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speaking, deeper than in the other, being reds and little doubt that infusions of foreign blood conrich roans. The Booth cattle are wider, deeper, and tributed to some extent to the building up of the perhaps less pretty. Their shoulders are more laid modern Hereford. In the 17th century cattle had leck, their foreribs and flanks deeper and better been imported into Hereford from Flanders by filled. They are more a beef than a milk breed, Lord Scudamore, and in later times there had been with well-packed quarters and thick loins. The introductions of stock from various parts of seros remind one more of a fat Smithfield ox, and England and Wales. The dominant ingredient, they move without that courage and dash so however, is the aboriginal race of the county, and perilar to the “Duke's" and other highly valued selection in breeding and careful management have strains of the Bates tribes.' But while these are been the principal agencies by which the breed has the two great divisions of the breed, there are a been brought to the high standard it has now that many excellent shorthorns of mixed breeding attained. The modern typical Hereford is red in

hich do not show any decided leaning either to colour, with white face and white marks in the top the one or the other. The prevailing colour of shorthorns is roan of varying shades, but many are mil, and some white. There is a dislike to red and white in distinct spots as a colour, and quite an unreasonable objection to white.

In precocity, production of meat, and general atility, the shorthorn is unsurpassed. Other varieties may excel it in special points for peculiar purposes or in certain limited districts, but for a combination of all the more useful properties of domestic cattle and adaptability to varying conditions of soil and climate, there is no equal to the shorthorn. The tarility with which the shorthorn adapts itself to

Fig. 2.-Hereford Bull and Cow. changes of soil, climate, and treatment is quite remarkable, and this combined with the valuable line of the neck, back over the crops, as well as in pruiperty which it also possesses in an unequalled the chest and bottom line all the way backwards. ergree-suitability for crossing with and improving The white face' is indeed the tribal badge' of other and inferior classes of cattle-has spread the the Hereford, and with their wide and graceful improved shorthorn far and wide, not only in its horns they are singularly handsome in outward own native land, but in countries beyond the seas. appearance. Formerly there were gray-faced or In North and South America, the continent of spotted Herefords; and even yet there is in existEampe, Australia, New Zealand, and other parts, ence a strain of Herefords known as 'smoky-faced the shorthorn has been extensively introduced. In Montgomeries.' The Herefords are similar in size all these countries, as at home, it has been one of to the shorthorn ; usually broad along the back the most active and effective agents in improving and heavily fleshed, but occasionally light in the the native races of cattle and in increasing the pro- thighs and deficient in internal fat. Their highest duction of high-class beef. Many breeders of short-| property lies in their value as grazing cattle ; and born cattle have cultivated the fattening to the this has led to the extensive employment of detriment of the milking properties. Still, while it Hereford bulls in breeding cattle for the rolling > quite common to meet with a very light milker prairie-ranches of the western states of America. amongst shorthorn cows, there is a large section of They are hardy cattle, with a rank coat of hair the breed which possenses dairying properties of the and thick mellow hide, and they are excellent bighest order. Good shorthorn cows give from 700 foragers'-all points of special importance in to 1000 gallons of milk in twelve months. At the ranche cattle. It is pre-eminently a beef-producLuodon Christmas Fat Stock Show in December ing breed ; matures early and yields meat of Is the class of shorthorn steers under two years the finest quality. As a rule the cows are deficient old averaging 672 days) gave an average live. as milkers, for this property has never been weight of 1396 lb.; steers over two and under cultivated as it ought to have been. The average three years of age (averaging 988 days), 1870 lb. ; | live-weight of two-year-old Hereford steers (averag. and steers over three years old (averaging 1321 ing 634 days) at the London Christmas Fat Stock days, 2116 lb. each.

Show in December 1887 was 1390 lb. ; of steers Hereford cattle display strongly fixed and pecu. over and under three years (averaging 938 days), harly distinctive characteristics both in outward 1742 lb. ; and of steers over three years (averaging fratures and general attributes. The improved 1310 days), 2041 lb. There are a few excellent breed traces directly from the stock of cattle herds of Herefords in Ireland, and they have been which were found by the earliest writers on agri. exported in large numbers to foreign countries, ultural topics existing in the county of Here notably North and South America, Australia, and fund and adjoining districts-the same aboriginal New Zealand. Sanety from which have descended the Devon Deron cattle are deep red in colour, and have wa Sosses breeds. The improvement of the frequently a white spot on the belly just in front of Herriond would seem to have been begun by the the udder, with wide round loins, smaller in size Tomkins family far back in the 18th century, and than the two breeds just mentioned. It is noted

us taken up in a systematic manner by Benjamin for the almost perfect formation of the shoulder, Tomkins about 1766, and carried on by him with which is laid into the body with remarkable much energy and success until his death in 1815. neatness. The breed has still its headquarters Hu berd was continued by his daughters till 1819 in Devon and Somerset, where it has held undis. one year later than the Barmpton sale of short puted sway for hundreds of years. It won the bari, when it was dispersed by public auction. admiration of Arthur Young, who gives interesting Tsenty-eight breeding animals realised an average information regarding the breed in his report dated

£149 per hend; four adult bulls having brought as 1776. Here also there was one 'master mind' at morh as £267, 158, each ; and two bull-calves £181, work on the improvement of the breed. Mr 2. ll. earl From that time the fortunes of the Quartly of Molland is described by Young as the brend fell into other hands, and never for a moment most celebrated of breeders in North Devon; and have the Hereford stock-owners wavered in their the greatest of our early writers on agriculture loyalty to their fine old breed of cattle. There is gives a most minute account of the scheme of

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breeding which was pursued by Mr Quartly and his usefulness both as beef and milk producers have brother, the clergyman who interests himself won for it many hearty admirers in America. much in live-stock. The ideal animal which the Sussex cattle are also uniformly red in colour, Quartlys kept before them and bred up to exactly with strong spreading horns, larger in size than corresponds to the typical Devon of to-day; and the Devons, heavy meat-producers, but deficient there is no doubt that their sound and systematic in dairying properties. Marshall is probably right method of breeding imprinted an indelible stamp in stating (1796-98) that the Sussex, Devon, Hereupon the race through which the blood of their ford, North Wales, and Gloucestershire cattle had stock has freely permeated. In former times, when all sprung from the same aboriginal stock; and that cattle were beasts of burden, the Devons were in fact they were 'varieties arising from soils and greatly esteemed for their agility and hardiness. management of the native breeds of this island.' Now that the yoke has fallen upon other shoulders, Formerly Sussex cows were highly esteemed for the 'Rubies of the West,' as the plump little their milking properties, but in the rage for beef. Devons have been called by their admirers, are production these have unfortunately been destroyed. holding a high position as beef producers. The Sussex cattle mature early, grow to great weights, quality of their meat is excelled by none; and and in late years they have been improving in while they are small in size, they give a good quality. They have also found supporters in return for the food they consume. Garrard, writing foreign countries, chiefly in the United States of in 1800, attributed the excellence of Devon cattle America. Young Sussex steers (averaging 659 mainly to the mildness of the climate and high dry days) at the London Christmas Fat Stock Show in ground, calcareous soil, and sweet pasture where 1887 reached an average live-weight of 1436 lb., they were bred ; but he considered it might be also and three-year-old steers (averaging 1349 days), to some extent due to an admixture of finer blood 2030 lb. each. from the still warmer continent of Europe. There Longhorn cattle are now in few hands; so few may have been some slight foundation for this indeed that the breed may be said to be approach. latter suggestion ; but it is undeniable that the ing extinction. They are big, rough, ungainly main forces and features now existing in Devon cattle, with long drooping horns which are often cattle are distinctively native to the south-west so shaped as to make it difficult for the animals to of England. This idea is strengthened by the graze short pasture. The cows give a fair quantity recollection of the estimate of Devon cattle formed of very rich milk, and the bullocks grow and fatten by Bakewell, who declared that they could not be to great weights. But for general utility they are improved by any cross. From the first and greatest being ousted by smaller, finer, and more rapidly of all our early improvers of farm live-stock this maturing varieties. Peculiar interest attaches to testimony is weighty. The dairy properties of the this breed from the fact that it was upon it that breed are not of a high order. The yield of milk is the past great improver of farm live-stock, Robert comparatively small, but its quality is exception. Bakewell (q.v.) of Dishley, tried his earliest experially rich. Some rare specimens of the breed havements. The improvement of live-stock upon scienreached 19 cwt. live-weight at four years old, but tific principles dates from 1755, when Bakewell the average is much below that. At the London began his great work with longhorns. These cattle Christmas Fat Stock Show in December 1887 the were at one time widely diffused through England, class of two-year-old Devon steers (averaging 681 and also obtained a footing in Ireland, but were days) gave an average live-weight of 1235 lb. ; | many years ago supplanted by shorthorns, Heresteers over two and under three years old (averag: fords, Devons, or other varieties, ing 996 days), 1489 lb.; and steers over three years Welsh cattle present considerable variety of (averaging 1320 days), 1734 lb. each.

type and character, yet there is all through a The Red Polled cattle of Norfolk and Suffolk noticeable family likeness, arising of course in are supposed to bear a close affinity to the polled their common origin in the aboriginal cattle of the breeds of Scotland through the circumstance that principality. They are black in colour, with long formerly Scotch cattle were freely transported to be horns, hardy in constitution, good milkers, slow in fattened on the Norfolk pastures. Be this as it maturing, but able to subsist and thrive upon may, the red polled breed has been sufficiently scanty fare. In late years they have been conlong associated with Norfolk and Suffolk to enable siderably improved, especially in their fattening these counties to claim them as natives. Marshall properties. They vary greatly in size, but many of in his Political Economy of Norfolk, published them attain great weights at from three to four in 1782, tells us that the native cattle of Norfolk years old. The average live-weight of Welsh steers were a small, hardy thriving race, fattening as at the London Christmas Fat Stock Show in 1887 freely at three years old as cattle in general do at was 2111 lb. each, their average having been 1286 four or five. They are small boned, short legged, days. round barrelled, well loined ; the favourite colour Amongst the four Scotch breeds of cattle the a blood-red with a white or mottled face.' Arthur Polled Aberdeen-Angus is well entitled to preYoung, writing in 1794, says the Suffolk breed of cedence. Descended directly from the ancient cattle is universally polled, that is, without horns; polled cattle of Angus (Forfarshire) and Buchan the size small; few rise when fattened to above (in Aberdeenshire)-two varieties of the same type, 50 stone (14 lb.); the milk veins remarkably large; known in the former as 'Doddies,' and in the latter cows upon good land give a great quantity of rich as “Humlies '--this valuable beef-producing breed milk.' These are the progenitors of the modern has made great strides in public favour since 1878, red polls, and all the good features of the old breed when, with five plump black polls the late Mr have been retained and developed. The cattle William M'Combie (1805-80) of Tillyfour carried are now relatively larger, still blood-red in colour, off the champion prize for the best group of meatbut with no white face, good meat-producers, and, making' cattle at the Paris Exhibition, where no taken as a whole, perhaps the best of all the fewer than sixty different varieties of cattle were native English breeds from a dairying point of represented, ineluding the best of the English view. Individual shorthorn cows will be found to breeds. That remarkable triumph has been fol. exceed them in yield of milk, but red-polled cows | lowed by great achievements at home, the breed are distinguished for high average milking pro having in 1881, 1885, and 1887 won the £100 Champerties. The breed has found much favour in the pion Plate at the London Christmas Fat Stock United States of America and elsewhere abroad. Show. The improvement of the breed was begun Its uniformity of colour, absence of horns, and before the advent of the 19th century, and all

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through its breeders have been careful to preserve the south-west of Scotland before the close of the and raltivate its exceptionally high properties in the 18th century. The prevailing colours are brown prstection of meat of the choicest quality. In this and white, but some are almost entirely white, Bes the chief excellence of the breed, and in these others are almost a whole brown. They are wide, times the characteristic is one of great value. This low-set cattle, with fine horns curving upwards. property in the northern polls, combined with the They are second-rate cattle as beef producers, but

and system of feeding pursued in Scotland, has as profitable general dairy cattle they are unsurmererad prime Scotch'beef the highest favour and passed. A fairly good Ayrshire cow will give 600 bagest price in the London market. At one time | gallons of milk in a year, a very large quantity for

her moderate size.

There is no more handsome animal of the bovine species than a genuine representative of the West Highland breed. Almost as large in size as the shorthorn, and quite as well proportioned in the frame, the West Highlander gains in appearance by his rank shaggy coat of hair, long, spreading, gracefully turned horns, and hardy, muscular, and defiant gait. With the Wild White cattle of Chillingham and the tiny little

Kerry of Ireland, Fig 3-Polled Aberdeen-Angus Bull and Cow.

the West Highland

is regarded as the the cows of this breed gave a bountiful yield of rich finest existing re. mulk, but owing to the breeders' attention having so presentative of the loeg heen mainly directed to the cultivation of the ancient cattle of fattening properties, they are now only moderate | Britain. The milkers In recent years the breed has improved | breed presents con

siderably in early maturity, and at the London siderable variety Pat Stock Show in December 1887 it surpassed all in size and colour. other breeds in this important property. At that Dun or yellow of show the class of polled Aberdeen-Angus steers | various shades is Fig. 5.-West Highland Cow. under two years (averaging 667 days in age) gave the prevailing A average live-weight of 1475 lb.; and steers over | colour, but many are black or brindled. They two and under three years (averaging 984 days), mature slowly, but their beef is much esteemed for 154 lb. Black is the prevailing colour, but occa its quality and flavour. They are unequalled for Nionally a red calf is dropped.

hardiness, and can be kept with advantage where The Galloway breed, which takes its name from no other breed would subsist. The cattle of the south-west of Scotland, where it has existed it Orkney and Shetland differ considerably from the is believed for centuries, has an undeniable claim varieties on the mainland, but they are as a rule

to an ancient lineage. Its of an inferior character and small in size.
origin is lost in the mists of The Kerry is the smallest of all the recognised
bygone ages, but enough varieties of British cattle. The breed has its head.
of its history is known to quarters in the bleak hills and upland pastures of
insure for this breed a the county from which it takes its name, and having
high position amongst the been much neglected by Irish farmers, it forms
native races of British only a very small proportion of the cattle stock of
cattle. Black and horn. Ireland, which now mainly consists of crosses
less like the polled Aber between the improved shorthorn and old Irish
deen-Angus breed, Gallo- cows,' which were of mixed-bred nondescript
way cattle differ substan. character. Kerry cattle are very hardy, and the
tially from the former, not attributes of the Kerry cow have thus been truth.

only in outward features, fully described by Youatt: Truly the poor man's Fig. 4-Galloway Bull but also in their inherent cow, living everywhere, hardy, yielding for her

properties. They are size abundance of milk of good quality, and fatten. stilar in size, more shaggy and muscular in ing rapidly when required. Black is the prevail. appearance, having a thicker hide and ranker ing colour, and their horns are upturned and often wat of hair, but they do not mature so quickly, peculiarly cocked.' There is a sub-variety called od are not so well suited for rapid house-feeding the “Dexter Kerry,' shorter in the leg, thicker in

the northern polls. But the Galloways are body, and heavier in the flesh than the Kerry excellent grazing cattle, and for this property proper. they have been highly esteemed for many genera. The extension of dairy-farming in the t'nited troes, both in England and Scotland. In recent Kingdom, and the somewhat meagre milking proyears they have been exported in large numbers to perties of the greater proportion of British cattle, America, where they have been found admirably have led to the importation of large numbers of stapted for ranching purposes. They are exceed Channel Island cattle. These-often indiscriminingly robust and hardy, and have surpassed several ately called Alderney cattle comprise the Jersey o the other finer varieties on the ranches of the and Guernsey breeds, supposed to be from one western states of America, where the cattle have common origin, but known to have been bred in to accomplish a great deal of walking in finding i purity in the respective islands of these names for jood and water.

upwards of a hundred years. They are both essenFrom a dairy farmer's point of view, the Ayr. tially dairy breeds, giving an abundant yield of rich share is the most valuable of all the British highly-coloured milk. The Jersey is the smaller breeds of cattle. Its origin is uncertain, but it is of the two, and is docile, delicate, and of graceful ondered more than probable that its progenitors deer-like form. In the production of beef it is of were of Dutch extraction. Be this as it may, it little value. The Guernsey is not only larger, but vwa well established as a famous dairy breed in I also hardier and more generally useful. When in

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full milk, whole herds of Jersey cows give an aver- Quebec as early as 1608 ; and towards the close of age of 9? lb. of butter each cow per week, an excep- the 17th century fresh importations of European tional cow occasionally giving as much as 16 lb. of cattle poured into the great American continent.

butter in one week. It so happens, however, that while importations of Good Jersey cows yield cattle were made from all the countries named, from 500 to 700 gallons and perhaps from others also, the existing cattle of milk, and from 300 stock of America, leaving out the Mexican, now to 350 lb. of butter in more commonly called Texan, cattle, which are twelve months. Guern. still a race by themselves, are largely of British sey cows have exceeded origin. In the earlier importations, again exclud800 gallons of milk in a ing Mexico, British cattle preponderated ; and just year, and the noted cow as the English language has submerged all others *Select,' when six years in the gradual development of the American contiold, gave 224 lb. of nent, so has British blood become the dominating

butter in seven days, element in the main bulk of the cattle stock of Fig. 6.—Jersey Cow.

this quantity being ob- | the country. There is no authentic information as

tained from 19 quarts to the character of the cattle first introduced into of milk per day. In America still higher records America, but all the leading breeds of the British have been obtained.

Isles, as well as the chief milking breeds of the It has been stated that the improvement of European continent, are now strongly represented cattle-breeding on scientific principles was begun in North America. There, as at home, the English by Bakewell in 1755. Almost continuously since shorthorn predominates, and there are also strong then the good work has been prosecuted with representations of the Hereford, Polled Aberdeenenergy and success, and for many years the British Angus, Galloway, Devon, Norfolk and Suffolk Red Isles have been regarded as the origin and head Polls, Jersey and Dutch breeds. The cattle of quarters of almost all the most valuable varieties America are being speedily improved, chiefly by of farm live-stock. For generations foreign the use of well-bred bulls, either imported from countries have freely resorted to these islands the British Isles or bred from imported cattle. for improved live-stock, and this export trade Still, the majority of them are of an inferior goes on as briskly and as extensively as ever. character — quite unworthy of the rich country The United States of America have in particular which they occupy. The Texan cattle still retain drawn very largely upon British herds, and a the rough coarse character which distinguished great stimulus to this trade with the United their Spanish ancestors. Improvement amongst States has been given by the extension of the the Texan cattle is proceeding very slowly. ranching system. Vast areas of grazing land in The cattle of Australia, which are small, slowthe western states and territories have been growing, and of inferior quality as beef-producers, acquired by syndicates for the breeding and rear- | have also been greatly improved by the introducing of cattle; and with the view of improving tion of British stock, chiefly of the Shorthorn, the stock of native cattle, large numbers of well. Hereford, and Polled Aberdeen-Angus breeds. bred bulls of the leading British varieties, either. In the management of cattle there is perhaps even imported from the United Kingdom or descended greater variation than in the character of the cattle from imported stock, have been sent to the West themselves. A full description of the various for use on ranches.

methods of management would itself occupy a The cattle of the United States and Canada moderate volume. It must suffice here to mention present almost endless variety of form and two or three leading features in cattle economy. character. This is what might be expected in the British Isles the ox is no longer a beast when it is remembered that they are descended of burden, save in a very few localities. The from importations of cattle from Spain, Hol. yoke has fallen upon the horse, except where land, Sweden, Denmark, France, and England, both have been relieved by the steam-engine. Scotland, and Ireland. About the year 1525, | The two main purposes for which cattle are now some six years after the discovery of Mexico by reared are the production of milk and butcherthe Spaniard Cortes, cattle were introduced into meat. Certain breeds, as already indicated, are that country from Spain, and in the abundant peculiarly adapted for milk production, such as the pasturage of the Mexican territory they increased Jersey and Guernsey and Ayrshire cattle; others, rapidly, spreading with the enterprising Spanish potably the shorthorn and red-polled breeds, are settlers into Texas, California, and other parts of distinguished for the combination of both milking the Far West. Exactly a hundred years later and fattening properties of the highest order; while the Dutch settlers in New York brought cattle others again, such as the Polled Aberdeen-Angus, thither from Holland, and a few years earlier the Hereford and Devon, &c., display remarkable small importations of cattle had been made from aptitude to fatten, and yield meat of the choicest the West India Islands into Virginia. The earliest quality. The farmer of course selects the breed of these arrivals in Virginia are assigned to 1610 best adapted to the locality in which he lives, and and 1611, but that colony was broken up in 1622 to the purposes he has in view. As a rule cattle of by the Indians, who massacred 347 men, women, all kinds, whether dairying or fattening, spend the and children, and, it is presumed, also destroyed summer on the pasture fields; and it is only in their cattle. In 1624-four years after the land- exceptional cases, either where there is a deficiency ing of the English Plymouth colony there—cattle of grass, or where it is desired to force the growth, were introduced into Massachusetts from England, fattening, or milking of the animals, that any food and many other importations followed during the beyond what they can pick up for themselves is next few years. The Swedes brought cattle into given to cattle on the fields. Oil-cake, cottonDelaware in 1627, and in 1631 and two following cake, and bruised grain-partly imported, mostly years Danish emigrants introduced cattle from home grown-are the principal auxiliary foods on their native country into New Hampshire. Eng. pasture. Where a careful system of management lish emigrants settled in Maryland in 1633, in prevails, the cattle are put into comfortable houses North and South Carolina in 1660 and 1670, and overnight as soon as the chill autumnal evenings in Pennsylvania in 1682, and took with them, or set in ; and throughout the winter they are kept had sent after them, large numbers of English almost entirely in the houses, store-cattle getting cattle. The French colonists brought cattle into l out now and again about mid-day when the weather CATTLE




is favourable. As winter food, turnips and straw originated. These are B. primigenius, B. longi. or hay preponderate, but in the improved practice offrons, B. frontosus. The first became virtually recent years smaller quantities of roots and more of extinct within historic times, is known as the tbe concentrated foods, such as cake and grain, are Ur in the Nibelungenlied, was domesticated in Seing given to cattle. Silage is fast becoming an Switzerland in the Neolithic period, was common Inawrtant article of food for cattle. Now cattle in Britain and on the Continent in the time of we fattened off at from eighteen to thirty months Cæsar, seems to have persisted in Poland till the olej, instead of from three to five years, as prior to 17th century, and still survives in a semi-wild 1950. The essence of the feeder's art is to produce stage, though much degenerated in size,' in Chil. the maximum quantity of first-class meat in the lingham Park in the north of Northumberland. In shortest possible time and at the lowest possible | 1692 the flock numbered but 28; in 1875, 62 in all. eunt: and in the struggle after this the maturing At Cadzow near Hamilton is another herd, differing and fattening properties of cattle have been greatly somewhat from those of Chillingham, but presumed scelerated. The young or baby-beef,' as it has to be also representatives of a detachment of the been called, is more tender and perhaps more palat wild cattle that roamed the Caledonian Forest. able than the substantial rounds of the slow. Other herds are still found at Chartley (Stafford. growing five-year-old beeves of fifty years ago ;' shire), Somerford (Cheshire), and Kilmory (Argyll. but it is questionable if it is either so wholesome or shire); whilst that at Gisburn (Yorkshire) became po strength-giving. Be that as it may, the popular extinct in 1859, and that of Lyme (Cheshire) taste is entirely in favour of the baby-beet ;' and dwindled from 34 head in 1850 to 4 in 1875. what the public desire the feeder must endeavour to Though the interesting survivals preserved at supply.

Chillingham are less altered from the true primi. Since 1880 there has been considerable growth in genius type than any other known breed,' there is hairy-farming throughout the British Isles. When some reason to suppose from their white colour and it is mentioned, however, that in 1887 butter to the some other features that they are descended from valde of £8,017,000, and cheese to the value of a partially domesticated ancestry. As to other 14,509,000, were imported into the United Kingdom, descendants of B. primigenius, which have diverged is will be seen that there is room for still further further from the primitive type, it is generally extension. The system of management on dairy. I supposed that the Podolian cattle of South Russia, farms varies according to the locality and objects | Hungary, &c., the larger breeds in Friesland, of tbe farmer. Where the milk can be conveniently Holland, and other parts of the Continent, and disponel of or despatched to towns, attention is given the Pembroke breed in England, are to be referred mainly to milk-selling, which is the least trouble. back to the same source. wome, and perhaps also the most profitable system of B. longifrons or brachyceros was a smaller animal dairying. In other cases butter is the staple pro. with short body. It was domesticated in Switzerduce of the dairy ; in other parts again, cheese land in the Neolithic period; it was early intromaking is the prevailing feature. The consumption duced into Britain (vast quantities of its bones et milk as human food has vastly increased in recent having been found in remains of a lake-dwelling at year. The rate of consumption keeps on growing, Croyland); and it has its probable descendants in and ingenions facilities are devised for bringing some of the mountain breeds of Switzerland, the fresh milk from distant dairies-dairies from 50 to Tyrol, and Bavaria (e.g. the Appenzell cattle), and, w miles distant-into towns every morning. As according to Owen, in some of the Welsh and would be expected, the calves bred on dairy-farms Highland cattle. get little of their mothers' milk. They are reared B. frontosus is found along with the latter principally on milk substitutes,' either prepared species, to which it is closely allied. It occurs in as botne or by firms who make the production of the peat-mosses of Scandinavia, and also in Irecattle foods their sole or chief business. Linseed land. It is regarded as the probable ancestor of in various forins is very extensively used in calf the Norwegian mountain cattle, of the Bern cattle, Tearing

and, according to Owen and others, of some of the Cattle are very variously used, and are the only Scotch Highland varieties. In regard to many of or the chief beasts of draught in many countries, as these pedigrees, dogmatic statement is quite imCape Colony and large part of America. In India possible, and much difference of opinion obtains. also horned cattle are the only beasts used for The most divergent opinion is that of Wilckens, plonghing, and are chiefly valued as draught who maintains that some of the European domestic animals. A famous breed was formed for military breeds are descended from the European bison.

grares; and in the Central Provinces there is a Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication, , high class breed of trotting bullocks. The best voL i., may be conveniently consulted for facts and refer

ghee of India is obtained from the milk not of cows ences. See the articles BOVIDE, BREED, BELL-FIGHT, Test of buffaloes. In China, no use whatever is GAUR, Musk Ox, RAXCHING, YAK, ZEBC, &c. The made of cow's milk, though human milk is some diseases of cattle are discussed under their own heads-tumes given to old people as a restorative. Nearer

CATTLE-PLAGUE, PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, FOOT AND MOETH bome, in Italy even, milk and butter are but little

DISEASE, ANTHRAX, BLACK QUARTER, &c.; the law pred, and cows are in request mainly for rearing

thereof under CoxTagIOUS DISEASES. See G. Flem.

ing's Animal Plagrues (1871-82). For the management calves. The large Italian breed can do little more of the DAIRY, see that head, as also BETTER, ("HEESE, and than feed their young; and milch cows, if wanted, MILK; on cattle generally, see Pringle's Lire Stock of the are brought from Switzerland. In Italy and some Farm; Wallace's Farm Lire Stock of Great Britain; other countries, cattle are all stall-fed, vine, elm, Stephen's Book of the Farm (new ed. by Macdonald); und ask leaves forming an important part of their and Allen's American Cattle (New York). For Wild

Cattle, see Wilckens, Renderrassen Mittel-Europas Wild Cattle.--In varions parts of the world, (Vienna, 1876); J. A. Smith, Ancient Cattle of Scotland ecies occur of cattle niore or less wild, which are

(1873); and Harting, Extinct British Animals (1880). certainly different from any of the domesticated Cattle, in English Law. See CHATTEL European breeds Such are the Banteng (Bos Cattle-plague (Ger. Rinderpest: Lat. Typhus banteng), the Gaur Ox (B. gaurus), the Gayal Boris Contagiosus). This is a specific malignant and 1B gurrus). But besides these extra-European contagious fever indigenous to the Asiatic steppes nl enstle, there are abundant remains of three of Russia, India, Persia, China, Burma, Ceylon, virtually extinct European species, from which the &c. ; never occurring in Britain but as a result demosticated breeds are believed to have gradually of direct or indirect communication with imported

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