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regulate them.' Thus the sovereign and the sage where as a rule every third year special examiners are both the ordinances of heaven; and it has been from Peking conduct the examination for the degree the rule in the various stages of the nation's of Chü (Ků) jàn, or men for promotion,' which history that officers of the government should pos- perhaps three in a thousand of them may obtain, sess whatever educational culture its institutions and which entitles them to some minor appointcould supply. The same written character (shih) ments. To take the third degree of Ts'in shih, or serves to designate both a scholar and an officer, men to be presented to the emperor,' the successand of the four classes of the people, scholars or ful Chü-jån from all the provinces must proceed to officers, agriculturists, mechanics, and merchants,' || the metropolis, perhaps about six thousand in all, the first has always been held to be the head.' and there, also as a rule triennially, pass a test Even in the feudal times the system of examina examination, the successful candidates at which tions for the selection of the officials existed in a then go in for the palace examination, conducted rudimentary state, though it was not till our 7th within the precincts of the imperial palace itself; century that it began to assume its present form, after which the lists are published in three classes, open to all, excepting monks, play-actors, and the first being a tripos of the three best men, who menial servants.'
become for the time the heroes of the day. They This competitive system, as now existing with and a proportion of the others are admitted to the all the necessary machinery, is organised in three ranks of the members of the Han-lin, the Forest principal gradations—the provincial, the metropoli of Pencils,' or 'Grand Academy of Literature.' tan, and the palace examinations. The students | The remainder receive appointments in the proof each province who have attained at the district | vinces or at the capital, according as vacancies examinations to the style of Hsiú Ts'di, or 'men occur. Such is an outline, as large as our space of talent,' assemble at the provincial capital, I will allow, of the competitive system of examina
A Chinese School when the master has gone out (Peking). (From a Chinese Picture.) tions by which the government of China seeks to and Shang-Tî, “the Supreme Ruler.' The state secure the ablest men of the empire for its service. worship of Heaven or God was, and still is, conThe examinations are testing and fairly conducted. fined to the sovereign as the father and priest The subjects are taken from the literature of the of the people. The will of God is to be learned country itself. There are already indications not from the moral principles of man's nature. Governa few that the system will undergo the modifica- ment is ordained by God for the good of the people, tions made necessary by the new relations with and as soon as a sovereign ceases to seek that other countries which have arisen in our own time; good and his rule is antagonistic to it, he has mathematics became a subject of examination in forfeited his title to the throne; and thus it is 1888. The system has tended to impress the people that the changes of dynasty are always referred to with the value of education; but it must not be as the will of Heaven,' and the sovereign professes supposed that as a whole they are highly educated. to be such by the grace of God.' Associated with Everywhere indeed there are primary schools, not the worship of Heaven or God, there was the governmental, but maintained by the people them. worship of heaven and earth and the powers of selves. A smattering of education is widely nature, but only as subordinate to God and fulfilldiffused; but apart from the official classes, those ing His will for the good of men ; and also of who can read freely or write readily are few.
distinguished men, as having by their discoveries The three religions of China are Confucianism, and achievements defended, benefited, and blessed Taoism, and Buddhism. Most writers represent the people of their own and future times. There the first not so much as a religion, but as a was also common to their sovereign and all the morality; but there always underlies its teachings | people the worship of their ancestors. This last a recognition of the religion which prevailed in was and is considered as an expression of filial the conntry from the most ancient times—the picty, the perpetuation of the duty which every belief of a Supreme Power, expressed at first by one owes to his parents the first and chief of the name Heaven,' which soon came to be desig: all virtues. On this Confucius laid great stress. nated also by the personal names Ti, the Ruler,' I endeavouring to develop all other v from i
His great object may be said to have been the through the provinces, have it as their duty to inculcation of duty, setting forth with wondrous memorialise the emperor on all subjects connected iteration the character of his superior or ideal man. with the welfare of the people and the conduct of Several times he enunciated the golden rule' in a the government. negative form, • What ye would not that men In the administration of the provinces, a governorshould do to you, do not do to them.' Taoism general and governor are for the most part associ. derives its name from the treatise of Li Urh, ated as colleagues ; though in Chih-li, Kan-sû, and commonly called LÂo-tsze, a contemporary of Sze-ch'wan there is only the governor-general, and Confucins, called The Tao or Way and its Char- in Shan-hsî, Shan-tung, and Ho-nan only the acteristics.' The Way is the quiet, passionless governor. Below these two functionaries there discharge of all which our nature and relations are the lieutenant-governor (commonly called the prompt or require us to do, without striving or treasurer), the provincial judge, the salt comp. crying, and the method of maintaining and pre-troller, and the grain-intendant. The provinces werving life. * Heaven' in this Way' is not are further divided for the purposes of adminisa ruler or legislator as in Confucianism, but only tration into fů or prefectures (amounting in all A pattern. The system was older than Lâo-tsze, the provinces to 191), châu or departments (in all, and indigenous in China, but associated with 58 independent of the fú, within which they DDY superstitions; and after the entrance of are comprehended, and 155 subject to it), and Baddhistn into China it adopted many of its hsien or districts, subject to the fa (in all 1288). peculiarities. The recognised head of Taoism has There are also four fú occupied principally by the has seat on the Lung-hå Mountain in Chiang-hsi. aboriginal peoples, twenty-eight châu and four Lao-teze has the merit of having formulated the hsien. The rank of the different officials in these grand principle that good will overcome evil, and provinces is indicated by a knob or button on the should be returned for it. For Buddhism, which top of their caps. In the two highest it is made was introduced or rather invited to China in our of red coral ; in the third it is clear blue; in the first century, see the article BUDDHISM.
fourth, of lapis lazuli ; in the fifth, of crystal ; in There is no priesthood in Confucianism ; but the sixth, of an opaque white stone; and in the Baddhism has its monks and nuns, and Taoism three lowest it is yellow, of gold or gilt. They its monks. The government, while not interfering also wear insignia or badges embroidered on a with the internal organisation of either of these square patch, in the front or back of their robes, systems, has established a scheme of gradations of representing birds on the civilians and animals on munk and authority in order that it may have the the military officers. control of them in its own hands. It would no As regards the revenue of the empire we need doubt recognise Christianity in the same way, if more information than we possess at present. the different missions could possibly be amalga Each province is required to support itself and to mated, and would unitedly try to adapt themselves furnish a certain surplusage for the imperial govern. to the bed of Procrustes which it would prepare ment; but both the provinces and the court are for them in the various departments and districts. constantly finding their income insufficient. Of Thuse is not the place in which to speak of the the income of the several provinces for local pur. comparative number of the adherents of the three poses we cannot speak; but we take the following tehnions in China. To claim a majority for those estimate of the imperial revenue from a series of of any one of them is very absurd. As a matter carefully prepared articles contributed to the China of fact, Confucianisın represents the intelligence and morality of China ; Taoism its superstitions ;
Thela. and Buddhism its ritualism and idolatry, while yet
1. Land-tax portion, payable in silver........... 20,000,000
rice tribute to Peking at I acknowledges no God. The GOVERNMENT of the empire (omitting the
or money commutation......
7,000,000 moralation of the imperial court and family, or the 8. Salt Gabelle, and likin or transit duty on salt 9,500,000 specul Manchu department) is conducted from
4. Maritime customs under forrign supervision.. 18,000,000
6. Native customs, maritime and inland, and first the capital, supervising, directing, controlling the
inland levy on foreign opium......
5,000,000 different provincial administrations, and exercising 6. Likin on miscellaneous goods and opium, both the power of removing from his post any official foreign and native....
9,500,000 whore conduct may be irregular or considered
Total........... ............... 64,000,000 dangerous to the state.
There is the Grand Cabinet, the privy-council The tael at present has fallen to little more or of the emperor, in whose presence it meets daily to even less than five shillings, but however we transact the business of the state, between the stretch its value we do not obtain the amount of boon of four and six A.M.! Its members are | £20,000,000; surely a very small imperial revenue few, and hold other substantive offices. There is for so great an empire with so vast & population. also the Grand Secretariat, formerly the supreme It has been increased at times by sales of office coaneil, but under the present dynasty very much and by forced contributions, such as were once in superseded by the cabinet. It consists of four England mistermed benerolences, both dangerous grund and two assistant-grand secretaries, three expedients; but the former was put a stop to by thern Manchas and three Chinese.
an edict in 1879. China had no foreign debt till The business on which the cabinet deliberates ! 1874; in 1888 the foreign loans had amounted to one before it from the Six Boards-of Civil Office, about $5,000,000.
& Revenge, of Ceremonies (including all matters The imperial army proper consists of Manchûs, fertaining to religion), of War, of Punishment, Mongols, and the descendants of Chinese who
of Works. Each Board has two presidents revolted from the Ming dynasty and joined the u tour vice-presidents, three of them again Manchûs on their invasion of the empire, the first Manches and three Chinese. In 1861 the changed defection taking place in 1621. These are divided relations between the empire and foreign nations each into eight corps with different coloured led to the formation of what we may call a banners, and as a whole are styled The Eight seventh Board, styled the “Ya-mdn (or court) i Banners.' Their headquarters are in Peking, and
T.1.50 per pecul, and rice levy in provinces
rectant department which should be mentioned provinces, and also in Turkestan and l-li. Their the Censornia-members of which exercise a number available for actual service amounts to
the Boards, and, distributed nearly 350,000, of whom 100.000 are supposed to be
reviewed by the emperor at Peking once a year. duct his intercourse with the Hong merchants In addition to this there is the national army, the others bad done. The two nations were distributed in more than one thousand camps brought defiantly face to face. On the ope vie throughout the provinces, nearly twice as numerous was a resistless force, determined to prosecutr jis as the imperial, and called The Army of the Green enterprise for the enlargement of its trade, and the Standard,' being in fact little more than a vast conduct of it as with an equal nation ; on the other militia or gendarmerie. These forces may in side was the old empire seeming to be unconscia times of emergency be added to considerably by of its weakness, determined not to acknowledig patriotic gentlemen calling out bands of braves,' the claim of equality, and confident of its power to effective enough to cope with insurgents, but all suppress the import of opium. The government dd unfit to encounter the disciplined forces of any | China made its grand and final effort in 1839, a foreign power. Of this character at first were the in the spring of that year the famous Lin Toeb-bre troops of the T'ai-p'ing rebellion, which, till its was appointed to the governor-generalship of the suppression in 1867, for about twenty years proved Kwang provinces, and to bring the barbarians to a match for the imperial and national forces, and reason. Out of his measures came our first war, threatened the overthrow of the Manchû dynasty. which was declared by Great Britain against China See T'ÂIP'INGS, and GORDON (CHARLES GEORGE). in 1840. There could be no doubt as to the result The navy is divided into a northern and a southern in so unequal a contest; and we hurry to its clom fleet--the former comprising four turret-ships, at Nanking, the old capital or the empire, wber seven armoured rams, and twenty-three gunboats, a treaty of peace was signed on the 29th Angesi besides torpedo boats; the latter, seven cruisers, 1842 on board Her Majesty's ship Cornwallis. The sixteen gunboats (some of them armoured), principal articles were that the island of Hong besides floating batteries and torpedo boats. kong should be ceded to Great Britain; that the Most of the armoured ships have been built in ports of Canton, Amoy and Fa-Châu (in FaGermany or in England, but several of the most chien), Ning-po (in Cheh-chiang), and Shang-baha powerful have been built in China
(in Chiang-sû) should be opened to British trade Intercourse with Western Nations and Commerce. and residence, and that thereafter official corte -It was not till after the Cape of Good Hope was spondence should be conducted on terms of eqaslity doubled, and the passage to India discovered by according to the standing of the parties. Nothing Vasco da Gama in 1497, that intercourse between was said in the treaty on the subject of opium, tbe any of the European nations and China was smuggling traffic in which went on as before. possible by sea. It was in 1516 that the Portu. Before fifteen years had passed away, because guese first made their appearance at Canton ; and of troubles at Canton not all creditable to Great they were followed at intervals of time by the Britain, and the obstinacy of the governor-general Spaniards, the Dutch, and the English in 1635. Yeh Ming-chin in refusing to meet Sir John Bouw The Chinese received none of them cordially ; and ring, it was thought necessary by the Britisa their dislike of them was increased by their government that war should be commenced against mutual jealousies and collisions with one another. China again. In this undertaking France joined u The Manchồ sovereignty of the empire, more our ally. Canton was taken on the 29th December over, was then in the throes of its birth, and its 1857, when Yeh was captured and sent a prisons rulers were the more disposed to assert their own to Calcutta. Canton being now in the possession superiority to all other potentates. They would of the allies, arrangements were made for its not acknowledge them as their equals, but only government by a joint commission; and in Feb. as their vassals. They felt the power of the for ruary 1858 the allied plenipotentiaries, accomeigners whenever they made an attempt to restrict panied by the commissioners of the l’nited States their operations by force, and began to fear them. and Russia as non-combatants, proceeded to the As they became aware of their conquests in the north to lay their demands before the emperor at Philippines, Java, and India, they would gladly Peking. There was not so much fighting as there have prohibited their approach to their territories had been in 1842, and on June 26 a second treaty altogether. In the meantime trade gradually in- was concluded at T'ien-tsin, renewing and confirme creased, and there grew up the importation of ing the former, but with many important additional opium (see OPIUM TRAFFIC) from India, and the stipulations, the most important of which were wonderful eagerness of multitudes to purchase and that the sovereigns of Great Britain and China smoke it. Before 1767 the import rarely exceeded might, if they saw fit, appoint ambassadors 200 chests, but that year it amounted to 1000.ministers, or other diplomatic agents to their re In 1792 the British government wisely sent an spective courts; and that the British representative embassy under Lord Macartney to Peking with should not be required to perform any ceremony presents to the emperor, to place the relations derogatory to him as representing the sovereint between the two countries on a secure and proper of an independent nation on an equality with footing; but though the ambassador and members, China. Other stipulations provided for the pro of his suite were courteously treated, the main tection of Christian missionaries and their can objects were not accomplished. In 1800 an imperial / verts ; for liberty for British subjects to travel, for edict expressly prohibited the importation of opium, their pleasure or for purposes of trade, under pare and threatened all Chinese who smoked it with ports, into all parts of the interior of the country: condign punishment. It had been before a smug. for the opening of five additional ports for com gling traffic, and henceforth there could be no merce-Niù-chwang (in Shing-king, the chief pro doubt of its real character. Still it went on, and vince of Manchuria), Tång.châu (with port of the increased from year to year. A second embassy foo, in Shan-tung), Tai-wan (Formosa, several portal, from Great Britain in 1816 was dismissed from Châo-châu (with port of Swa-t'an, in Kwang tangl. Peking suddenly and contumeliously because the and Ch'iung (Kiung.châu, in Hâi-nan and for ambassador would not perform the ceremony of authority for merchant-ships to trade on the Yans San kuei chiú k'au ('the repeated prostrations'), | tsze River, ports on which would be opened when and thereby acknowledge his own sovereign to be rebellion should have been put down and peace and but a vassal of the empire.
order restored. (The river was not opened to So things went on till the charter of the East steamer traffic till 1888.) Treaties on the same line Indir ('ompany expired in 1834, and the head of were concluded also with the l'nited States, France, its factory was superseded by a representative of and Russia. A revision of the tariff regulations the sovereign of Great Britain who could not con- | 1842 was to take place subsequently in the year at
Shang bai. This was done in October, and then perial house, according to the rules in such a case, opinm was entered among the legitimate articles appointed as his successor Tsai-t'ien, the son of of import, and the arrangement confirmed that Prince Shun, a younger brother of Prince Kung. the government should employ a foreign official in The new sovereign was a child of four years old, the collection of all maritime duties. It inight seem and began to reign under the style of Kwang Hsü, that these treaties secured everything which foreign or "The Nlustrious Succession.' He assumed the nations and require, and that the humiliation government in March 1887. of the Chinese government was complete. But Since the ratification of the treaties of T'ien. they were nearly wrecked by one concluding stipu. tsin, the ports on the Great Chiang, the opening Lition in all of them but that of the United of which was promised in them, have, with the States, that the ratifications of them should be exception of Nan-king, been opened-namely, exchanged at Peking within a year. The em- Han-k'au (in Hû-pei), Chill-chiang (Kill-kiang, in pueror and his advisers, when the pressure of the Chiang-hsi ), and Chin-chiang (Kin-kiang, in Chiang. darce at Tien-tsin was removed, could not bear sû). In addition to these, I-chang (in HQ-pei) and the thought of the embassies entering the sacred Wû-hů (in An-lui), also both on the Chiang, have capital, and foolishly cast about to escape from the been opened, with Wau-châu (in Cheh-chiang), and condition. The forts at Ta-kû, guarding the en Pih-hai (Pak-hoi, in Kwang-tun'g), through the trance to the Pei-ho, and the approach to Tien-tsin convention at Chefoo in 1876 between Sir Thomas and thence to Peking, were rebuilt and strongly F. Wade and Li Hung-chang. By the same tortified. When the English, French, and Ameri. convention certain concessions regarding the opium CD ministers returned to Shang-hâi with the traffic were also stipulated for by the Chinese comratified treaties in 1859, the Chinese commissioners missioner, and agreed to after various delays, with who had signed them at T'ien-tsin were waiting for some modifications not unfavourable to the Chinese, ther, and urged that the ratifications should be by the British government. exchanged there. The French and English minis. According to the returns of trade and trade re. ters then insisted on proceeding to Peking as the ports of the Imperial Maritime Customs for the year place nominated for the exchange. But when they 1887, the vessels entered and cleared at the various arrived at the mouth of the river, with the gun. treaty ports were 28,381, of which 14,337 were boats under their command, they were unable to British. There were also among them 6402 vessels force the defences. A severe engagement ensued, of foreign type, owned by Chinese, and sailing and the allied forces sustained a repulse with heavy under the Chinese flag, and 1996 Chinese junks Inres. It was the one victory gained by the Chinese. sailing under special licenses issued by the superinThe British and French governments took imme. tendents of customs at Shang-hai and Ning-po. The dinte action. A third expedition under the same value of the whole trade, net foreign and net native plenipotentiaries as before, with a force of nearly imports and exports, was 246,172,053 taels. The 20.000 men, was at the same place in little more revenue accruing from this immense trade(including than a year. The forts were taken on August 21, import, export, and coast-trade duties, tonnage, and and on the 25th the plenipotentiaries were again transit dues, and opium li-kin) was 20,541,997,402 established in T'ien-tsin. "We can only refer to taels, the average value of the tael during the year their march in September on Peking, with all its being 4s. 10 d. (having fallen from 5s. 8 d. in 1882). Writing details. The emperor (Hsien-fung ) fled to The import of opium was 73,877 piculs, as against Jeh-ho in the north of Chih-li, the imperial sum. 67,801 in 1886. But it would be a mistake to Iner-retreat ; and his brother, Prince Kung, whose assume that the demand for foreign opium inDame is well known, came to the front in the creased in 1887. ... The taste for it is languishmanagement of affairs. On the 13th October he ing, a preference being given to the opium produced surrendered the north-east gate of the city; and in Manchuria and some provinces of China Proper.' on the 24th the treaties were exchanged, and an The greatest increase of imports in 1887 was in aditional convention signed, by which of course an cotton yarn. The yarn from Bombay is gradually aktitional indemnity was exacted from the Chinese, taking the place of that from Manchester, it being and an arrangement made about the emigration of a better wearing article.' Of the two principal roolies, which had become a crying scandal, while exports of tea and silk, the quantities exported
small piece of the continent of the empire, lying! were rather less in 1887 than in 1886. pposite to Hong-kong, was ceded to that colony. | China las in the past been mainly a self-con
it was that the attempt of China to keep itself tained nation, but of late the Chinese have shown aloof from the rest of the world came to an end, an increasing tendency to seek a livelihood abroad, and a new era in the history of the empire was especially in California, British Columbia, the nitiated.
| Straits Settlements and Eastern Archipelago, Hejen-fung died at Jeh-ho in August 1861, and Australia. More than half the population of leaving the empire to his young son only six years Singapore is Chinese ; and in 1880 there were old. A cabal at Jeh-ho tried to keep the boy in 200,000 Chinese in Java. In the Australian colotheir possession, but his uncle, Prince kung, nies there have never been more than 60,000. srceeded in getting him to Peking, and along From 1855 to 1867 the immigration of Chinese with the young emperor's mother and the empress. ' into the l'nited States varied from 3000 to 7000 : dowager, by whom Hsien-fung had had no child, from 1868 to 1881 it was usually between 10,000 pyally and successfully administered & regency in ! and 20,000); in 1882 it was 33,614. But the imwoordance with the new conditions of the govern position of prohibitory taxes on Chinese immigrants want. The style of the reign was Tung.chi, or reduced this to 381 in 1883, and 17 in 1886. And
Government in Union;' and on February 23, in 1888 the immigration of Chinese workmen was 1573, the emperor announced publicly, and speci: absolutely forbidden for twenty-one years, though
is to the foreign ministers, that he had taken the ; merchants and students with means are permitted werment into his own hands. This brought up to travel or reside in the l'nion. British Columbia the question of an audience, but, after a good deal and some of the Australian colonies have also
protocolling and negotiation, it was finally sought to restrict (hinese immigration by im. ttled on June 29 the emperor receiving all posing a heavy poll-tax on immigrant Chinese. nister then i
without the ceremony The government of the empire has in the dnstration. His
not last long, for he' meanwhile been on the whole eminently fortunate
no son, and had and successful. There is now pence within its
Ters of the im- borders and in its dependent territories. From
its hostilities with France about Annam, it sentence, of most of what we call Parts of Speed came forth with more credit than in its former That the speech has never advanced to anything collisions with western powers, and the compli. like agglutination even (see PHILOLOGY), can be cations that might have arisen between it and owing only to the early origin and cultivation of Britain from the extension of the latter's eastern the written characters. These demand our cam empire over Upper Burma were wisely arrested by attention. the concession to it on the part of Lord Rosebery. The Chinese fathers spoke of course before the It has its legations at the courts of Great Britain,wrote, and when they had formed symbols su France, Germany, Russia, and the United States. indicate their conceptions, they naturally calle The advice of the foreign ministers at its court has them by the names which they were accustomed been of important service to it in threatening give to the objects of their perception and to the emergencies. The collection of its maritime duties inward ideas. The time when they began to fra under foreign superintendence has materially added those symbols cannot be exactly determinac to its revenue. It has wisely employed the services Everywhere throughout China we find altar of foreigners in its army and arsenals. Machinery Ts'ang Chieh, where paper with writing on k for cotton manufacture and paper-making has been often picked up from the ground, is burned a imported. Telegraphic communication has been es. acknowledgment of his service to mankind as the tablished extensively, and in 1888 a railway 81 miles inventor of written characters. Some authoritiin length was opened from T'ien-tsin to Tongshan. say that he was a sovereign prior to Fa Hei; other The government has commenced the proper training that he was a minister of Hwang Ti, several cre of its troops. It has acquired a considerable and turies later. Fû Hsi's reign, according to the lea: powerful navy. It has founded schools and other unlikely of the chronological schemes, must have institutions for the education of its young men in assigned to the 34th century B.C. We may safe. the knowledge of other languages, and in the say that the written characters of the Chine various applications of western science. It has existed, it may be in a rudimentary conditie shown much sympathy with the sufferings of its more than 5000 years ago. people under unavoidable calamity. The one These characters are divided into six class element of dissatisfaction with the present con- according to the principle regulating their forma dition of China is the increasing growth of the tion: (1) Pictorial characters (H siang keunt, poppy in its own provinces, and the increasing being originally rude pictures of objects; i consumption of opium among the people. To set Indicative characters (Chih shih), intended for against this there is the accelerating diffusion of their form and the relation of their parts to suppe Christianity; nor is there reason to anticipate any to the reader the idea in the mind of their maken but a great and good future for the empire.
(3) Composite characters (Hui i), made up of te See J. B. du Helde, Description Géographique, dec., de
or more characters, the meanings of which blend u la Chine et de la Tartarie Chinoise (4 vols. fol. Paris,
| the meaning of the compound ; (4) Inverted char 1735); Histoire Générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet acters (Chuan chú), formed from others by tie Empire, traduites du Tong-kien Kang-muh, par le feu inversion of the whole, or of parts, of them; 15 Père Joseph Annie-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla (12 vols. Borrowed characters (Chid tsich), used in other 4to, Paris, 1776-85); Demetrius C. Boulger, History of than their proper signification ; and (6) Phonetes China (3 vols. 8vo, Lond. 1881-84); China : a History characters (Hsieh shăng), of which one part has of the Lars, Manners, and Customs of the People, by phonetic use, and indicates, exactly or approx William John Henry Gray (2 vols. Lond. 1877); Sir John
mately, the name of the compound, and the other F. Davis, China : a General Description of that Empire
part the category of meaning which it conveys. and its Inhabitants, dc. (2 vols. Lond. 1857); S. Wells Williams, LL.D., The Middle Kingdom : a
The first three classes may be called ongina Surrey of the Geography, Gorernment, &c., of the
scripturæ Sinicæ, but do not comprehend Chinese Empire and its inhabitants, revised edition (2 characters; the next two are unimportant. The vols. Lond. 1883); Ferd. Freiherr von Richthofen, sixth class is beyond comparison the most bener China : Ergebnisse eigener Reisen und darauf gegrundeterous, and embraces well on to 40,000 of the 43, CUM Studien (Berlin, 1877–85); E. Simon, China : Religious, characters, or thereabouts, found in the Keng i Political, and Social (Lond. 1887); W. F. Mayers, The dictionary of 1704. The third class is the most Chinese Government (Shanghai, 1877); Rev. Dr W. A.
interesting, bringing us mind to mind abreast of P. Martin, The Chinese : their Education, Philosophy, their framers, and showing us their ideas of and Letters (Lond. 1881); Rev. Justus Doolittle, The Social Life of the Chinese (2 vols. Lond. 1887); Rev. Dr
things represented by the characters. For example. A. Williamson, Journeys in North China, Manchuria, a wife (called fú, ) is denoted by nu, #'s and Eastern Mongolia, with some Account of Corea (2 vols. Lond. 1870); Rev. John Ross, The Manchus, or the female,' and ch'au, a broom :' she was the Reigning Dynasty of China : their Rise and Progress (Paisley, 1830); Rev. Dr J. Legge, The Chinese Classics (vols. 1. to v. Hong-kong, vols. vi. and vii. Oxford); : child (called nan, ) is denoted by t'ien, H. China, Prof. R. K. Douglas (Lond. 1887); Chinese Sketches, H. A. Giles (Lond. 1876), and other works by 'a field,' and li, Fj, strength :' his birth w the same author,
| welcomed as new strength for the work of the CHINESE LANGUAGE, WRITING, AND LITERA- field. TURE. --The speech and the written composition of 1. The phonetical characters arose from the imp the Chinese differ more than those of any other bility of framing a sufficient number of charactra people. The former addresses itself, like all other on the other five principles of formation to see languages, to the mind through the ear; the latter the purpose of a written medium. A certain speaks to the mind through the eye, not as words, number of characters, which has varied from 554 to but as symbols of ideas. All Chinese literature | 214 (employed in the dictionaries of the last and might be understood and translated though the present dynasties), were set apart as ideogram: student of it could not name a single character. or mothers of meaning,' and a larger and more The words and the names of the written characters indefinite number were chosen, which in connectin are all monosyllabic, and are inconjugable and with them might express the name or sound indeclinable, without inflection or change of any i the compounds, and be called "mothers of sound kind, and at the same time so versatile that there Their number altogether is large, but many are are few of them which may not perform the rôle derivatives of others, and not a few of the ide indifferently, according to their position in a grams themselves are among them, Dr Chalmer,