of Sicily, 30 miles W. Oxford, he carried off among other honours the

of Syracuse, with trade in wine. Pop. 9364. (hancellor's medal for the English essay, and be

Chia'ri, a town of Lombardy, 13 miles W. of caume Fellow of Balliol College in 1869. He was Brescia by rail, with manufactures of silk. At one rector of Tendring in Essex from 1881 to 1885, when

time strongly fortified, it is memorable for the he was appointed Oriel professor of the Interpreta

victory here of the Austrians, under Prince Eugene, than of Holy Scripture at Oxford, and (anon of

over the French and Spaniards, under Villeroi, 2d Rochester. He was a member of the Old Testa September 1701. Pop. 5999. trent Revision Company, and has contributed Chiar-oscu'ro (Ital.), an artistic term, commany articles on biblical questions to the magazines posed of two Italian words, the one of which and reviews. A critic of ripe scholarship and re. l signifies light, the other darkness or shadow. But tarkable elearness in exposition, free from the chiar oscuro signifies neither light nor shadow ; tendency to rash destructiveness that mar the neither is it adequately described by saying that work of so many of the best contemporary critics in it is the art of disposing of both the lights and Germany, he has done much to advance biblical i shadows in a picture, so long as either is regarded science in England without weakening the real i apart from the other. It is rather the art of Lutters of the faith. His chief books are the representing hght in shaddor and shadme in lohe, Prophece of Isaiah (1880; 3d ed. 1885); Exposi. | so that the parts represented in shadow shall still




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have the clearness and warmth of those in light, time the city has made prodigious strides in extent and those in light the depth and softness of those and in the acquisition of wealth. From & smel in shadow. It is not the making of the one die trading village it has expanded into a great softly and gradually away into the other, but the metropolis, ranking, in the United States, sevad preservation of both in combination, as we con only to New York. It is the largest grain market stantly see it in nature, when the light is not the in the world ; and more hogs are killed, and more mere glare of the sun striking on a particular pork, bacon, and lard shipped, than in and from object, nor the shadow the entire absence of the any other two cities on the continent. Its rapid influence of light. That the skilful treatment of growth has continued, and the population was in chiar oscuro is a matter of extreme difficulty is 1870, 298,977 ; in 1880, 303,185 ; in 1890, 1.099, 133 plain enough from the very small number of artists The site on which to rear such a city was any. who ever attain to it. Still, it is a branch of art thing but enticing, the land in places being barely without the mastery of which no painting can be on a level with the lake; but thoroughfares were successful in any department. It is as indispens. gradually raised from 8 to 12 feet, and the surround able in portrait-painting as in the highest depart ing lots progressively filled in. Now Chicago has ments of ideal arts; and though a just and even a some of the finest streets (laid out with mathe lofty conception of the subject may be distinctly matical regularity ; cf. map) in all America, notably indicated by attention to form alone, it is im. Michigan Avenue and Drexel Bonlevard, and its possible that its realisation can ever be satisfac. thoroughfares measure altogether 2048 miles. There torily accomplished by any one who has not are eight city railway companies, with 395 miles of mastered this most subtle mode of handling colours. track ; considerable portions of the north, south, and The only mode by which a knowledge of chiar west side roads being worked by the cable system. oscuro can be attained, so as to apply it to practice, is by studying it as exhibited in the

LES EVANSTON works of such painters as Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt, and Correggio.

Norwood Wenche Summerdale
Chiastolite, a variety of the mineral Anda-

Jefferson LAKE

raceland Cemetery lusite (q.v.).


Marine Hospita Chia'vari, a port of Italy, 24 miles ESE. of


Kelvind Genoa by rail, with a number of fine churches and

Groye pleng

Lincoln palaces, fisheries, and some trade. Pop. 8582.


Park Chiavenna, a town of Lombardy, beautifully

LOak Park situated to the north of Lake Como, on the way

ACT TY to the Splügen Pass. Pop. 2848.


Railway OF Chica, a dyestuff giving an orange-red colour



Douglas to cotton. It is obtained by boiling the leaves of

Hawthorne a species of Bignonia (B. chica), a climber of the

Riverside banks of the Cassiquiare and the Orinoco. The

Fairview Indians use it for painting their bodies. See


Kenwood BIGNONIACEÆ.-CHICA, or CHICHA, is also the name of a kind of beer made from Maize (q.v.).



Chicacole, a town of the district of Ganjam,

Solith Park

E Die in the Madras province, on the Languliya River, LYON

Normal Oak od 567 miles NE. of Madras by the Grand Trunk Road.



English Miles For many years it was a military station, and has

MY a reputation for muslins. Pop. (1881) 16,355.

18. Englewood

alti PAR South Chicago (pron. Shekah'go) is situated near



Ialker & B the north-east corner of the state of Illinois, about the fork and mouth of the Chicago Copyright 1889 in C.S. The dark shading shows the area of the great fire. River, on the west shore and nearby J. B. Lippincott the head of Lake Michigan, in 41° Company.

Among the public buildings of Chicago, many of 52 N. lat., and 87° 35' W. long. The city covers them noted for their architectural beauty, are an area of nearly 187 sq. m., or 119,180 acres, the new Board of Trade building, of granite, with and is divided by the river and its branches into a tower, rising 304 feet from the street level; north, south, and west 'sides,' which are connected the county court-house and city-hall, a structure with each other by forty-eight bridges, and two tun. I of Silurian limestone and Maine granite, erected nels for vehicles and passengers. The river frontage, at a cost of nearly $6,000,000; the criminal court counting both margins, extends 41 miles.

and county gaol : the l'nited States custom-house Joliet and Marquette visited the place in 1673, and post office; the Art Institute building; the and a rude church was erected by the latter in the Dearborn Observatory ; the Exposition Building, following year. At a subsequent date the French, an immense structure on the lake front, fre in extending their possessions to New Orleans, quently used for concerts and exhibitions ; the built a fort here, which was afterwards abandoned. Auditorium, a public hall, with a seating capacity In 1795 the Indians, who had been very trouble. of 7500; 24 theatres and several music-halls; 34 some, agreed to a treaty whereby they, among , hotels, some palatial in size and appointments : other things, ceded to the government one piece the Cook County Hospital, with accommodation for of land, six miles square, at the mouth of the 800 patients; 6 other hospitals, and 25 orphan Chekajo River, emptying into the south-west end of asylums and other benevolent institutions. Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood ;' and Chicago is also a city of church buildings, yet it near the mouth of the river • Fort Dearborn' was contains fewer church-going people in proportion built in 1804. The history of Chicago is a city to its population than any other American city dates from 1837, when it was incorporated, with & All the places of amusement-theatres, concert population within its limits of 4170. In 1840 the halls, dime museums, summer gardens, &c.- Are first census was taken, the inhabitants numbering crowded with the working classes on Sunday: 4479. In 1845, however, these figures were nearly and in the summer season the pleasure-steamers trebled, the statistics showing 12,088. Since that are loaded with excursionists. All Sunday laws

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have been repealed, and the day is one of general here for the different European governments. The festivity. Of churches there are about 420 of all following table shows the general trade returns for denominations, many of them fine specimens of 1890 : ecclesiastical architecture. The educational scheme of Chicago is excellent. Besides three high schools,

Cattle ..........

.....3,484,280 1,260,309 Sheep .......... ..


929,854 there are 194 public schools where, in 1890, 135,551 Dressed hogs........


148,850 pupils were enrolled, under 2850 teachers and prin.

Live hogs .....


1,985,700 cipals; the total cost of the system for the year

Horses .....


94,362 Cured meats, tons.


411,900 being $3,787,222. There are also a large number

Canned meats, cases


1,707,654 of medical and commercial colleges, a university Dressed beef, tons ...,


482,068 at Evanston, 12 miles to the north, with some 800 Beef, packages.....



Hides, tons...... students, and several religious seminaries in the


99,542 Wool, tons


19,500 city and its suburbs ; besides about 345 private

Pork, barrels


892,786 schools of all denominations, with 31,095 pupils Lard, tons.......


235,950 aod over 660 teachers. The public library, with

Cheese, tons...



Butter, tons.... 160,287 volumes, in 1890 ranked first in the United


78,345 Coal, tons...


724,019 States; and in that year the Newberry Free Li. Lead, tons...

30,500 brary, founded by a legacy of $2,000,000, was in Lumber, m..


812,655 course of construction. There are 20 daily news.

Shingles, m..


108,822 Salt, barrels .........

957,310 papers published in Chicago, and about 250 maga

Potatoes, bushels .................. 2,250,000 zines and periodicals.

The park system is without a parallel in Chicago is also the leading grain market of the America; it embraces Lincoln Park, on the lake world, and has unequalled facilities for handling, shore to the north, and five others, and is divided storing, and marketing this produce. There are into three sections, all connected or nearly so by 26 elevators, with a carrying capacity of 28,675,000 magnificent boulevards, which, with the park bushels. The receipts and shipments of grain, &c. drives, measure 74 miles. Among other open for 1890 were as follows: spaces are 20 large cemeteries, beautifully laid out, besides numerous smaller parks and squares, and Flour, barrels ...

.4,358,058 4,134,586 Wheat, bushels ..

14,248,770 11,975, 276 three driving parks close to the city. The water

Corn, bushels......

91,387,754 90,574,379 sopply system is considered to be the finest of any Oats, bushels.

75,150,249 70,768,222 in the country, with its 1205 miles of pipe ; a new Rye, bushels


3,280,433 Barley, bushels ...


9,470,971 tunnel, capable of furnishing 100,000,000 gallons a

Total bread-stutts, bushels ........221,141,000 204.674.923 day, and running 4 miles out into Lake Michigan,

Grass-seeds, tons........


29,606 vas constructed in 1888.

Flax-seed, bushels ...


6,594,581 The sewerage of the city is emptied, by a canal manerting the Chicago and Illinois rivers, into the Across the lake lie the immense pineries' of the Mississippi, and thence to the Gulf of Mexico; and states of Michigan and Wisconsin, from whence the garbage is disposed of by fire, in a furnace the Chicago market is mainly supplied with lumspecially constructed for the purpose, capable of ber, the transactions in which exceed those of any einsuming 150 tons a day of the large cities of other city. The estimated stocks on hand in the the mountry, Chicago is one of the healthiest. The yards and planing-mills at the close of 1890 was

test death-rate was 15.70 in 1878, and the 527,850,235 feet. highest 23 60 in 1882. The rate of mortality for The manufactures of the city include nearly 149) was 18-22

every conceivable variety of production, from The great secret of Chicago's phenomenal growth a child's toy to the largest steam-engine. The is ite transportation facilities by rail and water. number of establishments for 1890 is given as 3250; Pally one-third of the railroad system of the United capital employed, $190,000,000; employees, 177,000; States centres there, and, with its branches, com , wages paid, $96, 200,000, with the value of the prises over 66,000 miles of permanent way. The whole product estimated at $538,000,000. The amant of through tonnage forwarded via Chicago wholesale trade of the city is of equally extensive hors during 1890 was 4,595,440 tons. But the | proportions, the volume of business for 1890 being Dreat waterway by Lake Michigan and its connec placed at $486,600,000; the value of imported mer. tons is unquestionably of most importance for the chandise entered for consumption was $15,406,786, prosperity of the city. In 1890, 11,300 vessels, and the duties collected thereon $5,182, 476.50. with a tonnage of 5,052, 172, entered, and 11,401, Chicago has 37 banks, with a total capital of about mth a tonnage of 5,063,879, cleared the port. $25,332,000; the bank clearings for 1890 amounted Most of the lake-vessels, though they are often to $4,093,145,904. The assessed valuatio arge and handsome craft, differ considerably in | and personal property in the city for 1890 was build and rig from sea-going vessels. In 1888 a $219,334,368. steamer from London direct landed her cargo at What is known as the great fire, which broke this city. This was the first event of the kind, out on Sunday, October 7, 1871, devastated a total although sailing vessels had previously cleared area, including streets, of nearly 39 sq. m. ; about thence for European ports.

17,450 buildings were burned, 98,500 persons renSouth-west of the city, and just beyond its limits, dered homeless, and some 200 lives sacrificed, the are the l'nion Stock-yards, established in 1866, the total money loss being estimated at $190,000,000. largest live-stock market in the world, occupying As a result of this disaster, when this central por40 acres of land, and costing upwards of $3,500,000. tion was rebuilt, brick, iron, and stone structures The yard and pens cover 160 acres, with accommoda- were erected, and stone pavements also were subtena fur 25.000 head of cattle, 150,000 head of hours, stituted for wood. Another conflagration, on July 3.) sheep, and stabling for 1000 horses. About 14, 1874, destroyed about $4,000,000 worth of .) miles of railroad track are owned by the com- property, including over 600 houses, mostly frame any, and these connect with every road centering shanties. On the evening of May 4, 1886, occurred the city. The combined capacity of the packing the Haymarket Massacre,' in which eight police.

s kated at the yards is about 80,000 hogs men were killed and sixty maimed by a dynamite

day. Another remarkable feature of the bonub thrown by an anarchist from among a crowd Haayo cattle trade is the dressed beef' business: of labour agitators. For this crime four men were d large orders for canned meats are also filled, hanged, November 1, 1987, and three others

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