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marly at the northern limit of Shen-hsî, when it' to 1500. It is not built so grandly in its western turns directly south, and flowing for 500 miles portions after it has met the Ho River, nor should it between that province and Shan-hsi, comes to the be supposed that to the east of this point it is all solid

de of the Great Plain, and pursues an eastward masonry. It is formed by two strong retaining cane The (Chiang on the contrary flows south walls of brick, rising from granite foundations, the tra Batang, between Sze-ch'wan and Yun-nan, space between being filled up with stones and earth. tall it reaches the southern limit of the former pro- | The breadth of it at the base is about 23 feet, at the

ce Then it turns north, and holds its way east- top 15, and the height varies from 15 to 30 feet. The word through Sze-ch'wan and the other intervening surface at the top was covered with bricks, and is princes till it enters the ocean in lat. 32. The now overgrown with grass. What foreigners go to Hodoe not pursue so regular a course. Its direc visit from Peking is merely a loop-wall of later Ina indeed from the edge of the plain is eastwards, formation, inclosing portions of Chih-li and Shan. hat in the course of time it has ever and anon hsi. ranged its channel. Chinese history opens, in the The lakes are very many, but not on so great a

a king, in the 24th century B.C., with an account scale as the rivers. It will be sufficient to mention wat one of its inundations, described in terms which three-the Tung-ting Ha, the largest, having a bare suggested to some students the Noachian circumference of 220 miles, and entering into the blage, and the labours on it of the Great Yü. names of the provinces Hů-pei and Hu-nan; the The terrible calamities cansed by it so often have Po-yang Ha, in the north of Chiang-hsi, the seat peorared for it the name of China's Sorrow.' So of the manufactories of the best porcelain ; and the weatly as 1887 it burst its southern bank near T'ai Ha, partly in Chiang-sū and partly in Cheh.

Ling Chan, and poured its mighty flool, with chiang, famous for its romantic scenery and hojayas devastation and the destruction of millions numerous islets.

hves, into the populous province of Ho-nan. The country is rich in the products necessary for It s bow the task of the Manchở rulers of the the support and comfort of the people, and for the empire to retne ly this disaster, and regulate the adornment of their civilisation. There is in it ternble river for the future. Both the Ho and the every variety of climate ; but the average tempera(hang must have a course of more than 3000 miles. , ture is lower than in any other country in the same These two rivers are incomparably the greatest in latitude. The Chinese themselves consider Kwang. Ihana, bat there are many others which would tung, Kwang-hsi, and Yun-nan to be less healthy elsewhere be accounted great. And among those than the other provinces ; but foreigners using rivers we may well account the Grand Canal, in- proper precautions may enjoy their life in every tried to connect the northern and southern parts province. of the empire by an easy water communication ; Wheat, barley, maize, millet, and other cereals and this it did when it was in good order, extending are chiefly cultivated in the northern regions, and trum Peking to Hang-châu in ('heh-chiang, a dis- rice in the southern. The writer once had a bag of tance of more than 600 miles. The glory of making oatmeal sent to him from Kalgan, north of the loopthis canal is due to Kublai, the first sovereign wall mentioned above. Culinary or kitchen herbs, of the Yuan dynasty, of whom Marco Polo says: mushrooms, and aquatic vegetables, with ginger * He has cansed a water communication to be and a variety of other condiments, are everywhere mule in the shape of a wide and deep channel produced and largely used. From Formosa there dng between stream and stream, between lake comes sugar, and the cane thrives also in the

4 lake, forming as it were a great river on southern provinces. Oranges, pummeloes, lichis, which large vessels can ply.' Steam communi. pomegranates, peaches, plantains, pine-apples, ration all along the eastern seaboard from mangoes, grapes, and many other fruits and nuts, (antea to Tien-tsin has very much superseded its are supplied" in most markets. Tea is noted

s, and portions of it are now in bad condition, below. Opium has been increasingly grown of bat as a truly imperial achievement it continues to late within the country. The Chinese are embe a grand memorial of Kublai. Even Barrow phatically an agricultural people. From time wrote of it in 1806: In point of magnitude, our immemorial the sovereign has initiated the year, most extensive inland navigation in England can which begins with the spring, by turning over a 50 bore be compared to the grand trunk that inter few furrows in the sacred field;' and in each pro

eta (hins than a park or garden fish-pond to the vince the highest authority performs a similar great lake of Winandermere.'

ceremony--to impress on the people the importance After the Grand Canal a few sentences may be of husbandry. The hoe holds the place of our given to the Great Wall, another vast achieve. spade; the plough retains its primitive simplicity; bent of human labour, especially as in 1887 there i irrigation is assiduously and skilfully employed. Vie pragtaphs in many of our newspapers re- | The tsing, or well, which was anciently in the presenting its existence as merely a myth. Vot so centre of the plots of land assigned to the families

wful as the canal, and having failed to answer the which cultivated them, is still seen in the north; pare for which it was intended to be a defence and where the canal or river-beds are below the level Nainst the incursions of the northern tribes, there of the fields much ingenuity is displayed in raising ut still stands, while the walls of Hadrian and the water to them by wheels and scoops. No other Antoninus in our own country have crumbled to people show such a sense of the value of human the ground, and their course can only be indistinctly ordure as manure. Nothing that comes from man to bere and there. It was in 214 B.C. that or beast is allowed to be lost. All is preserved With Hwang Ti determined to erect a grand barrier and prepared for use. This does not conduce to the el slang the north of his vast empire. The wall cleanliness of the towns or the fragrancy of the renmenees at the Shan-hai Pass (40° X. lat., 119 country ; but it largely increases the productiveness WE long ), where it was visited by a squadron of of the field and the garden. Her Majesty's vessels of war in 1839, and was seen, The horse, the ox, the sheep, the fowl, the day, the pig : - Land Jocelyn describes it, 'scaling the precipices, These are the six animals which men breed for food, ad tapping the craggy hills of the country. From are well-known lines ; but we do not now hear of the point it is carried westwards till it terminates horses being eaten; and though dogs are to be at the ("his-yü barrier gate, the road through which seen in baskets in the markets, or cut up on the made to the Western Regions.' Its length in a stalls, they are such as have been carefully fed. Straight line would be 1250 miles, but, if measured Fowls, including ducks and gerne, are abundantly drag ite singonities, this distance must be increased bred and consumed ; of ducks, immense numbers

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are artificially hatched. Comparatively little beef the grass-cloth is made. The cotton-plant, though is eaten, not so much because of the prevalence not indigenous, appears to have been introduced of Buddhism, which forbids the taking of life, as from Khoten (Eastern Turkestan) in the 11th cenfrom a feeling of gratitude to the animal which tury, and is now found everywhere, but is cultirenders the most important service in tilling the vated most extensively in the great basin of the ground. Pork is the most used of all flesh meat, Chiang. The well-known nankeen is named from and the number of pigs is enormous. In addition | Nanking, a centre for its manufacture. The to these animals, the seaboard, rivers, lakes, and Chinese cotton is inferior to the imported cloth in ponds supply an immense quantity of excellent fish | its finish, but is heavier and more durable. (For taken by the net. Angling is not much practised; the flora of China, see Asia, Vol. I. p. 491.) Of but a boat with its complement of cormorants, woollen fabrics the production is not large; but trained to dive for the fish and bring them to their we meet with felt caps, rugs of camels' hair, and masters, is a pleasant sight. Shellfish also yield | furs of various kinds. As the houses have no their quota to the food of the people. An idea is fireplaces, people keep themselves warm in cold prevalent that the Chinese are gross feeders, but weather by increasing the number of garments this is true only of the very poor. A first-class which they wear. On the whole China has more Chinese dinner with its twenty-seven courses may resources in itself for the comfortable support and hold its own with most luxurious tables. The clothing of its vast population than most other famed birds'-nest soup is a misnomer. Nests of the countries. Collocalia esculenta, brought from the Indian Archi. For building materials the Chinese use, like ourpelago, are sliced into other soup, and supposed to selves, timber, bricks, and stone; but in the south impart to the compound an invigorating and stimu inexpensive houses are often made of a kind of lating quality, but the writer never felt that it concrete called "sifted earth,' a compound of added either to its flavour or piquancy.

decomposed granite and lime, with the addition For beverages the use of tea has nearly superseded sometimes of a little oil, pounded in a wooden every other. The plant does not grow in the north, framework, which is shifted till the walls have but is cultivated extensively in the western pro- reached their intended height. Anciently, as we vinces and in those south of the Great Chiang. The learn from the Shih King, the largest structures infusion of the leaves was little, if at all, drunk in were raised in this way. The walls, if well ancient times, but now its use is universal. Fa:protected by overhanging eaves and plaster against chien, Hü-pei, and Hû-nan produce most largely the wet, are strong and durable. Granite and limeblack teas; the green comes chiefly from Cheh-chiang stone are found in many places, and the largest and An-hui; both kinds come from Kwan-tung rocks are ingeniously split and wrought into buildand Sze-ch'wan. Next to silk, if not equally with ing blocks. The architecture of China is defective, it, tea is China's most valuable export; and by however, in the grandeur and grace which mark nothing does it contribute more to the comfort and that of some other countries; the best specimens of well-being of the rest of the world. To the people it are seen in the marble bridges and altars of themselves its use has been invaluable, and more Peking, and in the Buddhistic buildings on the Hill than anything else has promoted the temperance of Longevity' and other places in the neighbourthat is characteristic of them. They are acquainted hood. No one who has seen them can ever forget with distillation, and from rice and millet produce the gigantic figures of animals and the statues alcoholic liquors. Their literature abounds from lining the road that leads to the tombs of several the 12th century B.C. to the present dynasty with of the Ming emperors, a considerable distance north warnings against the injury of strong drink; but from the capital. In the country, houses are more effectual than the proclamations of authority seldom of more than one story. Even in the has been the habit of drinking tea. As compared cities the public offices and large business establishwith the populations of western nations, the Chinese ments are not remarkable for their height, but for are sparing in the use of strong drink, and it is rare their depth, as you pass from one series of rooms to to see one of them intoxicated. They do not sit another through intervening courts. Rising condown to tea as a special meal, nor do they make it spicuous above the other buildings are the pawn. so strong as we do, or add sugar or cream to it, brokers' establishments, whilst the most substantial but they have it at hand, and offer it to visitors, and elegantly finished structures are the guildhalls all day long. The ordinary name of the plant is belonging to the various trades, or to the merchants ch'a; but the leaf was first imported into England congregating in them from the different provinces. from Amoy in FQ-chien, where the dialectical The most picturesque buildings are the pavilions pronunciation of the name is t'ay, which the Irish. and pagodas. Of the former the most striking is one man still retains. The use of opium will be dis in what has become famous by being miscalled the cussed in a separate article.

"Summer Palace' at Peking, about 14 feet square The next essential to food and drink in the and 20 high, made of pure copper. The pagodas economy of life is clothing, and for this China are Buddhistic structures, borrowed from the topes has abundant provision in its stores of silk, linen, of India, where they were built at first as deposi. and cotton. It was no doubt the original home tories for the relics of Buddha and distinguished of silk. From the 23d century B.C. and earlier, Arhats. In China they have taken a peculiar form, the care of the silkworm, and the spinning and and are supposed to exercise mysterious geomantic weaving of its produce, have been the special work influences. They are the most remarkable objects of woman. As it is the duty of the sovereign to in the landscapes of the country, and there are few turn over a few furrows in the spring to stimulate cities which cannot boast of one or more, always the people to their agricultural tasks, so his con- of an uneven number of stories. The most celesort should perform an analogous ceremony with brated of them, the Porcelain Tower of Nanking, her silkworms and mulberry-trees. The tree grows is now a thing of the past, having been blown np everywhere, and in all the provinces some silk is by the iconoclastic T'ai-p'ings in 1856. It was of produced ; but Kwan-tung, Sze-ch'wan, and Chehan octagonal form, and was intended to be of thir. chiang furnish the best and the most. The manu. teen stories, rising to a height of 329 feet; but only factures of silk are not inferior or less brilliant than nine stories were completed, the building of which any that are produced in Europe, and nothing can took nineteen years (1411-30). It was built mass. exceed the embroidery of the Chinese. Indigenous ively of brick and faced with slabs of glazed to the country also are hemp and other fibrous porcelain-green, red, yellow and white, with plants, such as the Bohmeria nivea, from which I lamps hanging or from the project the

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different stories one of the architectural wonders the deer family. The musk.deer is greatly valued. of the world.

Among the more domestic quadrupeds, the breed In the cities, and studding the country also, are of horses and cattle is dwarfish, and no attempts many Pai-laus or Honorary Portals, which often seem to be made to improve them. The ass is a carried the writer's thoughts to the old Temple I more lively animal in the north than with us, and Bar, though not of so substantial A construction as it was. They are tokens of imperial favour, erected in bonour of distinguished persons, and many of them signalising the virtue of widows who steadfastly refused to be married a second time.

The streets of the cities, especially in the south, are not wider than so many lanes, and the streams of people hurrying through them give the stranger an idea that they are more populous than they really are, though against this hasty as. sumption must be set the rarity of the appearance of women in them. They are paved with slabs of stone, but badly drained, and the heat and stench render a probenade through them anything bat agreeable. Most of them have high-sounding names, such as The

Temple of the Goddess Ma Tsu-pu, Ning-po. Street of Benevolence and Right

(From The Middle Kingdom, by S. W. Williams, LL.D.) engenees.' As in the old Roman cities, tradesmen of the same pursuits are found receives more attention. About Peking one is very much together in the same street. The streets struck by many beautiful specimens of the mule. are wider in the northern cities, till we arrive at Princes are seen riding on mules, or drawn by them Peking, where the wide ways of the Mancha portion in elegant litters, while their attendants accompany combine with the imposing walls and their lofty them on horseback. The camel is only seen in towers to make the visitor think for a time that the north. One of the first things that strikes a he has arrived at the grandest city of the world. stranger in the capital is the troops of the shaggy

When you enter the house of a well-to-do family, animal lying or feeding about the walls, with their you find the furniture sufficient, though somewhat Mongol keepers, looking as uncouth as their charge. santy and not luxurious. The floor may be The birds of prey are many. Minos, crows, and

wered with matting, but not with a carpet or rugs. magpies abound. The last are 'sacred birds,' The tables and straight-backed chairs are of a dark, which it is not safe for the traveller to shoot. The brary wood resembling ebony. A few pictures, people are fond of song-birds, especially the lark, not works of art, are hung on the walls, along with the thrush, and the canary. The song of the scrolls of fine writing, expressing moral sentiments nightingale is familiar. The smaller birds are not or historical and topographical references, while so afraid of man as with us. Buddhism, with which somne jars and other specimens of fine porcelain are life is sacred, has done much to secure for birds, put down here and there. There may be a couch both with old and young, immunity from moles. of two made of bamboo and rattan, and stools of tation and death. The lovely gold and silver the same materials. The bamboo, that queen of pheasants are well known, and also the Yuan-yang the Arundinacea, deserves especial mention. A i Anas galericulata), or mandarin duck, the emblem

lump of bamboos adds a graceful charm to the to the Chinese of conjugal fidelity. wenery, and there seems to be no end to the uses The people are fond of flowers, and make whrh the plant serves. The schoolmaster employs excellent gardeners. You look in vain, however, it for his ferule, and the mandarin or magistrate in the gardens of the wealthy for the gay parterres iue his most common instrument of punishment. which so please the eye in England. They cultivate The writing paper is made from it. Its young their favourites mostly in pots ; and the willow. shoots are used for food, and for comfits and plate pattern,' with its arbours, bridges, and ponds, pickles. Its stems, according to their size, are glowing often with the large and brilliant flowers employed for pencil handles, for canes, and for of the nelumbium, supplies a good picture of a poles Fans, cages, baskets, and fish-creels are Chinese garden of a superior order. All constructed with it. Its roots are carved into While the Chinese have, as we have seen, done grotesque figures, and fashioned into blocks of a justice to most of the natural capabilities of their peruliar shape to be used in divination. China country, they have greatly failed" in developing its wwald not be China without the bamboo

mineral resources. The skill which their lapidaries The country is too thickly peopled and well display in cutting crystal and other quartzose altivated to harbour many cild and dangerous minerals is well known, and their work in jade, Brumalı, though one occasionally hears of a tiger which they so highly prize, is very fine. But a that las ventured from the forest and been killed mineral more valuable than any other has been

raptured. The lion was never a denizen of comparatively neglected. The coalfields of China (hina, and is only to be seen rampant in stone are enormous-more than twenty times the extent na troot of temples. The rhinoceros, elephant, and of those of Great Britain ; but up to this time the tapiz are said still to exist in the forests and majority of them can hardly be said to have been Faup of Yun-nan; but the supply of elephants more than scratched. Immense quantities of iron s Peking for the carriage of the emperor when he ore, moreover, must have been extracted from the exceed to the great sacrificial altars has been earth during the millenniums of its history, but a

for several reigns. Both the brown and much greater amount is still untouched. ('opper,

e met with, and several varieties of lead, tin, silver, and gold are known to exist in

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many places, but little has been done to make the ancient practice in the country, though it seems stores of them available. More attention has been have prevailed since our 6th century. The distur directed to their mines since the government and tion is produced by bandaging the feet in earr companies began to have steamers of their own; and a scheme has been approved by the govern. ment for working the gold-mines in the valley of the Amoor River. The government has become conscious of its mineral wealth, and there is no calculating the resources to which it may attain.

A gold and silver currency is one of the first things which it has to provide. Thus far the only currency has been the copper cash, cumbrous and often debased, varying in its relative value in every district, and the source of endless trouble to the traveller. Even foreign silver coins are treated as bullion, and taken by weight. What is called * sycee silver' is made from them. After they Foot of Chinese Girl ( aged 16 Years), in three position have been defaced and broken to pieces, they are

Copied from a cast in Trinity College, Dublin. melted and cast into ingots of different sizes called

(Length of foot, 49 inches.) shoes.' The comfort of the housekeeper, as well as of the traveller, is interfered with by the years, so as to prevent their further growth. The necessity of keeping small fine scales or steelyards very poor and servants are not subjected to this to weigh every outlay and receipt. Paper money torture, but such is the force of fashion that up is indeed in circulation, but the banking system have known humble girls of twelve or thirtees exists as yet only in a rudimentary condition. vainly try to reduce the size of their feet, thinking

Another want in China is that of good roads and | thereby to make themselves more attractive. comfortable conveyances. The necessity for good The separation of the sexes until marriage has roads first presented itself to Shih Hwang Ti (214 been a feature of the social life from the earliest B.C.), who, after he had extended the empire to times. In the old feudal period, at the age nearly its present limits, ordered the preparation of seven, boys and girls of the same family did nu them seven years before he commenced the building occupy the same mat, nor eat together, and at the of the Great Wall; and it has been said that there age of ten a girl ceased to appear outside the are now 20,000 roads in China ; but according to the women's apartments. Her governess taught her reports of travellers in the present century, the the arts of pleasing speech and manners, to be good roads among them are very few. The govern. docile and obedient, to handle the hempen fibres. ment couriers perform their journeys on horseback. to deal with the cocoons, to weave silks and form Where communication by water is abundant the fillets, to learn all woman's work, how to furnish want of roads is not so much felt; but in their garments, to watch the sacrifices, to supply the absence in times of scarcity it is a most difficult liquors and sauces, to fill the stands and dishes thing to convey supplies to starving populations, with pickles and brine, and to assist in setting as in the famine which prevailed in Shan-hsî and forth the appartenances for the ceremonies. Ai other northern provinces a few years ago. It is fifteen she assumed the hairpin (as a token tha: owing doubtless to the want of roads that the she had arrived at woman's estate), at twenty sbe wheelbarrow is so much used as the chief vehicle of was married, or if there were occasion for the delay, communication and commerce from the Chiang at twenty-three.' We read nothing of any lite northwards. The writer once had an experience of rary training for the daughters then, nor is there this, when, along with a companion, he was con any now, though Chinese history is not without veyed 280 miles on one of those 'cany wagons instances of learned women and distinguished licht' in about 8 days. Slow as the journey was, authoresses. In the important event of marriage the fatigue was much less than if they had been the parents exercise a supreme control ; and this jolted over the same distance in a springless mule. has given rise to the class of match-makers or go cart in half the time. Even at Peking roads once betueens, who are consulted by the parents, make paved with marble slabs have been allowed to fall inquiries, and by an examination of the horoscopes into such a state of dilapidation as to be full of dis of the parties and other methods of their profession comfort and danger ; and the route and convey. determine the question of the mutual suitability of ances from the capital to T'ien-tsin, its port, are the match. When a marriage has been agreed disgraceful to the government.

upon, it is carried through with a great variety Social Habits. - The dress of the poor is very of ceremonies, the parties most concerned being much alike in both sexes; and though it is regu. supposed never to have previously seen each lated for all classes by sumptuary laws, it is varied other. In the majority of cases the husband among the wealthy by the richness of the materials and wife thus brought together seem to take and the various ornamentation. The most striking to each other very well. Notwithstanding its thing in the appearance of the men to a foreigner defects and differences from our ideal, its result is the queue or plaited tail from the hair of the seems to be a fair amount of peace and happicrown, all the rest of the head being shaved. This ness. When the wife becomes a mother she was not the old fashion of doing up the hair, but is treated as a sort of divinity in the househokl was enforced on the Chinese by the Manchus in There is but one proper wife (chăng-ch'i) in the 1627, when they had commenced the conquest of family, but there is no law against a man's having the empire. Inscriptions on stone tablets in old , secondary wives or concubines ; and such conner temples in Japan, erected by refugees of the 17th ' tions are common wherever the means of the family century, mention this degrading requirement as are sufficient for their support. Many of the one of the reasons why they had fed from their greatest names in the nation's history are stained country. All dislike to the custom, however, has with this practice, and the evils of it have been and now disappeared. A foreigner is surprised in the are very great. There are seven legal grounds for same way by the small foot of the more respectable divorcing a wife : Disobedience to her husband's women. These were not enforced upon them by parents ; not giving birth to a son ; dissolute con the Mancha conquerors, whose women allow their 'duct; jealousy (of her husband's attentions-ie feet to grow to the natural size, nor was it a very to the other inmates of his harem); talkativeness;

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thieving; and leprosy. These grounds, however, cycle being made to commence with the sixtieth may be nullified by the three considerations :' If year of Hwang Ti in 2637 B.C. But this is merely her parents be dead; if she have passed with her | a conventional arrangement. There were Chinese husband through the years of mourning for his in China before Hwang Ti, and the cycle names for parenta ; and if he have become rich from being the years prior to 827 B.C. cannot be fully relied on. poor. In many cases the betrothment of children The documents of the Shû King begin with the is made at an early age, leading often to injurious reigns of Yâo and Shun (2356-2206 B.C.); and and melancholy issues.

from various intimations in that work we are The charge of infanticide has been brought brought to conclude that the nation then consisted against the family life in China, the victims in of a collection of tribes or clans of the same race, the vast majority of instances being the female ruled by a sovereign, nominated by his predecessor, children. That it is stained by this crime, and approved by the people as the worthiest man though not to the extent that has often been to reign over them. alleged, cannot be denied. It is among the very With Yü, the successor of Shun, and the hero of

poor that the barbarity is chiefly perpetrated, and Yao's deluge to which we have already made refer1 their poverty is the reason of it. From the ances. | ence, there came a change in the principle of suc

tral worship which prevails among the people, the cession to the throne. As it is expressed, He denire for male children is greater in China than familied the kingdom.' Then commenced the perhaps in any other country. In one case the wife Feudal State, which lasted under three dynasties of a professing Christian asked the writer whether (Hsiâ, 2205-1767 B.C.; Shang or Yin, 1766-1123 her husband might not be allowed, like any other B.C. ; and Châu, 1122–255 B.C.) for a period of person, to bring a concubine to the house, as chil. nearly two thousand years. The feudal system of dren were denied to herself, and she would bring up China was very similar to that which prevailed in any boy that might be born on her knees as her Europe during what we call the middle ages. At own child. Public opinion is certainly against the a grand durbar held by Yü after his accession crime of infanticide; the government is to blame there were, it is said, ten thousand princes present in that it does not address itself to punish the deed with their jade symbols of rank. But the feudal and put it down. Even the public opinion against states were constantly being absorbed it is not so emphatic as it ought to be. Foundling another. On the rise of the Shang dynasty they bospitals and asylums for the aged are to be found | were only somewhat over three thousand, which in inent of the large towns, but their cleanliness had decreased to thirteen hundred when King Wa and management are not satisfactory.

established the sovereignty of the Châu. In 403 The complexion of the Chinese inclines to yellow B.C. we find only seven great states, all sooner or is, as they say themselves, of the colour of the later claiming to be the kingdom,' and contending olive' The same coarse black hair and apparently for the supremacy, till Ts'in (Ch'in) put down all the oblique eyes, with high cheekbones and roundish others, and in 221 B.c. its king assumed the title of face, belong to them all from the Great Wall to the Hwang Ti, or Emperor, and determined that there island of Hai-nan. They are stout and muscular should be no more feudal principalities, and that, ** compared with other eastern peoples, temperate, as there is but one sun in the sky, there should be industnous, cheerful, and easily contented. They but one ruler in the nation. are addicted to gambling, and are generally held to From that year dates the imperial form of the be given also to mendacity and larceny. Many of Chinese government, which has thus existed for more them are so ; and where is the country where there than 2100 years. The changes of dynasty have been are not many such! The longer one lives among many, two or more sometimes ruling together, each them, however, the better he likes them, and having but a nominal supremacy over the whole the better be thinks of them.

nation. The greater dynasties have been those of They bury their dead in graves which are built Han (206 B.C.-220 A.D. ), Tang (618906), Sung round in the form of a horseshoe, and often with ( 960–1279), Yuan (the Mongol, 1280-1367), the much display and at great expense. The mourning Ming (1368-1643), and the Ch'ing (Manchû-Tar. rites are ielious, and embrace a variety of sacrifices tar, 1643 to the present date). and other observances. No subject occupies so The long and persistent existence of the Chinese large a portion of the Classic of Ritual Observances. nation has been owing partly to its geographical

There is no weekly day of worship and rest like position keeping it apart from other great nations, var Sanday. At the New Year the government and partly to its educational culture and training, offices are shot for about a month. New-year's Where the race came from at first takes us beyond Day is the one universal holiday, and at this time the footsteps of history. The Chinese were not the whope are closed for several days. The whole earliest inhabitants of the country. They made Lation seems to be dissolved in festivity and joy. their way from the north and west of China The people dress in their best ; the temples are proper, pushing before them the older inhabitants, mated : garnbling tables are surrounded by crowds; exterminating them or absorbing them, or leaving the rise of fireworks or crackers' is incessant. portions of them within their own ever-enlarging Throughout the year every month has its festivals, borders, as wrecks of tribes still subsisting here

which the most general are that of 'Lanterns,' and there, and apparently mouldering to extinction. on the fall moon of the first month; of the Tombs,' From the first appearance of the Chinese we find Later on in the spring; of Dragon Boats,' in the among them written characters (see the next hith month; and of - All Souls,' in the seventh article), and certain elements of intellectual and month, for the benefit of departed relatives and moral culture and religious beliefs. (The conneckunty ghosts in the world of spirits. Theatrical tion of Chinese culture with that of ancient Baby. sepresentations are immensely popular. “Strolling lonia has been suggested but not proved.) companies can easily be hired ; with the bamboo The Ruler and the Sage confront us in the uod matting, sheds, often very large, can be readily earliest records of the nation; the Ruler to govern erected for the exhibition. Individual actors be the people, and the Sage or Man of Intelligence to

e celebrated as with us, and their services are assist and advise him, and spread abroad among vell remunerated. Females do not appear on the them the lessons of truth and duty. It is said in a Rare Their parts are performed by boys got up document of the Isth century B.C., Heaven gives fe the parpose

birth to the people with such desires that without History. The chronology of China is measured a Ruler they will fall into all disorders, and heaven

by cer* they but by sexagenaries, the first again gives birth to the Man of Intelligence to

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