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of Califor , with its alhed species (see SEQUOIA). The character referred to is too external ani alap la miditin to these we may mention also the | tive to be of much importance, and the term is feito Japanese Calar I Cryptomeria japonica, the Vir: wide in its application to be of much use. It is mnian Bald Cypress Turdium distichum ).

better disused. Among the Capressines we have first the

Coniston Grits and Flags, a series of sibprese proper, whach includes besides the well

ceous sandstones, grits, tlags, and conglomerates Know genus Caprenes i see CYPRESS) the closely

belonging to the Silurian system of Cumberland, albel Retinospora of Japan Juniperus (see JUXI.

&c. They take their name from Coniston in Lanea. PLE, une futras anotber sab-family; while Thuja

shire, and attain a maximum thickness of probably e AEBIE VITE with its immediate allies Thu.

not less than 7000 feet. They are characterised jarpris and Libocedras constitute a third ; and

the finer grained beds (flags) especially-br the htris with Actibustrobus and Fitzroya make

presence of many species of graptolites and other up the fourth

fossils. They are believed to be on the same Passing nor to the sub-order of yews (Taxoidea) geological horizon as the Denbighshire grits and velare su two main divisions, the yews proper Tuxer, and the Podocarpeæ. Among the latter

flags of Wales. See SILURIAN SYSTEM. we shall only mention the oriental genus Podo

Coniston Lake, in the English Lake District, aras, and the beautiful Dacrydium cupressinum

lies in North Lancashire, at the east foot of the Ser Zaland; but the former are of much

Coniston Fells, 9 miles W. of Bowness on Winderteater variety and importance (see YEW). Besides

mere, and 10 by rail NNE. of Foxfield Junction. be species of Tares, we have especially the Chinese

It is 5 miles long, 1 mile broad, 147 feet above the sal Japanese Cephalotaxus, the curious Ginkgo

sea, and its greatest depth is 260 feet. Its waters alutinai adiantifolia of the same region, to

abound with trout and perch. On the east shore her with the Chinese and Californian species of

stand Ruskin's home, Brantwood, and Tent House, Tanya

once Tennyson's residence. The Old Man of ConisIn addition to the general article GYMNOSPERMS,

ton, to the north-west, is 2633 feet high. sad to those devoted to particular genera or species Conium. See HEMLOCK.

conifers, the reader should especially consult Conjugal Rights. See MARRIAGE Engler's Pflanzenfamilien, both for a full summary

| Conjugation, a term in Grammar applied to of car present knowledge and copious references. For the purposes of the English horticulturist

a connected view or statement of the inflectional

changes of form that a verb undergoes in its Feitet's Janual of Conifere is most exhaustive,

various relations. See the articles GRAMMAR and while Giordan's Pinetum, and Hemsley's Handbook

INFLECTION. of Hardy Treca, de. (Lond. 1877), will be found of

Conjugation of Cells, a mode of reprodueservice to the amateur.

tion in which two apparently similar cells unite, as Conington, Johx, a great classical scholar, in Amoeba, Diatoms, Spirogyra, &c. See ALGE, was born at Boston, joth August 1825. He was DESMIDS, DIATOMS, and REPRODICTION. elactol at Beverley, and for five years at Rugby,

Conjunction, in Astronomy, is one of the obtained a detayship at Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1543, and next year carried off, in the same term,

Aspects (q.v.) of the planets. Two heavenly bodies

are in conjunction when they have the same longithe Hertford and Ireland scholarships. In 1846 he

tude-that is, when the same perpendicular to the betonk himself to l'niversity College, where he was

ecliptic passes through both. If they have, at the elected to a fellowship two years later. Other

same time, the same latitude--that is, if they are distinctions he won were the chancellor's prize for Latin verse, for an English essay, and for a Latin

both equally far north or south of the ecliptic--they

appear from the earth to be in the same spot of the ay. Detertuining not to take orders, he tried

heavens, and to cover one another. The sun and the study of law, but soon abandoned it in disgust.

moon are in conjunction at the period of new moon. la 1854 he was appointed to the newly-founded

In the case of the inferior planets Mercury and chur of Latin Language and Literature at Oxford,

Venus, there is an inferior conjunction when the which he filled until his untimely death at his

planet is between the earth and the sun, and a satire place, October 23, 1869. The impulse that

superior when the sun is between the earth and the Conington's lofty and contagious enthusiasm gave to classical scholarship and real culture in England

planet. In general, a heavenly body is in conjunc

tion with the sun when it is on the same side of the was far more considerable than anything he was earth, and in a line with him ; and it is in oppsi. ale to effect in the way of performance. His tion to the sun when it is on the opposite side of tatione personality and the singular charm of his the earth. the earth being in a line between it and aumple but serious nature made a profound and

the sun. Planets are invisible when in conjunction permanent impression upon his friends and pupils.

with the sun, except in rare cases when an interior His greatest work is his edition of Virgil (3 vols.

planet passes over the sun's disc, and may be seen 1961-68), with its singularly subtle and suggestive

as a speck on his surface. Conjunctions are either may. His edition of the Agamemnon (1848) and

geocentric or heliocentric, according as they are herphori (1857) of Eschylus are of less moment,

| actually witnessed from the earth, or as they would thrwagte indeed the latter is admirable. In his last be witnessed if observed from the sun. In observ. year he gave himself much to translation, the ing a coniunction from the earth's surface it is

alts of which were his metrical version of the des of Horace (1863); the Eneid (1866), in

usual to reduce the observation to what it would be

if made from the earth's centre; by this means Scott's ballad-metre; the Iliad (1868), in the Spen-erian stanza; and the Satires and Epistles of

the exact times of conjunction are more accurately Horare (1869), in the couplet of Pope. Of these

fixed, and the observations of one astronomer made the last is without doubt the most valuable. His

available to every other, wherever he may be on the edition of Persius was published in 1872, and in the

earth's surface. Grid conjunctions are those where une year his Miscellaneous Writings (2 vols.), with

several stars or planets are found together. Chinese

history records one in the reign of the Emperor a short Life by Professor H. J. S. Smith.

Tehuen-hin (2314-2436 B.C.), which astronomers Conirostres, a term often applied to a section calculate to have actually taken place.

Passerine birds, characterised by a strong conical Conjuring, as understood at the present day, beak It includes numerous families, and such | signifies the production of effects apparently types as weaver-birds, finches, sparrows, and larks. I miraculous by natural means.

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The art of producing apparently supernatural sarcastically terms it. The new style took with phenomena has been cultivated from remote an- | the public, and by degrees Robert Houdin's contiquity. The earlier professors of the art claimed temporaries found themselves compelled to follow bond-fide supernatural powers; and in ages when his example. the most elementary principles of physical science To Robert Houdin belongs the credit of devising were unknown beyond a very limited circle, it was some of the best-known and most ingenious pieces not difficult to gain credence for such a pretension. of magical apparatus, as also that of the applicaThe modern conjurer makes no such claim, but tion of electro-magnetism, then little understood, tells the public frankly that his marvels are illusory, to the production of magical effects. The welland rest either on personal dexterity or on some known magic drum, that beats without visible ingenious application of natural principles. Of the drumsticks, the magic clock and bell, and the conjurers of remote antiquity we have few reliable chest, light or heavy at command, are all fruits of records ; though it is a tolerably safe conjecture his inventive genius. that the prestige of the ancient mysteries rested in The most modern school of conjurers, following no small degree upon effects of natural magic. It the lead of Wiljalba Frikell, and at present repremay also be gathered that the conjurers of old were sented by Hartz, Hermann, Buatier de Kolta, Verfamiliar with certain forms of optical illusion, inbeck, Lynn, Bertram, &c., generally aim at prowhich the use of plane and concave mirrors, and a ducing their magical results with the minimum of partial anticipation of the principle of the magic visible apparatus. There are, however, signs of a lantern, played prominent parts. Chaucer men reaction in favour of more spectacular illusions, tions illusions of his own day of which the above such as those of Messrs Maskelyne and Cooke, in seems the most probable solution. In the accounts' which the resources of optical and acoustic, as well of very early writers, however, large deductions as mechanical science, are laid under contribution must be made for the comparative ignorance of the in aid of conjuring proper. See the articles MAGIC observer, and the desire, common to all narrators and JUGGLERS. of extraordinary occurrences, to make the marvel | For practical information as to the methods of conjurers, as marvellous as possible. Perhaps the earliest see Hoffmann's Modern Magic (6th ed. 1886) and More really trustworthy authority is Reginald Scot, Magic (1889); Sleight of Hand, by Edwin Sachs (20 who in his Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584) has ed. 1885); Robert Houdin's Secrets de la Prestidigitaenumerated the stock feats of the conjurers of his

tion et de la Magie (1868: reprinted in 1878 under the day. The list includes swallowing a knife; burn

title of Comment on devient Sorcier) and Magie e ing a card and reproducing it from the pocket

Physique Amusante (1877); and an anonymous work, of a spectator ; passing a coin from one pocket

Recueil de Tours de Physique Amusante (published by De

La Rue of Paris). The three last-named works have been to another ; converting money into counters, or

translated into English by Hoffmann, under the titles of counters into money ; conveying money into the

The Secrets of Conjuring and Magic, The Secrets of Stage hand of another person ; making a coin pass Conjuring, and Drawiny-room Conjuring respectively. through a table, or vanish from a handkerchief;

Conkling, Roscoe, American politician, bon tying a knot, and undoing it by the power of

in Albany, New York, 30th October 1829, was words ;' taking beads from a string, the ends of which are held fast by another person; making

admitted to the bar in 1850, sat in congress as a

Republican in 1858-62 and 1864-66, and was elected corn to pass from one box to another; turning wheat into flour ‘by the power of words ;' burning a He was now an influential member of his party : in

to the United States senate in 1867, 1873, and 1879. thread and making it whole again ; pulling ribbons from the mouth; thrusting a knife into the head

1876 he received ninety-three votes for the presiden

tial nomination, and, in 1880, by his support of or arm ; putting a ring through the cheek; and

Grant, and his personal opposition to Blaine, divided cutting off a person's head and restoring it to its

the Republicans into two sections. In 1881 he and former position. Strange to say, many of these

his colleague suddenly resigned from the senate, feats, which were doubtless already old in the time

owing to a dispute with President Garfield on a of Scot, are still performed, with more or less varia. tion of detail, by conjurers at the present day.

question of patronage, and sought re-election; but The conjurers of Scot's time, and even of much

after a warm canvass, both were rejected, though

vigorously supported by Vice-president Arthur. later date, were accustomed, in order to facilitate

Conkling afterwards practised law in New York the substitutions on which a great part of their tricks depended, to wear an apron with pockets,

city. He died 18th April 1888. known (from its resemblance to a game-bag ) as the

Conn, LOUGH, a picturesque Irish lake in the gibécière. A later school suppressed this tell-tale

north of County Mayo, together with Longh Cullin article of costume, and used instead a table, with

(from which it is separated by a narrow neck of cover reaching nearly or quite to the ground. This

land), 13 miles long, and I to 3 broad. It lies in a table concealed an assistant, who worked most of

| wild romantic region of hills, glens, rocky slopes, the required transformations, &c., either handing

precipices, broken ground, and bogs, contains many the needful articles to the conjurer as he passed

islets, and has bold shores. behind the table, or pushing them up through traps

Connara'ceæ, a sub-order of Terebinthacea, in the table-top. Conus the elder, a French con

including about 25 species, all tropical, of which jurer who flourished at the close of the 18th cen.

the most important is Omphalobium Lamberts of tury, made a further improvement by discarding the Guiana, the source of the zebra-wood of cabinetconcealed assistant, and using an undraped table makers. with a secret shelf (now known as the servante) | Connaught, the most westerly and the smallest, behind it, on which his substitutions were made. both in extent and population, of the four provinces His immediate competitors did not follow his of Ireland. It is bounded N. and W. by the example, a whole generation of later conjurers, Atlantic; E. by Ulster and Leinster, from the including Comte, Bosco, and Philippe, retaining latter of which it is separated by the Shannon ; the suggestive draped table. Its death-blow, how and S. by Munster. It contains the counties of ever, was struck by Robert Houdin (1805–71), with Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, and Sliga whom about 1844 å new era began. His miniature Greatest length from north to south, 105 miles; theatre in the Palais Royal was remarkable for the greatest breadth, not including Achil Island, 92 elegant simplicity of its stage arrangements, and in miles. Area, 6863 sq. m. The west coast has particular for the complete suppression of the boite many fine bays and harbours, and the surface, à compère ('wooden confederate'), as Robert Houdin | especially in the western half, is mountainous and

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