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cattle, or with hides and offal which have been until an Order in Council was issued making it exposed to the contagion; and is hitherto unknown compulsory to slaughter and bury all diseased in America, Australia, and New Zealand. It is cattle, as well as those which had been in contact essentially a disease of the bovine family (ox, with them. The beneficial effect of this order was aurochs, and zebu), but may be communicated soon made apparent, as the disease gradually to the sheep, goat, deer, caniel, giraffe, antelope, diminished and eventually died out. gazelle, and even the peccary.

Had the restrictions upon cattle traffic been Records of fatal plagues in cattle have been removed, there would have been another visitation handed down from very early dates, but the in 1872, for in July of that year, animals affected descriptions are so meagre that it is possible only with the disease were sent to Deptford, Hull, and to surmise their nature. It is probable that one Leith, but owing to its swift recognition, were not of the plagues of Egypt was a form of anthrax, allowed to land in Scotland. From Hull, however, but in the reign of Nero (69 A.D.) Columella | it spread to Bridlington, Pocklington, and two describes a disease which resembles cattle-plague. other parishes in the East Riding of Yorkshire, He says: "The fever is present when tears are but through the activity of the authorities was trickling down the face, when the head is carried | prevented from spreading further. low and heavily, and the eyes are closed ; when Sheep do not readily take the disease when kept the saliva flows from the mouth, when the respira- in fields with affected cattle, but if kept together tion is shorter than in health, and seemingly em. in close sheds, they take the disease in a short barrassed or sometimes accompanied by groaning.' time. About 400 A.D. Vegetius Renatus describes, under Symptoms.—The virus absorbed into the blood the term Malleus, a disease which might have been gives rise to elevation of temperature (fever), cattle-plague. In 809-10 A.D., during the wars of which precedes all other symptoms, and occurs in Charlemagne, occurred a great outbreak of cattle. from 36 to 48 hours after an animal has been plague, which spread over nearly the whole of inoculated. It will be thus seen that the period of Europe, and particularly Britain. In 1348-49 a latency-incubation is very short. Two days plague broke out amongst the cattle in England, after this elevation of temperature, the mucous just after the black death had destroyed thousands membrane of the mouth, as well as that of the of human beings; it seems to have been similar to vagina in the cow, assumes a salmon colour, and cattle-plague. Even in those days the stamping. | is covered with an eruption. Even at this time out system was understood, as the diseased cattle the pulse is but little affected, but on the fourth were slaughtered, and infected herds, and the day from the first rise of temperature there are herdsmen attending them, were kept from coming marked signs of illness; the constitution is into contact with sound animals.

thoroughly invaded, and now ensue the drooping In 1480 another outbreak occurred which com. head, hanging ears, distressed look, with rigors mitted great devastation. It cannot be stated and twitching of the muscles, failing pulse, oppositively that these outbreaks were cattle-plague, pressed breathing, diarrhea, fetid breath, disas the symptoms have not been clearly handed charge from the eyes, nose, and mouth, and con. down, but there is evidence to prove that out. stant moan so characteristic of this dreadful breaks occurring in 1715, in 1745, and which con- malady; death usually occurs on the seventh day tinued until 1757, were those of the veritable from the first perceptible elevation of temperature, plague. That of 1745 was brought from Holland but the third or fourth after the illness is apparent either by two white calves, or by a parcel of dis- to ordinary observers. tempered hides brought from Zealand. The disease The Virus.-It is now supposed that the disease broke out near London, continued for twelve years, is due to micrococci found by Klebs in 1872, and and was only suppressed by most vigorous measures. by Semmer in 1874, in the lymphatic glands and It again made its appearance in 1865, and was blood. The micrococci, which will grow rapidly in introduced by 331 cattle shipped at Revel, and beef-broth and other special preparations, form landed at Hull. Amongst these were 13 Russian zooglæa and chains; calves inoculated with them cattle, the remainder of 46 which had been die from the plague in seven days. By repeated brought from St Petersburg and its neighbour-cultivations the virus loses its potency; inoculated hood. The cargo arrived on 29th May, and a lot into sheep it secures their immunity from the of 146 were disposed of at Hull on the 30th. The disease. remaining 175 were sent to London. Amongst | No medicinal treatment has as yet been found them were 330 sheep which were sold at Hull to beneficial in this disease. Almost every remedy the butchers and killed, and all the 175 cattle was tried in 1865, and although there were except 20 were sold for killing, but the remaining recoveries, no one attributed these to any remedies. 20 were sent to Gosport. From this source the The disease is much milder in cattle indigenous to disease spread rapidly, and by the end of July it those countries where it has its home and origin, appeared in Aberdeenshire, brought by 4 calves and there the mortality is not great; but this mild sent to Huntly from the south. By the beginning type propagates the disease in its most virulent of November the plague was present in 30 counties form when introduced amongst cattle of other in England, 17 in Scotland, and 1 in Wales ; and countries. on December 30 the disease had appeared on 7443

Cattolica, a town of Sicily, with sulphurfarms or in cattle-sheds in England, 2065 in Scot.

works, 14 miles NW. of Girgenti. Pop. 6591. land, and 245 in Wales; total-9753 centres of infection. The total number of cattle on farms, in Catullus, Gail's VALERIUS, the greatest lyric sheds, or other places where the disease had been poet of ancient Italy, and one of the greatest poets officially reported to exist, was--England, 110,647; of all ages, was born at Verona either in 87 or, Scotland, 44,527 ; Wales, 4536; total, 159,710. more probably, in 84 B.C. Few of the incidents in And the number of healthy animals in contact his life are known to us, and the dates assigned and slaughtered were-England, 10,636 ; Scotland, to these are in most cases only conjectural. He 6578; Wales, 152; total, 17,366. The number appears to have belonged to the equestrian order, attacked were-England, 48,964; Scotland, 22,298; and his years were spent mainly at Rome, where Wales, 2287 ; total, 73,549. Out of this number he settled about 62 B.C., and at his villas, to which 7045 recovered, 41,491 died, 13,931 were killed, and he was fond of retiring, at Tibur and Sirmio. He 11,082 remained diseased at this date. The plague began to write verses when a boy of sixteen or continued to spread and to commit great havoc, seventeen. When my primrose youth was in its CATULLUS



passat spring,' he says, I played enough at The text of the works of Catullus, after having rhything In Rome he mingled with the best been lost for more than three hundred years, was

ciety, becoming intimate with the two Ciceros, discovered in the 14th century at Verona. The the Metelli, Hortensius, and probably with Lu- original manuscript was again lost, and until cretins. And in Rome he met the lady whom, lately only one copy of it, which was preserved at ander the name of Lesbia, he has sung in verses St Germains, and is now in Paris, was believed to which stand at the head of the lyric poetry of be in existence. A manuscript in the Bodleian paj. It is almost certain that the Lesbia of Library, however, has been discovered by Dr Catullus was none other than Clodia, the sister | Bährens to be a sister copy of the St Germains of Chero's enemy, Publius Clodius Pulcher. One manuscript. A commentary on Catullus was of the most beautiful and accomplished women of issued by Doering in 1788-92. The best editions her time, she inspired Catullus with a passionate are those of Mr Robinson Ellis (1866-67), and love of which the changing phases are mirrored in Bähren's (Leip. 1876-85). Among the English * wonderful cycle of poems. There is first a time verse translations may be mentioned those of c rapturous joy; then come doubts, quarrels, and Martin (1861), Cranstoun (1867), and Ellis (1867, Tecnaliations, and in the end betrayal and de- and 1871). See R. Ellis's edition, mentioned

air. The final rupture seems to have happened above, and its admirable commentary (1876); iz S7 R.C., and in that year Catullus accompanied Munro's Criticisms and Elucidations of Catullus the propraktor Gaius Memmius to his province of (1878); and Sellar's Roman Poets of the Republic Bithynia He returned to Rome disappointed in (new ed. 1881). his hopes of enriching himself, and entered im.

Caub, a town in the Prussian province of Hessepetnously into the contest which was then being Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 30 miles waged between the senatorian and the democratic

WNW. of Wiesbaden by rail. Here Blücher parties Like Cicero and most of the men of

crossed the Rhine with his army, January 1, 1814; letter of his day, he espoused the cause of the

and here, too, till 1866, toll was levied by the Duke wenate A fery, unscrupulous partisan, he assailed

of Nassau-the only ruler who kept up this feudal Lis enemies with equal scurrility and wit, and

privilege-from vessels navigating the Rhine. Caub directed one of his coarsest lampoons at the head

has underground slate-quarries; and opposite, on of Julius Caesar. His closing years were darkened

an island in the river, where Louis le Débonnaire by the loss of a favourite brother, on whose tomb

died in 840, is a castle called the Pfalz, built in is the Troal, which he visited when returning | 1326, which is said to have been resorted to for from Bithynia, he wrote one of the most exquisite

safety by the Countesses Palatine during childbed, of Jl poems that breathe regret for the dead. He In 1876 and 1879 Caub was the scene of two serious

u kimself cut off in early life, for, though the landslips. Pop. 2179. exact date of his death can only be conjectured, in all probability he did not survive the year

Cauca, a river of Colombia, in South America,

which, after a northerly course of 600 miles, falls The extant works of Catullus comprise 116 | into the Magdalena. Its valley is one of the prece, many of which are extremely brief, while

richest and most populous districts of the continent, the longest of them contains only some 400 lines.

and it gives name to the largest of the Colombian There is considerable variety, however, in this

states, traversed by the Andean coast-range, and newhat slender body of poetry. There are

extending along the Pacific from Panama to paceinl, playful verses of society, and there are

Ecuador. Area, 260,000 sq. m.; pop. (1887) stated veres, struck out in the heat of party warfare,

at 435,690. It is rich in minerals, and possesses in which satiric wit sparkles through 'fescennine the most productive platinum mine in America. rallery. There are elaborate descriptive and Capital, Popayán. mythological pieces, such as the Coma Berenices Caucasus and the Caucasians. The great and the stately and richly-coloured Peleus and mountain-range of the Caucasus forms the back. Thus, which appear to have been translated or bone of a well-marked geographical region, nearly adapted from the Greek. There is the Atys, a corresponding with the Russian governor-general

range poem, unlike any other work of a Latin ship or lieutenancy of Cancasia. The natural and writer in its wild imaginative power and in the administrative northern limit is the great Manitch magnificent sound and sweep of its galliambic verse. depression, extending from the Sea of Azov to the And there is the crowning series of love-poems, in Caspian, and including the basins of the Kuban which the incarnation of burning passion in ex. and Terek rivers. The southern natural limit is qabite language, the mastery of verbal music, are along the basins of the Rion and Kur rivers. The carried to what is seemingly the highest attain | Russian province comprises all the Russian terriabole point of perfection. In these Lesbiatory to the Turkish and Persian frontiers, including preme' there is no sign of the laborious art which also part of the Armenian highlands and the produced the mosaic-work of the Horatian odes. mountain masses adjoining them, now known by They seem to have flowed forth--thought, feeling, the infelicitous name of Little Caucasus, south of phrase, and cadence combined in a perfect whole the Rion and Kur rivers. Little or Anti-('aucasus - . single creative impulse. Their author's is connected with Caucasus proper by the narrow mastery of the Latin tongue was unerring and Mesk ridge crossing the Rion-Kur Valley between anlounded. In his works it seems endowed with the headwaters of those streams. The Sea of Azov the elastic and radiant strength of the Greek. He and the Caspian seem at one time to have been revealed all it had of energy, sonority, and sweet connected by the Manitch depression ; south of

s, of monumental dignity and laughing grace. which extend vast steppes of hat treeless landHe moulded it into lines which neither Lucretius fertile, but with little or no water. South of the

e Vurvril has surpassed for majesty of rhythm; he steppe to the northern spurs of the mountains is wave it into lyrics which for lightness of move- luxuriant park land covered with magnificent bent and enressing sweetness of cadence are grasses, and also quite level. Beyond this rise the

nematched in all the fields of Latin verse. For mountains in successive terraces. On the south Lreadth of vision, fertility of thought, insight into side, towards the Rion and Kur, the mountain face human character, we must turn to other writers | is much steeper and more sudden. than Catullas. For fire and music and unlaboured The Caucasus ocenpies the isthmus between the felicity of phrase he has no superior among the Black Sea and the l'aspian, its general direction lynie poets of all time.

beins from west-north-west to east-south-east.

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From the peninsula of Taman on the Black Sea, to bach (q.v.) for one of his main ethnological divisions the peninsula of Apsheron on the Caspian, it has a of mankind; and as the Georgian skull he had was length of about 750 miles. The breadth, including the finest in his collection, the Caucasian was taken the secondary ranges and spurs, is about 150 miles, as the finest type of the Indo-European stock. Subbut that of the higher Caucasus does not exceed 70 sequent ethnologists have, mainly on philological miles. This range is sometimes treated as part of grounds, broken up the Caucasian variety of the boundary line between Europe and Asia, but Blumenbach into two well-marked philological the region is really Asiatic in character (see Asia). | groups, the Aryan (q.v.) and the Semitic peoples The higher and central part of the range is formed (q.v.). The name Caucasian was clearly a misof parallel chains, not separated by deep and wide nomer when it suggested affinity in blood or in valleys, but remarkably connected by elevated language between the very various races of the plateaus, which are traversed by narrow fissures of | Caucasus, classified below, and Aryans or Semites ; extreme depth. The highest peaks are in the most and Prichard and others proposed actually to central ridge or chain, at least six of them well connect most of the Caucasus peoples with the over 16,000 feet, much exceeding the highest Alps. | Mongolian races of Asia. Later anthropologists, Mount Elburz attains an elevation of 18,000 feet finding the word convenient, use Caucasian or above the sea; Kazbek reaches a height of more Caucasic for the Fair type of man as opposed to than 16,500 feet; and between these come Koshtan- | the Mongolic or Yellow type. But they distau and Dikh-tau. Here the line of perpetual snow tinctly repudiate any suggestion of community is between 10,000 and 11,000 feet high ; but the of race or of language between the peoples so whole amount of perpetual snow is not great, nor named ; and desire to indicate a physical fact and are the glaciers very large or numerous. For more an anthropological type. See ETHNOLOGY ; also than 100 miles' length of the main ridge there are PHILOLOGY. no passes lower than 10,000 feet. The central The Caucasus has been called the Mountain of chain, in its highest part at least, is granitic or Languages from the multiplicity of tongues spoken even pure granite. On either side of the granitic in this narrow area-tongues many of them totally axis are metamorphic rocks, such as mica-schists distinct from one another, and, with one exception, and talc-schists; and beyond these, clay-slates and apparently unconnected with the languages of any schists. The secondary parallel chains on both other part of the globe, or race of men; though sides of the central ridge are of limestone. The both Aryan and Turkoman affinities have been spurs and outlying mountains or hills are of less alleged for Georgian, and Sayce has suggested extent and importance than those of almost any that the ancient Hittites (q.v.), whose empire in other mountain-range of similar magnitude, sub-| Asia Minor rivalled that of the Assyrians, were siding as they do until they are only about 200 of the same stock. There are certain well-marked feet high along the shores of the Black Sea. Some groups amongst them, within which manifest parts are entirely destitute of wood, but other parts affinity prevails. (1) The Southern division or are very densely wooded, and the secondary ranges Kartveli stock comprises the Georgians or Grusi. near the Black Sea exhibit most magnificent forests ans, mainly in the upper and middle basin of the of oak, beech, ash, maple, and walnut; grain is Kur; the Imeritians, west of the watershed becultivated in some parts to a height of 8000 feet, tween the Kur and Rion; the Mingrelians, farther while in the lower valleys rice, tobacco, cotton, west reaching to the Black Sea ; the Gurians, south indigo, &c. are produced. As might be expected of the Rion; the Laz, on the Turkish frontiers; and from the geographical situation of the Caucasus, the Svans or Suanetians, between the Mingrelians the climate, though it is generally healthy, is very and the higher Caucasus. (2) The Western different on the northern and southern sides, the division contains the Tcherkess or Circassian race, vine growing wild in great abundance on the south, formerly on the left bank of the Kuban, north of which is not the case on the north. The south Caucasns; the Abkhasians in the narrow strip of declivity of the mountains towards Georgia presents land between the Caucasus and the Black Sea on much exceedingly beautiful and romantic scenery. the south; and the Kabards, north and east of

There are no active volcanoes in Mount Caucasus, Elburz. (3) The Eastern division contains the but every evidence of volcanic action. Elburz and Chechenz or Tchetchens on the northern slopes of Kazbek are both of volcanic origin. There are hot the Eastern Caucasus down to the Terek; and the springs and mud volcanoes at each end of the Lesghians farther east and south. It is doubtful range, and there are also famous petroleum wells whether the numerous small tribes called Lesghians in the peninsula of Apsheron (see BAKI'). Mineral have any affinity with the Tchetchens, or how far springs also occur in many places, notably at Vla- they are related to one another; only one, the dikavkaz The bison, or aurochs, is found in the Avars, have a written language, and they use mountains; bears, wolves, and jackals are among Arabic characters. (4) The Ossetes or Ossetians in the carnivorous animals. Lead, iron, sulphur, the centre of Caucasus, on both slopes about coal, and copper are found.

Kazbek, are unquestionably & race of the Aryan The waters of the Caucasus flow into four prin stock, and the language has affinity with the cipal rivers--the Kuban and the Rion or Faz (the Persian branch; they call themselves Irun (probPhasis of the ancients), which flow into the Black ably meaning Aryan). The Kartveli group may Sea; and the Terek and the Kur, which flow into contain 850,000 persons; the Western group, the Caspian. Kuban and Terek are north, Rion 130,000; the Eastern, 520,000; the Ossetian, and Kur or Kura south of the mountains. The 120,000. All the Caucasian languages are ex. Russians have with great labour carried a military tremely harsh. Some of them are partially in. road through a valley somewhat wider than most flectional ; all save the Ossetian are substantially of the Caucasian valleys. This is the tremendous agglutinative. fissure or ravine of the Dariel gorge about half. In various portions of this territory there are way from the Black Sea to the Caspian. The road of course other intrusive elements of population of passes over a height of about 8000 feet, and is foreign race: Russian Slavs; Tartars; numerous protected by many forts. The only other road is | Armenians; Kurds; Greeks; Tats and other by the Pass of Derbend, near the Caspian Sea. Iranians or Tajiks; and a German colony from There is a railway from Baku by Tiflis to Poti and Würtemberg, east of Tiflis. Not merely do the Batoum; Vladikavkaz is the terminus of the rail. inhabitants of the Caucasus differ widely in race, way from the north.

but they represent great variety of stages of culture, CAUCASIAN was the name adopted by Blumen. | from the indolent, music-loving Georgians to the




wild and semi-barbarous Suanetians. Christianity John Smith (1609) having Cawcawwassoughes for is the faith of some races, as the Georgians and the Indian councillors of Virginia, and Caucorouse Oasetes ; Mohammedanism of a fanatical type that for an Indian captain. others, as the Lesghians; while primitive pagan

Cauda-galli Grit, the basement subdivision superstitions seem largely to underlie both religious

of the Devonian system of North America. The professions. One Kartvelian tribe, the Khevsurs,

name (lit. 'cock's tail') is derived from the feathery las in some measure combined Christianity with

forms of a common fossil, supposed to be a seaweed, Moslem usages. The resistance which the Caucasian peoples for

Caudebec, two places in the French departmore than half a century offered to the arms of

ment of Seine- Inférieure. Caudebec lès Elbeuf, 12 Rania attracted to them the attention of the

| miles S. by W. of Rouen, has a pop. (1886) of world. But with the capture in 1859 of Shamyl,

11,038, and manufactures cloth. Caudebec-enthe prophet chief of the Lesghians, who for more

Caux, a pretty antique village of 2200 inhabitants, than twenty years withstood the armies sent

is on the Seine, 31 miles WNW. of Ronen. spainst him, the power of the Caucasians was Caudine Forks (Furculæ Caudinæ), two shattered ; by 1870 it was completely broken. The high, narrow, and wooded mountain-gorges near balk of the Circassians migrated to Turkish terri. the town of Caudium, in ancient Samnium, on the taries in Asia or Europe ; most of the Abkhasians borders of Campania ; noted for the defeat of the have done the like. The ancient divisions of Romans in the second Samnite war (321 B.C.). the country, Georgia, Imeritia, Svanetia, Mingrelia, See RoME. &c., were based on tribal distinctions. These have

Caul, a portion of the amnion or thin membrane disappeared from the Russian administrative

enveloping the fætus, sometimes encompassing the system. According to the latter, the main range head of a child when born, mentioned here on ac. of Caucasus divides the province into Ciscaucasia,

count of the extraordinary superstitions connected Borth of the mountains, and Transcaucasia to the

with it from very early ages almost down to the south of them; the former comprising the govern.

present day. It was the popular belief that chil. ments of Stavropol, Kuban, Terek; the latter, aren so born would turn out very fortunate, and those of Daghestan (really north of Caucasus),

that the caul bronght fortune even to those who Sakatal, Tiflis, Kutais, Sukhum, Black Sea, Elisa |

purchased it. This superstition was so common tretpol, Baku, and Erivan. Add Batoum and Kars in the primitive church, that St Chrysostom (Russian Armenia), and the Transcaspian terri. inveighed against it in several of his homilies. In

ry, and then Caucasia in the widest sense has an 'later times midwives sold the caul to advocates ves of 308,000 sq. m., and a pop. of 6,290,000. The

The i at high prices, as an especial means of making chief town in Ciscaucasia is Vladikavkaz; in Trans- i them eloquent, and to seamen, as an infallible Enneasia, Tiflis ; the two connected by the great preservative against drowning (cf. Dickens's David military road through the Caucasus. The old Copperfield). It was also supposed that the health capital of Georgia was Mtzkhet, a good specimen of the person born with it could be told by the of a Georgian word. For Caucasus and Caucasia,

caul, which, if firm and crisp, betokened health, * the map of Russia and the articles, in this but if relaxed and flaccid, sickness or death ( Votes work, (IRCASSIAXS, GEORGIA, TRANSCAUCASIA, and Queries, 1884-86). During the 17th century and, for the wars with Russia, SHAMYL ; also

cauls were often advertised in the newspapers for Freshfield, Travels in Central Caucasus (1869) ; sale from £10 to £30 being the prices asked ; Caninghame, Eastern Caucasus (1872); Bryce, and so recently as 8th May 1848, there was an Transcaucasia (1878); Phillipps. Wolley, Savage advertisement in the Times of a caul to be sold, Seneta (1883); Dingelstedt on Caucasian Idioms' which was afloat with its late owner thirty years in Srothish Geographical Magazine (1888); Mourier, in all the perils of a seaman's life, and the owner Contact Légendes du Caucase (1888).

died at last at the place of his birth.' The price Canchy. Arge'sTIN LOUIS, mathematician, | asked was six guineas. born in Paris, 21st August 1789, published in 1815 Caulaincourt, ARMAND DE, Duke of Vicenza, # Mémoire sur la Théorie des Ondes, which was

a statesman of the French empire, born at Caulain. afterwards made the basis of the undulatory theory

the basis of the undulatory theory court (Aisne), in 1772, early distinguished himself of light. Between 1820 and 1830 he wrote several as an officer, was made a general of division in important treatises ; and at Prague, where he 1805, and shortly after created Duke of Vicenza. resided as tutor to the Comte de Chambord, he pub. Faithful to the last to Napoleon, he was made liated his Memorre sur la Dispersion de la Lumiere Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1813, and during (1937)From 1848 to 1852 he was professor of the Hundred Days resumed the office, receiving Astronomy at Paris, but refused the oath of alle. a peerage of France, of which he was deprived after giance to Napoleon III., and lived in retirement till the restoration. He died in Paris, February 19, his death, 238 May 1857. A reissue of his works, | 1827. See his Sourenirs (1837-40). In 36 vols, was commenced by the Academy in 182

Cauliflower, a variety of the common kale or See his Life by Valson (2 vols. Paris, 1868).

cabbage. It was cultivated by the Greeks and Cancus, & private meeting of politicians to Romans, but was little attended to in England till

Tee upon candidates to be proposed for an ensuing the end of the 17th century; yet prior to the election, or to fix the business to be laid before a French Revolution cauliflower formed an article general meeting of their party. The term origin of export from England to Holland, whilst English sted in America, where the caucus has taken fast cauliflower seed is still preferred on the continent. Mat, the ticket,' or list of candidates for federal, The deformed inflorescence or heads of the cauli. | state, and municipal offices, being always decided flower only are used. Its cultivation for the supply · opa by the party leaders; but of late years the of ('ovent Garden and other markets occupies the wutem has been introduced into England, and attention of the market-gardeners of London, Cornadopted by the Radicals, especially in Birmingham, wall, Devonshire, and the Channel Islands to a tbragh the wond is there used rather for the regu. very large extent during winter and spring. It is larly constituted party organisation. In Notes and much more tender than Broccoli (q.v.), and the wwna for 1885 there is a long discussion as to the plants that are reared in August for the purpose Ingin of the word, which Sydney Smith used in of supplying the first crop of the following summer leik, and John Adams in 1763. Professor Skeat is require to be protected under hand-glasses or frames Euclined to refer it to an Indian source, Captain during winter. They require to be freely exposed




to air in mild or comparatively mild weather, but Causality, or the theory of the relation besevere frost must be prevented from entering the tween cause and effect, is one of the most intricate glasses or frames. From the middle of August to and important questions of philosophical doctrine. the 24th of that month, make two or three sowings All scientific investigation is occupied with the at intervals of three or four days. The plants search for the causes of given events, or for the reared from these sowings are planted out, a cer- effects of given causes, and with the generalisation tain portion of the strongest under hand-glasses to of these into laws of nature. But the nature and furnish the earliest crop; and an abundant reserve ground of the relation between cause and effect are of the smaller plants are planted a few inches apart obscure and disputed. in frames, to be planted out finally in the spring in The difficulty of the question is largely increased the open ground. To succeed these a sowing may by the uncertain signification of the word canse. be made in a hot bed in January or February; and Thus the investigation into the cause of things, again in March and May, plants should be reared with which early Greek speculation was occupied, for successional crops, these later sowings being was really an inquiry for the ultimate constituent made in the open ground. The ground must be or element from which the variety of actual rich and the cultivation high to produce cauliflower existence had proceeded; and from this inquiry of first-rate quality; there is some risk, however, the quest for a principle of change or development in having the ground too rich for the winter crop was only gradually distinguished. The first imin the case of severe weather occurring ; if the portant step in the direction of clear discussion plants are extra luxuriant, they will the more was made in Aristotle's doctrine of the four readily succumb to frost.

causes :' the material cause, out of which a thing Caulking, in wood shipbuilding, is the opera.

is framed; the formal cause, or the essence or tion of driving oakum or untwisted rope into the

idea of the thing; the efficient or active cause, by seams of the outside planks, or of the deck plank. means of which it took its present form ; and the ing, to render them watertight. The quantity final cause or purpose it subserves. These, it is thus driven in depends on the thickness of the

to be observed, are not so much causes in the planking; it varies from 1 to 13 double threads of

modern sense of the term, as principles which enter oakum, with 1 or 2 single threads of spun yarn.

into the existence of everything. In modern The caulker first raims or reems the seam-that is,

science the meaning of the term is much more drives a caulking-iron into it, to widen the seam as

restricted, corresponding in some degree to what much as possible, and close any rents or fissures in

Aristotle called the efficient cause. Thus both the wood; he then drives in a little spun yarn or

Bacon and Descartes wished to banish the notion white oakum with a wood mallet and a caulking.

of final cause from the scientific interprechisel, and afterwards a much larger quantity of tation of nature; and although, in Bacon's own black or coarse oakum. The fibres are driven in

in method, science was treated as an inquiry into until they form a densely hard mass, which not

the form or true nature of things (corresponding only keeps out water, but strengthens the plank. | thus to Aristotle's formal cause ), this notion has ing. The seam is finally coated or payed with hot

had little influence. What Descartes sought, and pitch or resin.

what science still seeks, is the connection rather In iron or steel shipbuilding and boilermaking

than the essence of things; and its ideal is a the term covers the operation of driving the edge

mechanical interpretation of nature in terms of of one thickness of plating firmly against the other

matter and motion. In modern science cause thickness upon which it is superimposed, or to

may therefore be said to mean the explanation which it is adjacent, thus rendering the joints

of change. To some extent it corresponds with watertight. The tool employed is a specially

Aristotle's efficient cause. But the notion of formed chisel, struck by a metal hand-hammer;

efficient cause has itself undergone a profound but endeavours have been made to supplant this

modification, which seems to have been carried by steam-driven machines, so far with but indiffer

out alongside of the formulating of the principle ent success.

of the conservation of energy. The tendency in

science has been to replace the notion of power or Caulop'teris, a generic name for the stems of

efficiency by that of order or constant sequence. certain extinct tree-ferns, which range from the

The genesis and justification of the notion of Devonian to the Permian system. They are

efficiency are matters of dispute : whether it is an hollow, and covered with markings similar to

a priori intuition, or derived from the conscious. the leaf-scars on recent tree-ferns.

ness of the voluntary direction of attention, or Caura, a considerable river of Venezuela, rises from the sensations of innervation and muscular among the sierras of the southern frontier, and resistance. Both Berkeley and Hume directed a flows NNW. to the Orinoco, On both sides

vigorous polemic against the doctrine of power stretches the territory of Caura (22,485 sq. m.), expressed by Locke, as going beyond the observed with immense forests of tonka beans.

facts of the motion of bodies, and Hume refused Caus, CAULX, or CAULS, SALOMON DE, en to see in mind any more than in matter anything gineer, born at Dieppe in 1576, was a Protestant, else than a succession of impressions and ideas. and lived much in England and Germany. He was Into the rights of this controversy it is impossible in the service of the Prince of Wales in 1612, and to enter here. But clearness of scientific stateof the Elector Palatine, at Heidelberg, in 1614-20; ment has certainly been gained by the extrusion but by 1623 he returned to France, and became of the notion of power, and substitution for it of engineer and architect to the king. He died in that of regular sequence. It is in following out Paris, 6th June 1626. At Frankfort in 1615 this view of the physical as distinct from the appeared his Raisons des Forces Mouvantes, &c., a efficient cause that the term comes to be defined work in which is described an apparatus for forcing as the aggregate of the conditions or antecedents up water by a steam fountain, differing only in necessary to the production of the effect : meaning one detail from that of Della Porta (see STEAM by necessary conditions those conditions without ENGINE). There is no reason to suppose that the which the effect either would not have existed at apparatus ever was constructed; but on the strength / all, or would have been different from what it is. of the description, Arago has claimed for De Caus In popular language, however, and even in most the invention of the steam-engine. See the article scientific inquiries, the term cause is restricted to DE CAUS in vol. xiv. of the Dict. of National the one or two conditions by the intervention of Biography (1888).

| which amongst other more permanent conditions

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