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Pop 10.000.-(2) An Italian agricultural colony Europeans, large numbers of the convicts having in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, been carried ott' by various malignant fevers. The teabled in 1875. Pop. (1884) 13,680.

French took possession of the island in 1604, and Carton, WILLIAM, the first English printer,

again, after it had been held by the English and a krm in the Weald of Kent about 1422. He

: Dutch, in 1677. The name of the capital is someu aprenticed in 1438 to Robert Large, a wealthy

| times used for the whole of French Guiana (q.v.). Lelia merrer, who was Lord Mayor in 1439-40.

Pop. about 10,000. (o his master's death in 1441, he went to Bruges ;

Cayenne Cherry. See ErGENIA. be rompered in business, and became in 1462 ('ayenne Pepper consists of the powder of fnernor of a chartered association of English the dried pods, and more especially of the dried merchants in the Low ('ountries. In 1471 he seeds of species of Capsicum (9.v.). alendened commerce and attached himself to the Cayes, or Arx CAYES, a seaport of Hayti, on bembol of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, the the south west coast, 95 miles WSW. of Port-austre ef Edward IV.; and apparently towards the | Prince. Pop. 8000.

- 1476 he set up his wooden printing press Cayley, ARTHUR, mathematician, was born at at the sign of the Red Pale in the Almonry at Richmond, Surrey, in 1821. He was educated at Westminster. "The art of printing he had acquired

King's College, London, and Trinity College, Cam. daning his sojourn in Bruges, doubtless from Colard bridve, and graduated as senior wrangler and first Mansim, a well known printer of that city; and in Smith's prizeman in 1842. He was called to the 164 be put through the press at Bruges the first bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1849, and established a bank printed in the English tongue, the Recuyell

practice as a conveyancer. In 1863 he was elected the Historyrs of Troye, a translation of Raoul

first Sadlerian Professor of pure Mathematics at Laterte's work. The Game and Playe of the Cheese Cambridge, and in 1873 to a fellowship of Trinity was another of (axton's earliest publications; but College. He has received honorary degrees from the Inotes and Sayings of the Philosophers, pub. Oxford, Dublin, and Leyden. He was president of laboral in 1477. is the first book which can with the Roval Astronomical Society (1872-73), and of certainty be maintained to have been printed in the British Association at its Southport meeting in England. All the eight founts of type from which 1883, where his address on the ultimate possibili. (axton printed may be called Black Letter. Of

ties of mathematics attracted much attention. In the ninety-nine known distinct productions of his

1882 he gave a course of mathematical lectures at vas, no less than thirty-eight survive in unique the Johns Hopkins l'niversity, Baltimore, and in the

is or in fragments only. His books have no mame vear received the Copley medal of the Royal tatle pages, although many have prologues and Society. His chief book is an Elementary Treatise cubespebons. Some have no points at all ; others on Elliptic Functions (1876); a ten volume edition the full stop and colon alone. The semicolon of his Mathematical Papers was begun in 1889. Devr occur; the comma is usually marked by bart , ) or by long (1) lines. The pages are not

Caylus, ANNE ('LAI'DE PHILIPPE DE TUBI. numbered and have no catchwords. For (axton's

ERES, COMTE DE, archirologist, was born in Paris imprint, mee article BOOK.) (axton enjoyed the

in 1692. After serving in the Spanish War of Suc. patronage and friendship of some of the chief men

cession, he travelled in Greece and the East, return. of his time. He was diligent in the exercise of hising to

ing to Paris in 1717 to devote himself to the study craft or in translation till within a few hours of his

of antiquities, and the promotion of the fine arts. death, which seems to have happened about the

If his industry sometimes outran his intelligence, champ of the year 1491. Gibbon denounces (axton's

it is still true that he did rast service to archae. centre of books, and complains that the world is

ology. He died at Paris in 1765. His chief work mot indebted to England for one first edition of a

is his Recueil d'Antiquités égyptiennes, etrusques, i classic anthor ; but it should be remembered that I grecques, romaines, et gauloises (7 vols. 1752 67). Carte had to make his printing business pay, and

His copperplate engravings have had a longer life that he could therefore supply only books for which

than his stories of Eastern life. there was a demand. Nor can it be said that a (ay'man, a local name loosely applied to

printer hat no regard for pure literature who provarious species of alligator-e.g. to Alligator I dard ditions of (Chaucer, Lydgate, Gower, Sir mississippiensis, the single species of the l'nited 1 Thomas Malory's King Arthur, and translations | States, or more frequently to other species found

of (berto's Ike Senectute and De Amicitia. ('axton's ! in tropical or subtropical America. The name has industry was marvellous. He was an accomplished , also been used, to an appearance unnecessarily, as languast, and the translations which he executed | the scientific title of a genus, and as such bas been himmelf sll more than 4300 printed pages, while the most frequently applied to A. palpebrosus and A. total produce of his press, exclusive of the books trigonatus. It seems more reasonable to regand all pointed at Bruges, reaches to above 18,000, nearly the alligators is within the limits of a single genus. all af folie size. At the Osterley Park sale in 1883, See ALLIGATOR. Do res than ten (axtons were sold; one of them, Caymans. three fertile coral islands of the the theme, bringing £1930. In 1877 the printer and Caribbean Sea, 163 miles NW. of Jamaica, of which hao work were fittingly commemorated by a typo- they form a dependency. Discovered by Columbus, mpical exhibition in London. See The Old Printer they were by him called Tortugas, from the and the Year Press, by (Charles Knight (1834); Life abundance of turtle, still the staple production

Tygraphy of William Curton (1861-63), by of the group. Area, 225 sq. m. ; pop. 2400, 2000 W Blue ; and the Biography and Typography of inhabiting the largest island, Grand Cayman. Carte (1877; 21. ed. 1882), by the same author. Cazalla de la Sierra, a town of the Spanish

Cayenne, a fortified seaport, capital of French province of Seville, 38 miles EVE. of Seville city, Guana, on an island at the mouth of a river of the on the southern slope of the Sierra Morena, with

be haine. A new town is connected with the important mines, and a traile in olives and wine. oldne portion by the Place d' Armes, bordered with Pop. 8322. aninge true. The harbour is the best on the coast, ('azem bé, the title of an African prince, whose bat insecure and shallow. (ayenne, though it is territory, also called (azembe, extends between the entrepot of all the trade of the colony, is chietly the Moero and Bangweolo lakes, west of 30' E. known as a great French penal settlement (mince long. The people are industrious and skilful hus. 1602, The climate is extremely unwholesome for bandmen and smiths, and carry on a brisk trade 40



in slaves, ivory, and copper, with the Portuguese wings, of which the maggot is vermilion coloured, settlements on the Upper Zambesi. It was in is often very destructive to crops of barley and the Cazembe's territory that Livingstone died in spelt in Germany. The little maggots live in 1873.

families between the stalk and the sheath of the Cazorla, a town of Andalusia, Spain, 40 miles

leaf, abstracting the juice of the plant. - The ENE. of Jaén. Pop. 6651.

Wheat-fly (9.v.) and the Hessian Fly (q.v.) belong Ceano'thus. See RED Root.

to this genus. Some of the species of Cecidom via

deposit their eggs on the young buds of trees, which Ceará, a province of Brazil, on the north coast,

the larvæ transform into galls. with an area of 40,240 sq. m., and (1885) 722,000

While forms like the Hessian fly are of great inhabitants. The interior presents a succession of

economic importance, another Cecidomyia is, on wooded hills and wide plateaus ; cattle-raising is

account of its extraordinary mode of reproduction, of an important industry ; cotton, coffee, and sugar are

great scientific interest. According to Wagner, the largely grown; and iron and gold are found. The

| female lays her eggs under tree-bark or the like ; capital, Ceará, had formerly only an open road.

these develop in winter into larvæ. The larvæ, stead, but in 1888 extensive harbour improvements,

still immature, become reproductive and parthenowith breakwater and viaduct, were nearing com

genetic. The ovaries rupture, the eggs fall into pletion. It is the terminus of a railway to Baturité

the body-cavity, where the stimulus of fertilisation (90 miles), and has a large trade. Pop. 35,000.

is somehow replaced, for the ova develop into Cebadilla. See SABADILLA.

larvæ. These eat their parent larva, and after Ce'bes, a Theban, disciple and friend of Socrates, finishing the viscera, leave the empty skin. The and reputed author of the Pinax, or votive nemesis of reproduction overtakes them also, for tablet,' a philosophical dialogne, representing within them again, though likewise only larvæ, a allegorically the temptations of this life, and fresh batch of larvæ develops in similar fashion. teaching that True Learning can alone make for After several generations of this immature and happiness. In spite of its pure Attic, and its truly fatal reproduction, the final set of larva metaSocratic tendency, modern criticism now assigns morphose in summer into sexual winged insects. the work to the 20 century A.D. It was extremely See REPRODUCTION. popular in the middle ages, a sort of Pilgrim's

Cecil. See BURGHLEY and SALISBURY. Progress indeed ; and was translated into all the languages of Europe, as well as Arabic, which

Cecilia, St, the patroness of music, especially latter version. made possibly in the 9th century, is church music, 18 said to have suffered martyrdom our sole record of the close of the dialogue. See

in 230 A.D. Her heathen parents belonged to a Jerram's Cebetis Tabula (Oxf. Clar. Press, 1878).

noble Roman family, and betrothed their daughter,

already a secret convert to Christianity, to a heathen Cebu, or ZEBI", is one of the Philippine Islands

| youth named Valerian, who also was soon con(q.v.), the seventh in respect of area.

verted, and ere long suffered martyrdom together Ce'bus (Gr., 'an ape' or 'monkey'), a genus of with his brother Tiberius. Cecilia, when comSouth American monkeys, characterised by a round manded to sacrifice to idols, firmly refused, and head and short muzzle, a facial angle of about 60°, was condemned to death. She was first thrown long thumbs, and a long prehensile tail entirely into a boiling bath, from which she emerged unhurt; covered with hair. The body is covered with short, next the executioner struck three blows upon her thick hair Their voice is soft and pitiful. The neck with a sword, then fled in horror. Three species are numerous, all of very lively disposition days later his victim died of her wounds, and and gregarious arboreal habits, living in trees. received the martyr's crown. She was buried by They feed chiefly on fruits, but also on insects, Pope I'rban in the catacombs of Callistus. As worms, and molluscs. Various species are often early as the 5th century, there is mention of a seen in zoological gardens and menageries. They church dedicated to St Cecilia at Rome; and in are included under the popular designation Sapajou 821, by order of the Pope Paschal, her bones in its wider sense, and some of them are the were deposited there. St Cecilia is regarded as monkeys to which this name is sometimes more the inventor of the organ, and in the Roman strictly appropriated. The names Sajou and Sai Catholic Church her festival-day, November 22, is or Cai are also given to some of them, and some celebrated with splendid music. Some of our are called Capuchin (q.v.) Monkeys. One of the greatest poets, as Chaucer, Dryden, and Pope, have most common species in Guiana is the Weeper laid poetic tributes on the shrine of St Cecilia-the Monkey, or Weeper Sapajou (C. apella). Some of greatest is Dryden's splendid ode. The most the species are adorned with beards. The term famous paintings of St ('ecilia are those of Cebidæ is often used as a family designation for Raphael at Bologna, Carlo Dolce in the Dresden all the broad-nosed New. World Monkeys (Platyr Gallery, Domenichino in the Louvre, and Rubens rhini) with prehensile tails, in contrast to the in the Berlin Museum.-Another St Cecilia was Pithecidae, in which the tail is not so adapted. born in Africa, and suffered martyrdom by starva. In this family are included the Howling Monkeys tion under Diocletian. Her festival falls on the (Mycetes), the Spider Monkeys (Ateles), and 11th of February. other genera. See MONKEYS.

Cecro'pla, a genus of Artocarpacea. C. C'ecidomy'ia (Gr. kekidion, 'a gall-nut,' and peltata, the Trumpet-tree of the West Indies and myia, a fly.orgnat'), a genus of dipterous (two South America, has a hollow stem and branches, winged) insects in the Tipularia (gnat and mos. exhibiting merely membraneous partitions at the quito) division. They have beautiful, delicate, nodes. The branches, these partitions being redowny wings, which have three nervures, and are moved, are made into water-pipes and wind. horizontal when at rest ; antenne as long as the instruments. The wood is very light, and is used body, with bead-like joints, and whorls of hairs at to make floats for nets, and by the Indians in the joints ; long legs, and the first joint of the kindling fires by friction against a harder piece of tarsi very short. The species are numerous ; nearly wood. The bast yields a cordage fibre, and the thirty in Britain, and sixty in Europe. All are of outer bark is astringent, the fruit resembles a raspsmall size, but some of them are very important onberry, the buds furnish a potherb, while the juice account of the ravages which their minute maggots hardens into caoutchouc. The leaves and fruit are effect in grain-crops. ('. cerealis, sometimes called largely consumed by sloths. The hollow stem is the Barley Midge, a brownish-red fly with silvery largely inhabited by ants.

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Cecrops, a Pelasgic hero, the first king of liform appearance in graduated stages from base to Attira, sometimes represented as half man and summit of the tree. The leaves are about an inch half dragon. He divided Attica into twelve com long, arranged in clusters, persistent for about two munities, founded Athens, the citadel of which, years, at first bright green, but changing with age at first called Cecropia, commemorated his name, to a deeper tint, with a glancous hue, which in instituted marriage and the worship of the gods, | some individual trees increases to an almost silvery and introduced agriculture, navigation, and commerce Late writers explained Cecrops as the leader of a colony from Sais in Egypt.

Cedar, or CEDAR OF LEBANON, a tree much celebrated from the most ancient times for its beauty, its magnificence, and its longevity, as well As for the excellence and durability of its timber. It is often mentioned in Scripture ; it supplied the woodwork of Solomon's temple; and in the poetry of the Old Testament it is a frequent emblem of prosperity, strength, and stability. It belongs to ibe natural order Conifere, and is the Pinus Cedrus ad the older botanists; but is now ranked in the

enas Cedrus under the name of C. Libani, in
reference to its best-known habitat, Mount Leb.
Abon. It is found, however, on other mountains

Syria and Asia Minor, and also in Cyprus.
Of the celebrated Cedars of Lebanon only a few
sow remain. Situated at the head of the Kedisha
Valley at 6314 feet elevation, they consist of a grove

Branch of Cedar of Lebanon. of trees, 377 in number in 1875, five only being of

whiteness that gives to them a strikingly venerable aspect. The cones are erect on the upper sides of the branches, from 3 to 5 inches long and 2 to 24 inches broad, blunt at both ends. They require two years to reach maturity, and do not, as in the case of other allied conifers, drop from the branches, but when ripe the scales only along with the seeds drop to the ground, and leave the axis of the cone attached to the branch.

The timber of the Lebanon cedar enjoyed a high reputation for durability in ancient times, which, however, is hardly supported by modern experience. The wood of trees that have been grown in Britain and other parts of Europe has proved light, soft, brittle, liable to warp, and far from durable, probably owing to the immaturity of these comparatively young, though well-developed, samples, and also perhaps to climatic influence. The superior quality of the timber of the Lebanon trees is attested by Sir Joseph Hooker, who visited the famous cedar grove in 1860.

The secretions of the cedar of Lebanon have long been celebrated for remarkable properties. The whitish resin (Cedria ) which it exudes, it is said the Egyptians used in embalming their dead. Ancient writings were kept in cabinets or boxes of cedar-wood, but it would appear to be rather dangerous to commit modern printed documents to

such repositories. Mr Smee, in My Garden, says : Cedars of Lebanon

* The wood of the cedar contains a volatile essential

oil, which has the curious property of unsettling I sigastie size, measuring 30 feet round. In age printers' ink and making it run. Some years ago

they may vary from 50 or 80 to 800 or 1000 years ; à Bank of England note was offered to the cashier bet as they have long ceased to add regularly yearly with its printing disturbed. Inquiry was set on macentric rings of wood to their trunks, there are foot, and it was traced to several individuals, who De reliable data by which to estimate the age of satisfactorily explained its custody and possession. the jew patriarchal cedars that yet remain on the It was then brought to me, when I suggested that Lebanon. Arabs of all creeds have a traditional the detectives should inquire whether it had been veneration for these trees; and Maronites, Greeks, kept in a cedar box ; it was then discovered that od Armenians annually celebrate mass on a the last possessor had kept it in a new cedar box bathely altar of stone at their feet.

which she had recently bought, and thus the i The general aspect of the cedar is distinct and mystery was solved.' In very ancient times, cedar

majestie in fully developed trees. The trunk is oil, a kind of turpentine, was prepared from the D ive, but attains only a moderate height-50 to | wood, and was spread on books in order to their 5 feet-mach branched; the branches assume the better preservation. The branches of the cedar, proportions of timber, are horizontal, and spreading like those of the larch in warm countries, exude a wally so as to exceed the total height. They sweet substance, which is known by the name of U arranged in apparent whorls, or stages, and the ('edar Manna. branchlets springing from them in a Hat fan-like The botanist Belon brought a Lebanon cedar tebion in great profusion and density impart a tabu- with him to France in 1549 : when it was intro

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duced into Britain is not exactly known. The dis. Cedar Creek is a river of Virginia, V.S., tinction of introducing it is ascribed with most which gives name to a battle fought 19th October evidence of accuracy to Evelyn, who in his Sylva 1862, when the Federals under Sheridan defeated (published 1664) mentions having received cones the Confederates under Early. and seeds from the mountains of Libanus,' while

Cedar Rapids, a town of Linn county, lowa, describing the beauties of the tree and speaking of

on the Red Cedar River, 779 miles SW. of Dubuque. its probable adaptability to the English climate. It is an important railway centre, and has several Aiton in Hortus Kewensis makes 1683 the date large flour-mills, carriage and machine works, and of planting the celebrated Chelsea cedars, which

lars, which breweries.


Pop. (1860) 1830; (1890) 18,020. are assumed by some to have been the first trees planted in England. There are many fine speci.

Cedilla (Sp., Fr. cédille, It. zediglia ; from mens of the Lebanon cedar in different parts of zeta,

| zeta, the Greek name for 2, because it has taken Britain, notably at Sion House, Goodwood, and

the place of 2 in such words as leczon, mod, leron, Enfield in England, and at Hopetoun. Dalkeith. I a mark placed under the letter c (c), especially in and Beaufort in Scotland.

French, where it is desired to give c the sound of The Deodar, or Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus Deo.

s before the vowels a, 0, u. dara), a tree held in great veneration by the Cedrate. See CITRON. Hindus, and of which the name is properly Deva Cedrelacea, a sub-order of Meliaceae (q.v.), dara ('divine tree'), is common in the Himalaya all tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs, with pinmountains at elevations of 7000 to 12,000 feet, nate leaves, mostly valuable for their timber-eg. forming magnificent forests, and attaining a great mahogany, satin-wood, toon, Barbadoes cedar, the size, a height sometimes of 150 feet, with a trunk yellow-wood of New South Wales, &c. The barks 30 feet or more in circumference, an ample head, of some species are febrifugal. See MAHOGANY, and spreading branches. It and the cedar of CEDAR (BARBADOES), &c. Algiers (C. Atlantica or Africana), found in the

Cefalù, a town of Sicily, on the north coast, mountainous regions of the north of Africa, are

a, are 40 miles ESE. of Palermo. It is situated at the but sub-species or varieties of the Cedrus Libani.

foot of a lofty promontory (1235 feet), with old The wood of the deodar is resinous, fragrant, com

Greek and Saracenic remains. It has a cathedral, pact, and very durable. It is susceptible of a

a port, and 12,714 inhabitants, chiefly engaged in high polish, and in its polished state has been compared to brown agate. Owing to the abundance

marble-quarrying and fishing. of resin, laths of it burn like candles. Its turpen

Ceglie, a town in Southern Italy, 21 miles NE. tine is very fluid, and although coarse, is much

of Taranto. It has a trade in grain, oil, and fruit. used in India for medical purposes; and tar and

Pop. 13,865. pitch are obtained from the trunk. The deodar Ceiling (Fr, ciel ; Lat. cælum, 'heaven'). This has now become very common as an ornamental term seems to have been suggested by the use of tree in Britain, although few specimens have yet arched coverings for churches, and even for rooms, attained a very considerable size. - The name which prevailed in the middle ages, and were cedar is often given to other coniferous trees frequently painted blue and decorated with stars. besides the true cedars. Thus, the Siberian Stone Arched ceilings among the Romans were known Pine, or Cembra Pine, is called the Siberian Cedar, by the name of camere, and were formed by semi(see PINE), and a species of fir (Abies religiosa) is circular beams of wood, at small distances from the Red Cedar of California (see Fir). A species each other, over which was placed a coating of of Cypress (q.v.) is known as White Cedar, and ; lath and plaster. But the ceilings most commonly another as the Cedar of Goa. Several of the trees in use amongst the Romans were flat, the beams, which bear the name cedar are species of Juniper as in modern times, having been at first visible, (q.v.), among which are the Virginian Cedar, or and afterwards covered with planks and plaster. Red Cedar of North America, and the Bermuda Sometimes hollow spaces were left between the (edar-- which yield the cedar-wood used for pencils beams, which were frequently covered with gold -the Spanish Cedar of the south of Europe, &c. and ivory, or paintings or paterze'-large flowers The name cedar is even given to trees which have '--such, for instance, as are used in the panels of no resemblance to the true cedars except in the the vault of the Pantheon. The oldest flat resinous quality of the wood ; thus the Cedar-wood, ceiling in existence is believed to be that of Peterof Guiana is produced by Icica altissima, a tree of borough Cathedral. Like that at St Albans Abbey, the natural order Amyridaceae (q.v.); the cedar of it is made of wood. Ceilings of churches in the the West Indies (see next article) belongs to the middle ages were generally painted and gilded natural order Cedrelacea ; and the name Bastard in the most brilliant manner; and many existing Cedar is given in India to a tree of the natural order ceilings still exhibit the traces of early decoration Byttneriacer (q.v.).

of this kind. In French churches the ceilings are Cedar, BARBADOES, is strictly speaking Juni.

generally vaulted, but in England they are more

usually of wood. The older ceilings generally perus barbadensis; but a more important tree is

follow the line of the timbers of the root, which, that called Bastard Barbadoes (edar (Cedrela odorata), a tree of the order ('edrelacea (9.v.).

| in the Early English and Decorated, are often Its wood has an agreeable fragrance, and being

arranged so as to give the shape of a barrel vault. soft and light, it is used for canoes and for shingles.

| In ceilings of this description there seldom are Havannah cigar-bores are very generally made of

many ribs, often only a single one along the top. it, and in France it is used in making black-lead

In the Perpendicular style, the ceiling often con.

sists of a series of flat surfaces or cants, formed on pencils.

the timbers of the roof. Though sometimes altoC'edar-bergen, a mountain-range in Cape

gether destitute of ornament, they are more fre('olony, stretches north and south on the east side

quently enriched with ribs, dividing them into of Olifant River Valley, in ('lanwilliam division,

square panels, with Bosses (9.v.) or flowers at the and has plantations of Cape cediar ( daringtonia | intersections. Wooden ceilings are sometimes juniperoides), which are now, however, being fast formed in imitation of stone-groining, with ribs destroyed. This is the only locality where this and bosses, examples of which will be found at species is found. Sneeuwkop (6335 feet) is the York, Winchester, and Lincoln. In the Elizahighest point of the range.

bethan age ceilings were generally of plaster, but Cedar Bird. See WAXWING.

| they were ornamented with ribs having bosses or

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all pendants at the intersections. It is not lated ranunculaceous plant, which grows in abundngual for the ceiling immediately over the altar, ant patches in fields and coppices, and brightens

the modloft, to be richly ornamented, whilst the them in early spring with its plentiful golden rest plain. See RooF.

flowers. Its tuberous roots and swollen separable (elakovsky, (1) FRANZ LADISLAT'S, Bohemian buds give it additional botanical interest, while it fort, born in Strakonitz, 7th March 1799, died at is also noteworthy that these results of peculiarly Prague, professor of Slav Philosophy, 5th August

vegetative habit are associated with a frequent 132 His principal works are Echoes of Russian imperfect maturity of the pollen. See REPROand Bohemian Folk songs (1833-40), and a cycle of DUCTION. lone songs and didactic and political poems (1840). Celano, LAKE OF. See Fucino, LAKE OF. He also translated the works of Herder, Goethe,

Celastraceæ. See SPINDLE-TREE. and gott. -(2) LADISLAU'S, botanist, born in

Celaya, a town in the Mexican state of GuanaPrague, 29th November 1834, was appointed pro

juato, on the Rio Laja, about 150 miles by rail fessor of Botany there in 1880. Besides several

| NW. of the city of Mexico, has several fine plazas, bonographs on particular genera, he has published arberal book on the Bohemian flora (3 parts,

handsome churches, and manufactures of cotton 14.-73) and an elucidation of the Darwinian theory.

and woollen cloths and saddlery. Pop. (1877),

with district, 28,336. The burning of its bull-ring, Celandine is the popular name (and corrup

on Easter Sunday 1888, caused considerable loss of tion of Cheluonium majus, a perennial papavera

Celebes (in England usually pronounced Celebes), the third largest and the central island of the Eastern Archipelago, from 1° 45' N. to 5° 37' S. lat., and from 118° 49' to 125° 5' E. long. ; about 800 miles long by 200 broad; total area estimated at 76,260 sq. m. It is practically a Dutch posses. sion, though there are numerous small native states. In configuration, it consists of a central nucleus whence radiate four long mountainous limbs, respectively E., NE., SE., and S., inclosing the three gulfs of Gorontalo, running in nearly 200 miles, Tolo 150 miles, and Boni about 200 miles. The gulfs, as also the north and west coasts, are studded with islands, rocks and shoals, and larger outlying islands. Of the central nucleus and the two inner limbs little is known. The east end of the eastern peninsula (north end of island), Minahassa district, is subject to earthquakes, and

contains 11 volcanoes, some of them active, such Celandine (Chelidonium majus):

as Mount Sapoetan (5938 feet), and, farther east, a, a flower.

Mount Klabat (6559 feet), which has now, however,

long been quiescent, besides numerous hot springs Grog berb, which, although not uncommon in and sulphur lakes. The mountains of the south Britain, is doubtfully indigenous. Its pretty foliage peninsula, essentially a limestone formation, seldom

and umbels of rise above 2000 feet. In the extreme south, how.
small yellow ever, are Maros ( 4225 feet) and Bonthain (9994 feet).
flowers, which The uplands of the south peninsula are well wooded,
bloom from but its vegetation is much less luxuriant than that
May to August, of the east peninsula. Between the hills and coast
might alone of the south peninsula are extensive grassy plains,
attract atten. affording pasture for large herds of cattle, and for
tion, but its the horses for which the district is famous.
ancient repute Celebes is rich in lakes, among them, Passo, in
among herbal. the central nucleus, 35 miles by 25 miles, and Ton.
ists is due to its 'dano, nearly 2000 feet above the sea. There are
yellow milky numerous streams, but ('elebes, no part of which is
juice, which is more than 30 miles from the sea, offers no space
very acrid and for the formation of large rivers. The Sadang,
poisonous. Ex rising near lake Passo, flows due south for nearly
ternally it was 120 miles.
applied to warts Thanks to the elevation of the land and its sea.

and ulcers, and exposure, ('elebes enjoys a comparatively cool and Lesser Celandine

internally ad. | healthy climate. The vegetation includes rice, (Rarunculus Ficaria).

ministered, it maize, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, areca, betel,

was supposed pepper, clove and nutmeg growing wild; the tree to be a specific for jaundice, apparently on no yielding macassar oil, oak, teak, cedar, ebony, better warrant, however, than that drawn from sandalwood, bamboos; also the upas. Minahassa, ibe colour by the doctrine of signatures.' Its old the most highly cultivated district, 60 by 20 miles, English name Swallow-wort, which appears to be has coffee plantations, producing coffee of a realmost a translation of the botanical one, seems markably fine flavour, entirely in the hands of the foanded on & supposed association between the government, and where alone the culture system beginning and ending of its flowering time and has been applied in its integrity since 18:22. Many the arrival and departure of the swallows.-It is, animals, birds, and insects are wholly peculiar to bowever, the LESSER CELANDINE which is more Celebes-a tailless baboon, two kinds of cuscus, the familiar to general readers, at least since Worils. babiroussa, and Sapi-utan, three kinds of starlings, Verth devoted Do fewer than three poems to its two ma pies, c. Gold is obtained from surface hogr. This is Ranunculus Ficuria, also known i washings, principally in Minahassa and Gorontalo - the common fig-wort or pile-wort, a quite unre. | districts; iron in the districts bordering the Gulf

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