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underground galleries owe their inception entirely times many animals may have been entrapped in to the chemical action of water seeking its way the same way-for broken and rubbed bones often downwards from the surface, and following the occur, sometimes very abundantly, in the old torrenlines of natural division-planes in the rocks, it is tial accumulations of deserted subterranean waterobvious that caves will be of most common occur. courses. When the galleries ceased to be traversed rence in regions where the rocks yield most readily | by streams, stalagmitic accretions would then begin to such chemical action. Among the more soluble to accumulate over the shingle and debris beds. rocks are rock-salt and gypsum, but these are only In course of time many of these subterranean loonlly developed in such quantities as to give rise hollows, becoming more or less accessible from the on their removal to underground cavities of any outside, were occupied by carnivorous animals, extent. ('alcareous rocks, more especially limestone, / who carried thither their prey, and thus by and have not only an almost world-wide distribution, by accumulations of bones were formed, which but they also occur in greater mass than either the drip of water from above gradually inclosed gypsum or rock-salt, and hence, although not so in calcareous matter, and eventually covered readily acted upon by water as the latter two, it is up under a sheet of stalagmite. Now and again in limestones that nearly all the most renowned the caves were occupied for shorter or longer caves and subterranean galleries appear.

periods by man-his presence being still evidenced Many caverns have a calcareous incrustation by his implements and weapons, by charred and lining their interior. Sometimes this deposit is split bones, &c., and occasionally by portions of his pure white; it is, however, more generally coloured own skeleton-and these relics, in 'like manner, by the impurities which the water, percolating subsequently became sealed up in a more or less downwards from the surface, has taken up from the thick accumulation of stalagmite. Some of these muperineumbent rocks. To the incrustations which bone-caves contain the record of many physical are suspended from the roof like icicles, the name changes. Thus, we have evidence to show that stalactites is given, while those rising from the floor after having been the haunt of wild beasts or the are called stalagmites. The origin of these is as 'abode of man for some indefinite but often profollows: Water which has percolated down from 'longed period, the cave again gave passage to a flow the surface always contains a certain proportion of' of water, and deposits of loam, clay, or gravel, &c. carbonic suid it is acidulated water—the acid were laid down upon the stalagmitic pavement and being derived from the atmosphere and the decaying bone-breccia. Or, as in some cases, the stalag. organic matter of the soil, &c. Water thus charged mite, together with bones covered by and inclosed with carbonic acid has the power of dissolving, within it, was broken up and partially or wholly limestone-i.e. it takes up a certain proportion removed. Then, at a subsequent date the stream of carbonate of lime and converts it into the soluble once more deserted its channel, while carnivores or bicarbonate. Arrived at the roof of a cave it oozes ' man again returned, and newer heaps of bones and out and is there subject to evaporation, the excess stalagmite accumulated. Commingled with these of carbonic acid is parted with, and a thin pellicle stalagmites of the bone-caves there is almost of carbonate of lime is deposited as an incrustation. always more or less of a reddish earth or clay, When the drop fall to the floor they are subject which is the insoluble residue of the limestone from there in the same way to evaporation, and are thus the dissolution of which the stalactites and stalag. compelled to give up the remainder of the cal. mites are formed. Some of the more remarkable careous matter held in solution. By this constant, bone-caves which have yielded testimony as to the dropping and falling, icicle-like pendants grow contemporaneity of man with extinct mammalia, downwards from the roof, while sheets, bosses, and are Kent's Care (9.v.) and Brixham Cave in Eng: domes gradually accumulate upon the floor--until, land, the caves in the valley of the Lesse in Belgiun, not infrequently, these stalagmites come at last to the caves of Perigord and the Pyrenees in France, unite with the gradually lengthening stalactites, and the Kesserloch near Thäingen in Switzerland. and so to form, as it were, pillars which look as if Bone-caves containing the remains of post-tertiary they had been placed to support the roof. See the mammals are rare in North America; those of Brazil articles on ADELSBERG, AGTELEK, KENT'S CAVE, have many bones of large rodents and edentates. MAMMOTH CAVE, &c.

For caves at Wick, in Scotland, still occupied by BONE-CAVES. -Caves are of interest to geologists tinkers, see Sir Arthur Mitchell, The Past in the not only because they testify to the potency of the Present (1880). For accounts of special caves, see chemical and mechanical action of underground the British Association Reports (for Kent's Cave) water, but on account of the remarkable evidence and the Philosophical transactions (1822-73). they have yielded as to the contemporaneity of man For general descriptions, see Buckland's Reliquiæ with many extinct and no longer indigenous mam. Diluriane, Dupont's L'Homme pendant les Ages mals. This evidence is furnished by the accum- de la Pierre, Lartet's and Christy's Reliquiar Aqui. ulations which so frequently cover the floors of taniere, Lubbock's Prehistoric Times. Dawkins caverns to a greater or less depth. The accumula. Care-hunting, J. Geikie's Prehistoric Europe. For tions in question consist partly of clay, sand, gravel, further information as to the European caveand shingle, and partly of red earth and sheets of dwellers of prehistoric times, see MAX, FLIXT stalarmite. Some of these are doubtless the IMPLEMENTS, PLEISTOCENE. alluvial detritus carried forward by under round ARTIFICIAL CAVES. - The primitive inhabitants streams. This detritus often consists largely of of most civilised countries and many primitive angular, suhangular, and water-worn fragments of tribes at the present day have been troglodytes or limestone, which have doubtless been derived from cave-dwellers. In many countries where natural the roof and walls of the under round galleries, cares are either of rare occurrence or do not occur but not infrequently the presence of other kinds at all, certain rock-exposures have been artifici. of rock-fragments shows that no inconsiderable ally excavated, and occupied either permanently amount of material has been introncal from the as dwelling places or occasionally as retreats in outside by the streams as they plunged into their times of danger, while others have been used as subterranean courses. Much debris also mar have cells, hermitages, or burial places. Such caves are been swept in by heary rain or flooled torrents not uncommon in the cliffs ottish river ravines, washing down throngh the sinks and swallow holes as at Hawthornden near urgh, and in the that so frequently pierce the roofs of subterranean valley of the Jet, Rort

Caves of this watercourses. These sinks often become pitfall to kind excur usually in

readily dag unfortunate cattle in our own day, and in forr i nto, such as soft sa

and again,

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they have been excavated in conglomerate, as in blind insects, of which in some cases (Machærites) the case of Hobbie Noble's Cave, Roxburghshire. only the females are blind ; blind spiders and myriala volcanie regions it is the softer tuffs or ashes pods; many Crustaceans (Viphargus puteanus, that are usually holed, as in the caves of the Titanethes albus, Crangonyx, Asellus sieboldii, &c.); Canary Islands There the Guanches have also | a few univalves and other forms. cravatei caves under the lavas, by simply raking It is noteworthy that the blindness may exist in

at the more or less loose scoria and cinders which various degrees, some being totally blind and others semmonly occur in that position. Vast areas in possessing rudimentary eyes. It is also to be drotnl (hina are covered with a coherent loam remembered that not all cave-animals are blind,

of the same character as the Locss (q.v.) of the but forms with well-developed organs of vision also tules of the Rhine and Danube), in which dug. | occur. Fish, insects, spiders, myriapods, and crus.

et dwelling places are of common occurrence. taceans with well-developed eyes have been recorded Anda sumilar deposit, exposed along the bluffs from various caves, and the explanation of this anvers in the far west of North America, has persistence of organs in such environment is still been utilised by some of the early inhabitants in to find. See DEGENERATION, ENVIRONMENT, and the same way. In Arizona, parts of Colorado, Semper's Natural Conditions of E.cistence as Neruda, t'tal, and south-east California, the rocky they affect Animal Life (International Science percipitous walls of deep cañons are in places Series, 1881).

led with human habitations, so as to look like CAVE BEAR, HYÆNA, Lion, &c.-(1) C'rsus bibeycomle. The strata forming the walls of the spelaus, a fossil bear, like those now living, found Mint have been eroded in different degrees, and very abundantly in the Pleistocene caves of Europe. horunntal caves larger and smaller have been (2) Hyana spelara, once abundant in Britain and femel The cliff dwellings are often adobe or other parts of Europe, and very closely allied to stane structures built on the ledges overhung by the H. crocuta now found in Africa. (3) Felis proyecting rock mannes; smaller caves have served spelaa, a fossil lion, very like the modern form, as dwellings, and been partially completed by abundant in caves of England and Europe gener

babe walls. Some of these houses are at a height ally. The prefix cave obviously refers to the fact d o feet above the level of the valley, and are that in caves the fossil remains of recent animals with diffealty accessible. They seem to have been are well preserved and abundantly found.

de as places of refuge and defence by the same Cave. EDWARD, the founder of the Gentleman's ancient races as left the pueblos or stone ruins in Magazine, was born at Newton, Warwickshire, in the valleys, like those occupied by the Pueblos and 1691 ; received some schooling at Rugby; and after Moni Indians now. Some assume them to have many vicissitudes, became apprentice to a printer. been the ancestors of the present Pueblos; others Obtaining money enough to set up a small printing. that they were akin to the Aztecs. See Hayden in office, in 1731 he started the Gentleman's Magazine, tanford's Vorth Americ; Vadaillac's Prehistoric the earliest literary journal of the kind. Samuel w ca (Eng. trans. 1885); and the U.S. Survey Johnson became its parliamentary reporter in 1740; Reports since 1874.

and with his hand in Johnson's, Cave died on 10th Herinitars, belonging to all ages, some of very

January 1754. emple, others of a more elaborate construction,

Cave, WILLIAM, divine, born at Pickwell, ! bave in like manner been excavated in rocks of

Leicestershire, in 1637, from Oakham school passed | very different kinds ; so that we are presented with

to St John's College, Cambridge (1653), and was every variety of artificial rock-excavation, from

appointed to the vicarage of Islington (1662), to sample hollows scraped out of some soft yielding

the rectory of Allhallows the Great, London (1679), material to the richly ornamented grottoes and

and to the vicarage of Isleworth, Middlesex (1690). temples of Ellora, near Daulatabad, which are cut

He died at Windsor, 4th July 1713. Among his out in red granite. And so again in the matter of

twelve works on church history are Lires of the nek tomle we meet with artificial grottoes of all

A postles, Lires of the Fathers, and Primitire Chris. Linds-frotn mere holes picked out without much

tianity, which once were standard authorities. • truable in loess, tull, sandstone, or other yielding substance to the great rock-cut sepulchres of

Caveat is a formal warning, entered in the Leypt, and the no less famous catacombs of Rome.

books of a court or a public office, that no step shall Many cars have been doubtless partly natural,

be taken in a particular matter without notice to artly artificial-the cells of the inonks of the

the person lodging the caveat, so that he may Tarland in Egypt, St Serf's cave at Dysart, St AP!

| appear and object. Thus, caveats are frequently un' at Whithorn. For the cave-dwellers known enter

entered at the Patent Office to prevent the un. to the ancients, see TROGLODYTES, PETRA. For opp

Petu r opposed granting of letters-patent; or at the the Indian cave temples, see ELEPHANTA, ELLORA.

Probate ('ourt to prevent the unopposed making up

? (AVE-AXIMALA -Various caverns, both of the

: a title to the property of deceased persons; or at the Old and New World, are tenanted by animals which

which Admiralty (ourt to prevent the unopposed arrest. we wsually more or less blind. From one point of I ment of a ship. The term is also used in ecclei.

w the eyes have decenerated from disuse and Estical practice in England; although a caveat -for the aluence of the necessary light stimulus: eg against an institution to a particular benefice fro another point of view they have degenerated has not now the nig Taner Do longer of use, and no longer maintained Canon Law, In Scotland the term in confined to by that natural selection which through the struggle

such notices as are placed in the Bill (hamber frustrace is supposed by many to be necessary

(the summary department of the Supreme ('ivil only for the establishment, but for the main

, Court) or in the Sheriff ('ourte to prevent any

! trubce of organs. The fauna of the Mammoth : interdict being granted withont notice to the person (ale at kentucky has been most studied, and is ' interested. Such caveats require to be catalogued with figures in Putnam and Packard's every month. desrription of that famous cavern. Leydig hasi Cavedoné, GIACOMO, an Italian artist of the bude a special study of the highly developed tac (aracci school, born in 1577 at Sassuola, assisted

le van borne by some fishes frequenting German Gnido Reni at Rome, and finally settled in Bologna, are Among the cave-animals may be noticed where many of his religious pictures are preserved. the Amphibian Proteus (9.6.) with eyes in an em: ; He died in poverty in 1000. kronir state: Various Blind Fish (g.v.), such as Cavendish, the surname of the dural House of Amblyopis 14..), Typhlichthyr, &c.; hundreds of i Devonshire, a family directly descended from the

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chief-justice Sir John Cavendish, who in 1381 was Cavendish, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey, beheaded at Bury St Edmunds by Jack Straw's was born about 1500, and became Wolsey's gentlefollowers; and from Sir William Cavendish of man-usher at least as early as 1527. He remained Cavendish, Suffolk (circa 1505-57), a brother of in close attendance upon his great master till the Wolsey's biographer. His third wife, the cele- end (November 28, 1530), after which he retired to brated Bess of Hardwick,' afterwards Countess of his house at Glemsford, in Suffolk, where he lived Shrewsbury, brought Chatsworth (q.v.) into the quietly with his wife, a niece of Sir Thomas More, family; and William, their second son, was in 1618 till the close of his own life in 1561 or 1562. His made Earl of Devonshire. His great-grandson, affection for the great cardinal was most devoted William (1640-1707), was, under the last two he had attached himself to his household, in Stuarts, a steadfast member of the Whig opposi. Wolsey's own words, abandoning his own country, tion, Russell's friend to the death, and an active wife, and children, his own house and family, his promoter of the Habeas Corpus Act. He succeeded rest and quietness, only to serve me.' He never as fourth earl in 1684, and, for his services at the laid aside his loyalty to his memory, but in the Revolution, was in 1694 raised to be Duke of quiet meditation of after-years brooded over his Devonshire and Marquis of Hartington. His fall, and from it learned for himself “the blessedgreat-grandson, William (1720-64) succeeded as ness of being little.' Thirty years after he wrote fourth duke in 1755, and was prime-minister from his Life of Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most inNovember 1756 to the following May. William, teresting short biographies in the English language. fifth duke (1748-1811), was a bit of a poet; but Its pensive wisdom and simple sincerity reflect a is less remembered than his beautiful* duchess, pleasing picture of the gentle and refined nature of whom Gainsborough and Reynolds painted. Wil. its author, and enable us to see intimately with our liam, sixth duke (1790–1858), was chiefly distin- own eyes, but with singular clearness, the outlines guished by his sumptuous embassy to St Petersburg of one of the grandest figures in our history. The (1826); and William, seventh duke (born 1808), I book, written by a devout Catholic, full of regrets for had inherited the earldom of Burlington in 1834, the past, could not well be printed in Elizabeth's twenty-four years before he succeeded his cousin in | reign, but circulated pretty freely in manuscript the Devonshire title.

copies, as many as twelve of which are still extant. His eldest son, the Right Hon. SPENCER COMP. It is almost certain that Shakespeare had read it TON CAVENDISH, Marquis of Hartington, was born before writing or collaborating in Henry VIII., as 23d July 1833, and was educated at Trinity College, all the redeeming features in the picture of the great Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1854. He entered cardinal, and the lesson of his fall as a solemn parliament in 1857, being first returned for North homily upon human ambition, are directly due to Lancashire, then in 1869 for the Radnor boroughs, the tender and loyal touch of Cavendish. The in 1880 for North-east Lancashire, and in 1885 book was first printed imperfect, for party purposes, for the Rossendale division of that county. The in 1641. The best edition is that of s. W. Singer representative of a great Whig house, he was chosen (2 vols. 1815), the text of which was reprinted as early as 1859 to move the vote of want of confi.with a good introduction in Professor Henry dence that overthrew the Derby government, and | Morley's Universal Library '(1886). between 1863 and 1874 held office as a Lord of the Cavendish, HENRY, natural philosopher, eldest Admiralty, Under-secretary for War, War Secre. son of Lord Charles Cavendish, and a grandson of tary, Postmaster-general, and, from 1871, Chief. the second Duke of Devonshire, was born at Nice, secretary for Ireland. Neither a born statesman October 10, 1731. From a school at Hackney he nor great orator, he had yet shown an infinite passed in 1749 to Peterhouse, Cambridge, but capacity for taking pains,' when, in February 1875, quitted it three years later without a degree; on Mr Gladstone's temporary abdication, he was thereafter he devoted the whole of his long life chosen leader of the Liberal opposition. He led it to scientific investigations, a large fortune beadmirably, and in the spring of 1880, on the down ! queathed him by an uncle enabling him to fall of the Beaconsfield administration, was invited follow uninterruptedly his favourite pursuits. A by the Queen to form a ministry. He rejected the silent, solitary man, he hated so to meet strangers, offer, and served under Mr Gladstone, first as Secre that he had his library-a magnificent onetary of State for India, and then as War Secretary

in London, four miles from his residence on Clap. from 1883 to 1885. But he wholly dissented from ham Common, so that he might not encounter Mr Gladstone's scheme of Irish Home Rule ; and

persons coming to consult it; whilst his female since 1886, as head of the Liberal Unionists, he has domestics had orders to keep out of his firmly supported Lord Salisbury's Conservative pain of dismissal. His dinner he ordered daily by a government.

note placed on the hall-table. He died, unmarried, His younger brother, Lord FREDERICK CAVEN. | at Clapham, 10th March 1810, leaving more than a DISH, was born 30th November 1836, and was also million sterling to his relatives. As a philosopher, educated at Trinity, taking his B.A. in 1858. He Cavendish is entitled to the highest rank. To him sat in parliament as Liberal member for the it may almost be said we owe the foundation of northern division of the West Riding of Yorkshire

pneumatic chemistry, for prior to his time it had from 1865 till the spring of 1882, when he succeeded hardly an existence. In 1760 he discovered the Mr Forster as (hief-secretary for Ireland. Between extreme levity of inflammable air, now known as seven and eight o'clock, on the evening of 6th May, hydrogen gasa discovery which led to balloon having only that morning reached Dublin, he and experiments and projects for aérial navigation ; Mr Burke, an unpopular subordinate, were stabbed and later, he ascertained that water resulted from to death in the Phenix Park. Eight months later, the union of two gases--a discovery which has twenty Irish Invincibles' were tried for the erroneously been claimed for Watt (g.v.; see also murder, and, ('arey and two others having turned WATER). The famous Cavendish Experiment was Queen's evidence, five of the rest were hanged, · an ingenious device for estimating the density of three sentenced to penal servitude for life, and the the Earth (9.v.). The accuracy and completeness of remaining nine to various terms of imprisonment. Cavendish's processes are remarkable. So high an (arey himself disappeared ; but in July news came authority as Sir Humphry Davy declared that they from the ('ape that he had been shot dead by an were all of a finished nature, and though many of Irishman named O'Donnell on board an emigrant them were performed in the very infancy of chemi. ship. O'Donnell was brought back to London, cal science, yet their accuracy and their beauty and hanged.

I have remained unimpaired. Cavendish also wrote

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an astronomical instruments; and his Electrical kegs. More than 400,000 lb. have been prepared Researches (1771-81) were edited by Professor Clerk in the Caspian fishery in a single year. Maxwell (1879). See his Life by G. Wilson, forming vol i. of the Cavendish Society's Works (1846).

Cavité, a decayed seaport of Luzon, one of the

Philippines, 12 miles SW. of the capital. Pop. Cavendish, THOMAS, circumnavigator, was 2500. barn about 1555 at Trimley St Martin, near Ipswich, and, after squandering his patrimony at

Cavour, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DI, the recuart, shared in Grenville's expedition to Virginia storer of Italian unity and nationality, was born at (1585). On 21st July of the following year he

Turin, August 10, 1810. He was descended from miled from Plymouth with 122 men and three ships one of the ancient noble families of Piedmont, and of 40, 60, and 140 tons, and, by Sierra Leone and

being the younger son was destined for a military Brazil, reached the Strait of Magellan, whose pass

career. At the military school he distinguished age took seven weeks. During the nine months

himself by his mathematical talent, and at an early that he cruised in the Pacific, he burned three

age was appointed to a post in the engineers. Spanish towns and thirteen ships; then, with a

But as his liberal opinions proved unfavourable to rich booty, but only the largest of his three

his stay in the army, he left it in 1831. His good vessels, he returned by way of the Indian Archi

sense, however, taught him that the deliverance of pelago and the Cape of Good Hope to England,

Italy could not be accomplished by secret conspiracy loth September 1588. Elizabeth knighted him, and

and spasmodic revolutionary outbreaks. There was be took to his old mode of life, till in August 1591

nothing for him therefore but to retire into private be sailed on a second expedition, intended to rival

life. Here he devoted himself to agriculture, introthe first. It ended in utter disaster, and in 1592

ducing great improvements in the cultivation of Cavendish died broken-hearted off Ascension.

the family estates; and his efforts generally to

raise the economic condition of Piedmont were Cavendish. WILLIAM, Duke of Newcastle, son

thorough and enlightened. But he had a further of Sir Charles Cavendish, and nephew of the first

end in view ; he saw that economic improvement Earl of Devonshire, was born in 1592, and educated

must be the basis for a better social and political * St John's College, Cambridge. His learning

order. And he widened his knowledge of economic and winning address made him a favourite at the

and political questions by foreign travel, especially coart of James L, who in 1610 created him Knight

in France and England. Constitutionalism as på the Bath, and in 1620 Viscount Mansfield.

established and practised in England was on the Charles I, who was splendidly entertained by him

whole the form of government he most admired. as Welbeck and Bolsover, in 1628 created him Earl

During a residence in England he made himself od Newcastle, and in 1038 appointed him governor | intimately acquainted with the political organisato his son, afterwards Charles II. His support of

tion of the country, and also with its industrial the king during the contest with the parliament

institutions; knowledge of which he made good was munificent. He contributed £10,000 to the

use on his return to his own country. treasury, and raised a troop of 200 knights and

In this way for sixteen years Cavour energetically gentlemen, who served at their own cost. As

laboured as a private gentleman. No opportunity general of all the forces north of the Trent, he

presented itself for any effective influence in and power to issue declarations, confer knight

politics, and he wisely abstained. It was very hood, coin money, and raise men ; and the last part different when the spirit of freedom and innovaof his commission he executed with great zeal.

tion once more awoke towards the revolutionary After the battle of Marston Moor (1644), Cavendish

period of 1848. In conjunction with Count Cesare retired to the Continent, where he resided, at times

Balbo, he in 1847 established a newspaper, Il Risor. in great poverty, till the Restoration. In 1665 he

gimento, in which he advocated a representative was created Duke of Newcastle ; and he died 25th

system, somewhat after the pattern of the English Ilecember 1676. He was author of two works on

constitution, as opposed alike to absolutism on borsemanship, and of several plays, not of a char. |

| the one hand, and mob rule on the other. On acter to increase any man's reputation for intelli.

his suggestion, the king was petitioned for a consti. gence. See his Life by his second wife (1667;

tution, which was granted in February 1848. In new ed. by C. H. Firth, 1886).--She, MARGARET

the Chamber of Deputies, during the stormy LACAS (1624-74), the daughter of an Essex house,

period which succeeded Charles Albert's declawhere all the brothers were valiant, and all the

ration of war against Austria in March, Cavour sister virtuous,' had married him in 1645, and was

strenuously opposed the ultra-democrats, and herself the author of a dozen folio volumes of

counselled an alliance with England as the surest poems, plays, letters, &c.

guarantee for the success of the Italian arms. In Caviare, the salted roes (immature ovaries) of the Marquis d'Azeglio's ministry, formed soon the common sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) and other after the fatal battle of Novara, C'avour was sucfishes of the same gepus (see STURGEOX). It is cessively Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, chiefly prepared in Russia, where, as in various Minister of Marine, and Minister of Finance. In other countries, it is a favourite delicacy, and is 1852 he was appointed to succeed D'Azeglio as largely made in the l'nited States; though the premier. From this time until his resignation in phrase ('aviare to the general,' shows that | 1859, in consequence of the conclusion of the peace the taste is an acquired one. The species of of Villafranca, Cavour was the originator as well stargeon from the roe of which it is chiefly pre- as the director of the Sardinian policy. Taking pared inhabit the Caspian and Black seas and upon himself at different times, in addition to the their tributary rivers. Among them are the Bie. premiership, the duties of the Ministers of Finance, Ing, or Great Sturgeon (A. huso), the Osseter Commerce, and Agriculture, and latterly of Home (..guidenstadtu), the Scherg or Sevruga (A. stel. and Foreign Affairs, he greatly improved the lates, and the Sterlet (A. ruthenus). The caviare financial condition of the country, introduced male from the roe of the last-named species is measures of free trade, consolidated constitu. steetned particularly delicious. Astrakhan is a tionalism, weakened clerical influence, and made principal seat of the preparation of caviare. The Sardinia a power of some account in Europe.

e are more or less roughly separated from the Hitherto the work of Cavour had been to reform senecting tissue, and, after salting, are packed in Piedmont, and place its affairs on a sound basis.

all harrels, or the roes may be salted in long The Crimean war afforded him an opportunity to tragtes, and the eggs passed through a sieve into begin the task of restoring the unity and national

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independence of Italy. It was through his advice Cavy (Cavia), a genus of Rodents, best known and influence that Sardinia took part in the war, by the domesticated species (Cavia cobaya), the and as a result of this he managed to bring the common Guinea-pig (q.v.). Italian question before the Congress of Paris in | Cawdor, a village in Nairnshire, 54 miles SW. 1856. In 1858 Cavour had with the Emperor Napo- of Nairn. Cawdor Castle, near by, the seat of the leon a secret meeting, at which the programme for Earl of Cawdor, was founded in 1454, but is one of driving Austria out of Italy was drawn up, and the three places which tradition has assigned as during the early part of 1859 there followed a the scene of King Duncan's murder by Macbeth diplomatic contest" with Austria, which Cavour in 1040. A series of papers from the charter-room conducted with masterly tact and astuteness. The at Cawdor was edited by Cosmo Innes under the peace of Villafranca, coming after the successful title of The Book of the Thanes of Cawdor (1859). war of 1859, and leaving Austria in possession of See CAMPBELL. Venetia, was a bitter disappointment to Cavour.

Cawk, a popular name for a massive variety He resigned his office; yet he had no reason for despair, as the power of Austria in the Italian

of the mineral called Heavy Spar or Sulphate of peninsula was now really broken. On returning to

Baryta. See BARYTA. office in 1860 he resumed his great undertaking, Cawnpore' (Kanhpur), a city of the Northbut by new methods. Popular feeling in central western Provinces, on the right bank of the Ganges, Italy declared itself in favour of union with the 42 miles SW, of Lucknow, 266 SE. of Delhi, and north, and thus Parma, Modena, and Tuscany 628 NW, of Calcutta. The river in front, varying, came under the sway of Victor Emmanuel. It was according to the season, from 500 yards in width to the part of Cavour to guide opinion towards this | more than a mile, presents a large and motley end, gaining time for it while he negotiated with the assemblage of steam-vessels and native craft; the great powers; but he had to purchase the acquies.

principal landing place is the beautiful Sarsiya cence of France by the surrender of Nice and Savoy. ghát. Cawnpore, at least as a place of note, is of He secretly encouraged the expedition of Garibaldi, recent origin, being indebted for its growth, besides which in 1860 achieved the deliverance of Sicily its commercial facilities, partly to military and and southern Italy. When a Sardinian army | political considerations. In 1777, being then an marched southwards and on the plains of Campania appendage of Oudh, it was assigned by the nawab met the volunteers of Garibaldi, the unity of Italy as the station of a subsidiary force ; and in 1801 was already an accomplished fact. In 1861 an it became, in name as well as in fact, British Italian parliament was summoned, and Victor property. In 1881 its cantonments, having accomEmmanuel was declared king of Italy. For the modation for 7000 troops, contained a population completion of Italian unity only Rome and Venetia

of 31,283, and the city of 120,161, giving a total were wanting; with a little patience they too

of 151,444, of whom 113,354 were Hindus, and could be won.

3194 Christians. At the outbreak of the mutiny Thus had Cavour achieved the task of his life. in May 1857, Cawnpore contained about 1000 But it had not been accomplished without a fearful Europeans, 560 of whom were women and children. strain on his health. He had to manage the Sar. The hasty, ill-chosen entrenchments into which dinian parliament, to meet the artifices, protests,

they had thrown themselves, were speedily invested and reproaches of many of the great powers, to

by overwhelming numbers of the matineers, led on Avent revolutionary parties from upsetting the by the infamous Nana Sahib. For three weeks practical mission on which he was engaged, and to

the few defenders held gallantly out; but at last direct a great popular and national movement they surrendered on promise of a safe-conduct to towards a reasonable and attainable goal by Allahabad. The sepoys accompanied them to the methods involving the minimum of delay and banks of the Ganges, and scarcely were they emviolence. For the real power of Sardinia was com barked on the boats, when a murderous fire was paratively limited, and a false step might have been opened upon them, and only four men escaped. serious. The constant strain was too much for him,

The women and children, 125 in number, were and he died June 6, 1861, only a few months after reserved for a crueller fate, and were carried back the unity of Italy had been proclaimed. The last to Cawnpore. Hearing that Havelock was within words he was heard to utter were those so familiar two days' march of the place, Nana Sahib adas expressing an important feature of his policy: vanced to meet him. He was driven back, and, * Brothers, brothers, the free church in the free smarting under defeat, returned to (awnpore, and state.' ('avour is admitted to be the beau ideal of a gave orders for the instant massacre of his helpless practical and constructive statesman, who, aiming prisoners, who, dead and dying, were cast into a at just and reasonable ends, seeks to achieve them well. Havelock and his small army arrived on by eflectual and legitimate methods. He made 16th July, only to find to their unutterable horror a reformed Piedmont the basis for attaining the that they came too late to rescue the women and unity and regeneration of Italy. The ambition children. A memorial church, a Romanesque red. of Napoleon, the military gallantry of the king, the brick building, now marks the site of General enthusiasm of Garibaldi, were all made to co. | Wheeler's entrenchment; whilst the scene of the operate towards bis plan for satisfying the national massacre is occupied by the memorial gardens, aspirations of Italy under a lasting constitutional Over the well itself a mound has been raised, its rule. Through his early death much of the work summit crowned by an octagonal Gothic inclosure, necessary for a sound and healthy national life was with Marochetti's white marble angel in the centre. left unfinished, yet the subsequent history of Italy But Sir George Trevelyan's (aunpore (1865) is the proves that ('avour had built on a solid foundation.

best memorial of the tragedy. -The district of He deserves a place among the greatest statesmen ('awnpore has an area of 2370 sq. m., and a populaof modern times.

tion (1881) of 1,181,396. It is an alluvial plain of The title is taken from the small Piedmontese great fertility. The vine is cultivated, and indigo town of Cavour, 28 miles SW'. of Turin. See De grows wild. Besides its two mighty rivers, the In Rive, Le Comte de l'arour, Rerits et Sourenirs Ganges and Jumna, and their navigable tributaries, ( Paris, 1863; Eng. trans, of same date); Bianchi, the Ganges (anal traverses the country for 60 La Politique de Carour (Turin, 1885); his Lettere, miles, and there is ample communication by rail. edited by Chiala (6 vols. 1883 87): also the bio | Caxias, (1) a town of Brazil, in the province of graphies of him by Massari (Turin, 1873) and Maranhão, on the navigable Itapicuru, 190 miles Mazade (Paris, 1877; Eng. trans, of same date). i from its mouth, with an active trade in cotton.

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