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I ruggedd, forming remarkably grand and picturesque and seal fisheries having declined. Oyster-fishing

scenery. The people are still almost purely Celtic. is engaged in largely and very systematically, as 1 In ancient times the O'Connors were kings of Con is the taking of fish for oil and fish-guano. The

naught. In 1390 the province was divided by the manufactures of Connecticut are carried on upon English into six counties, its present five, with a very extensive scale, and are of exceedingly ('lare, afterwards joined to Munster. In 1874 the varied character; and notwithstanding its small title Duke of Connaught was conferred on Prince area, the state stands in the first rank as re. Arthur, third son of Queen Victoria. The terri. spects the amount and aggregate value of manu. torial regiment, the Connaught Rangers, once the factured goods. Clocks, hardware, india-rubber xsth foot, now comprises the old 88th and 94th goods, firearms, silks and other textiles, and smallregiments (with four battalions of militia). Pop. wares in great variety, are produced on a large (1941) 1,420,705; (1851) 1,015,479; (1861) 919,135 ; scale. Life, fire, and accident insurance, and the (1891) 817,197, a decrease due to famine and publication of subscription books, receive great emigration.

attention. The state is well supplied with railways. Connecticut (kon-net-e-cut), one of the six In very few parts of the world has more been done New England states of the American Union, is for popular education than in this state. Private, bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. Copyright 1889 in U.S.

denominational, and parochial schools of every by Rhode Island, S. by Long by J. B. Lippincott

grade supplement the work of this public school liland Sound, W. by the state of Company. system. The latter dates from 1644. Yale UniNew York. It is the smallest in area of all the versity at New Haven comprises collegiate and states, excepting Rhode Island and Delaware; but post-graduate courses, besides medical, theological, there were in 1880 ten states smaller in population scientific, law, and art schools, and takes a very than Connecticut. Its area is 4845 sq. m., or nearly high place among the seats of learning in the two-thirds that of Wales. It is one of the most country. Mention should be made of Trinity densely peopled states of the Union, A great College, Hartford, and of the Wesleyan University part of the surface is rocky and uneven, and the

at Middletown. There are also divinity schools Green and Taconic Mountains of the Appalachian at Hartford (Congregationalist) and Middletown system occupy a considerable part of the western (Episcopalian). The state supports a full compleextremity of the state; but the mountains here ment of institutions for correction and charity, are all insignificant in respect of height. Much of Among the principal cities and towns are Hartford the surface is not easily cultivated, and rather | (the capital), New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury, unfertile ; but a considerable part of the valley of Meriden, Norwich, Norwalk, New Britain, Danthe Connecticut River is very productive, tobacco

bury, Derby, Stamford, and New London. being a leading product of this section. Hay,

The old stock of inhabitants were of English potatoes, maize, oats, and rye are the principal | Puritan origin, but of later years there has been crops. Grazing and milk farms, orchards and a large immigration of Irish, German, English, market-gardens, are profitably sustained in all and others. The colony of Connecticut may be parts of the state.

said to date from 1634, when the movement The Connecticut River, which, rising in New began in which Hartford, Wethersfield, and Hampshire, forms the boundary between that state Windsor were settled by persons removing from and Vermont, and flows south through Massa Massachusetts, and displacing a slender colony chusetts, crosses Connecticut also, and after a of the Dutch. This movement was in reality course of about 450 miles enters Long Island Sound, the secession of the more democratic element from 30 miles east of New Haven. It is navigable for Massachusetts. Saybrook, named in honour of vessels of light draught as high as Hartford. In Lord Say-and-Sele and Lord Brooke, was the the east part is the River Thames, and in the west nucleus of a separate colony which in 1644 was the Housatonic, both of which afford some naviga united to Connecticut, as was in 1662 the New tion. But the greatest value of the very numerous Haven colony, founded in 1638. The Connecticut streams is as a source of water-power. In 1880 colony adopted a constitution in 1639, the first over one-half the power employed in the manu. written democratic constitution on record.' The fartories of the state was water-power; and the royal charter of 1662 was exceedingly liberal, it utilized water-power was returned by the l'nited being essentially a confirmation of the older con. States census as 12.63 horse-power per sq. m.

stitution ; and it continued in force even after the The surface-rocks are mostly Azoic, with the independence of the American states, but in 1818 principal exception of a strip of Triassic sandstone was replaced by the present state constitution. A or peammite running along the Connecticut River. large part of Long Island was for a considerable This brown sandstone is largely quarried at Port period under the government of the colony. Prom. land and East Haven, as are excellent red and inent events in Connecticut history have been the plain granites and gneissoid building-stones at bloody war with the Pequot Indians, 1637 ; the thany points; valuable serpentine and verde governorship of Sir Edmund Andros, during a part antique exist near New Haven. Some quarries of which (1687-88) the colonial charter was in yield excellent flagstones of gneissoid character ; abeyance, and according to the very doubtful but the so-called trap rock, here really a diabase of commonly received account was only saved from

Triassic date, is also wrought ; and in the north destruction by being hidden for a time in a hollow ! went good limestones of Lower Silurian age are tree, the Charter Oak at Hartford. Slavery was I quarried. Brown hematites are extensively wrought abolished in 1818. Pop. (1870) 337,454 ; (1880) | in the north-west section, and yield excellent iron. 622,700 (of whom 129,992 were foreign born): (1890)

Deposits of lead, copper, and cobalt have been 746,258. See Alex, Johnston's Connecticut (1887). Iwcally mined. l' selul mineral waters occur at

Connema'ra is the name of the wild and various points. The climate is very changeable, and •i* rather severe in winter, but generally healthful.

picturesque district which forms the westernmost Searly the whole surface was once richly forested ;

division of ('ounty Galwar. Its interesting scenery,

its lakes, streams, and inlets abounding in fish, but no very extensive areas are now covered by large timber; still the aggregate production of

attract many fishers and tourists. Connemara is

also called Bally nahinch. wood for building purposes and for fuel is very considerable. The sea.coast affords a number of | Connoisseur, a term borrowed from the French, good harbours. Most of the maritime enterprise is to designate persons who, without being themDow directed to the coast-wise trade, the whale selves artists, are competent to pass a critical

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judgment upon the merits of works of art, especially had succeeded to the kingdom of Burgundy, which in painting and sculpture. The Italian equivalent he annexed to the empire. In 1036 a rebellion in for connoisseurs is Cognoscenti.

Italy again compelled him to cross the Alps; but Conodonts. minute fossils met with in his efforts to restore his authority were this time Palæozoic strata. They are variable in form, and unsuccessful, and he was forced to grant various look very like the teeth of different kinds of fishes,

privileges to his Italian subjects. Shortly after his some being simple slender pointed sharp-edged

return he died at Utrecht, 4th June 1039. Conrad cones, while others are more complex, resembling

was one of the most remarkable of the earlier in form the teeth of certain sharks. Their affinities

monarchs of Germany. He reduced the dangerous are very uncertain—some maintaining that they are

power of the great dukes of the empire, and dereally the minute teeth of fishes allied to the living

fended the rights of the humbler people against hag-fishes and lampreys-others suggesting that oppression by the nobility. they have more analogy with the hooklets or Conrad III., king of the Germans, the founder denticles of annelids and naked molluscs.

of the Hohenstaufen (9.v.) dynasty, was the son of Conoid, a solid formed by the revolution of a Frederick of Swabia, and was born in 1093. While conic section round its axis ; such are the sphere, under twenty years of age, Conrad, with his elder paraboloid, ellipsoid, and hyperboloid.

brother Frederick, had bravely supported Henry V. Conolly, John, physician, born at Market

against his numerous enemies, and in return that Rasen, Lincolnshire, in 1794, graduated at Edin.

monarch granted Conrad the investiture of the burgh in 1821, and in 1827 settled in London,

duchy of Franconia. He subsequently contested where he was for two years professor of the Practice

the crown of Italy with the Emperor Lothaire of of Medicine in University College. In 1839 he was

Saxony, but was compelled to resign his preappointed resident physician to the Asylum for the

tensions. On the death of Lothaire, the princes of Insane at Hanwell; this post he held till 1844, and

Germany, fearing the increasing preponderance of afterwards he was retained as visiting physician.

the Guelph party, and attracted by his brilliant Here, under Conolly, all forms of mechanical

courage, moderation, and goodness, offered Conrad restraint were from the first entirely discontinued ;

the crown, and he was accordingly crowned at

Aix-la-Chapelle, 21st February 1138. He was and although his views were admittedly not orig. inal, it is mainly to his earnestness and eloquence

immediately involved in a quarrel with Henry the that the revolution in asylum management in

Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and head of England is due. His best works are those on the

the Guelph party in Germany; and the struggle Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums

was continued under Henry's son and successor, (1847), and kindred subjects. He died 5th March

Henry the Lion (9.v., and see GUELPHS AND 1866. See the Memoir by Sir James Clark (1869).

GHIBELLINES). While Germany was thus con

vulsed, the state of Italy was not a whit more Conquest. In the law of succession in Scotland

peaceable. The several belligerents besought heritable property acquired during the lifetime of

Conrad's assistance, but he well knew the natural the deceased, by purchase, donation, or excambion,

inconstancy of the Italians, and determined to was called Conquest, in opposition to that to which

| stand aloof. Soon after this St Bernard of Clair. he has succeeded, which is called Heritage. The

vaux commenced to preach a new crusade, and distinction was abolished by the Conveyancing Act, | Conrad, seized with the general infatuation, set out 1874. Conquest, in a marriage-contract, is property for Palestine at the head of a large army (see acquired by the husband during the marriage as CRUSADES). A new attempt by the Duke of distinguished from what he possessed before the

Bavaria to regain his dukedom was defeated by the marriage. Such property was frequently but is

nephew of Conrad, whose health had broken now rarely settled either on the heir or on the during the crusade. Conrad died at Bamberg in issue of the marriage.

1152. See GERMANY. Conquistado'res (Span., 'conquerors') is a collective term for the Spanish conquerors of

Conradin of SWABIA, the last descendant of America, such as Cortes, Balboa, Pizarro. See the

the imperial House of Hohenstanfen (q.v.), was articles under their names; as also MEXICO, PERU,

the son of Conrad IV. (1237-54), and was born

, in 1252, two years before his father's death. His &c.

uncle Manfred (q.v.) had assumed the crown of Conrad, or Koxrad I., king of the Germans,

Sicily on a rumour of Conradin's death, though he was the son of the Count of Franconia, and the

declared himself ready to give it up to the rightful nephew of the Emperor Arnulf. He was elected

heir. But Pope Clement VI.'s hatred of the king (practically emperor of Germany) on the

Hohenstaufens led him to offer the crown of the extinction of the direct line of the Carlovingians Two Sicilies to Charles of Anjou, a consummate in 911 A.D. He gradually re-established the im.

warrior and able politician. Charles immediately perial authority over most of the German princes, invaded Italy, and met his antagonist at Benevento, carried on an unsuccessful war with France, and at

where the defeat and death of Manfred, in 1266, last fell mortally wounded at Quedlinburg (918),

gave him undisturbed possession of the kingdom. in a battle with the Hungarians, who had repeatedly But the Neapolitans, detesting their new master, invaded his dominions. See GERMANY.

sent deputies to Bavaria to invite Conradin, then in Conrad II., king of the Germans, and Roman his 16th year, to come and assert his hereditary emperor, was elected after the extinction of the rights. Conradin accordingly made his appearance Saxon imperial family in 1024. He was the in Italy at the head of 10.000 men, and being son of Henry, Duke of Franconia, and is by many joined by the Neapolitans in large numbers, gained considered as the founder of the Franconian several victories over the French, but was finally dynasty. Immediately after his election he com defeated near Tagliacozzo, 220 August 1268, and menced a tour through Germany to administer taken prisoner along with Frederick of Baden and justice. In 1026 he crossed the Alps, chastised the other comrades. The two unfortunate princes rebellious Italians, was crowned at Milan as king | were, with the consent of the pope, errented in the of Italy, and he and his wife Gisela were anointe market

Naples on the other. A emperor and empress of the Romans by the pope y ou

his execution, adin, oa tha He was soon recalled to Germany to put dow

e glove, and w in into the four formidable revolts, in which he succeeded well that by 1033 peace was restored. In 1032 ha.

ned to




Aragon. The tragic tale has furnished materials marriage arising from consanguinity and affinity, a for many poets. See SICILIAN V'ESPERS; also Del power which seems to have been first exercised in Giudice, La Condanna di Corradino (Naples, the 12th century. 1876).

In the countries which embraced the ReformaConrad von Würzburg, one of the most

tion, a general relaxation took place in the procelebrated poets of the middle ages, died at Basel

hibitions to marriage from consanguinity and · in 1987. Conrad is fertile in imagination, learned,

affinity. In England, an act of 1547 allowed all and-although marking the decline of Middle

persons to marry who were not prohibited by the High-German poetry by his prolix and artificial

Levitical law; and according to the interpretation style-probably the most perfect master of German

put on this statute, the prohibitions included all versification that had appeared up to his own day.

relations in the direct line, brother and sister, and His last poem, which he left in an unfinished con

collaterals, when one party is brother or sister to dition, has for its subject The Trojan War. But

the direct ascendant or descendant of the other ; Conrad appears to most advantage in his smaller

the degrees prohibited in consanguinity being narrative poems, of which the best are Engelhart,

equally prohibited in affinity. In Scotland, acts of Otto, Der Welt Lohn, Silvester, Alerius, Der

1567, professing to take the Levitical law as the Schiranritter, and Die Goldene Schmiede. His Lieder

standard, assimilated the prohibitions from conhave been edited by Bartsch (1870).

sanguinity and affinity to those of England. In Consalvi, ERCOLE, CARDINAL, a distinguished

France, the Code Napoléon prohibits marriage

between ascendants and descendants lawful or refortner of abuses in the Papal States, was born at

natural, and persons similarly connected by affinity; Rome, June 8, 1757. He was made cardinal and

and in the collateral line between brothers and secretary of state by Pope Pius VII., and in this

sisters lawful or natural, and persons similarly concapacity concluded the concordat with Napoleon in

nected by affinity. Marriage between uncle and 1801. His staunch maintenance of the rights of his

niece, and aunt and nephew, is also prohibited. In own sovereign against the insidious encroachments

various countries of Europe, as Denmark, no proof France offended Napoleon. He was the papal

hibitions from affinity, except in the direct line, representative at the Congress of Vienna, and

are recognised. In most of the l'nited States of secured the restoration of the Papal States. As

America, marriage is allowed between uncle and papal secretary he reformed numerous abuses, sup.

niece. See AFFINITY, DECEASED WIFE'S SISTER ; pressing all monopolies, feudal taxes, and ex. clusive rights. He was a liberal patron of science,

and for exogamy and curious savage methods of

counting relationship, MARRIAGE. but especially of the fine arts, and employed his

On the much-vexed question whether the mar. leisure in the study of literature and music. In

riage of relations tends to injure the constitution diplomacy he displayed great address, and was

of their offspring, either by the intensification of generally successful. He died in Rome, January

hereditary taint or more directly, see The Marriage 24, 1824.

of Near Kin (2d ed. 1888), by A. H. Huth (who Consanguinity (Lat. con, together,' and san. takes the negative view), and the bibliography guis, blood"), the relationship which subsists be. there given of works on both sides of the question. tween persons who are of the same blood. It is See also BREED, CATTLE. either direct, which is the relationship between ascendants and descendants, or collateral, between

Conscience. See Ethics. persons sprung from a common ancestor. In the Conscience, HENDRIK, a popular Flemish direct line, a son is said to stand in the first degree novelist, was born December 3, 1812, at Antwerp. to his father; a grandson, in the second degree to His father, the inspector of the dockyards there, his grandfather; and so on. - Affinity (q.v.) is the was a native of Besançon, but his mother was of relationship brought about by marriage between a | Flemish birth. At fifteen the boy had to shift for husband and the blood-relations of his wife, or his living as an under-master in a school, but at between a wife and the blood-relations of her the outbreak of the revolution in 1830 he joined husband.

the Belgian ranks, and served till 1836. Patriotism Consanguinity and affinity have been in all parts and poverty together impelled him to write, and of the world more or less looked on as impediments between them produced in 1837 his first volume in to marriage between the parties related. Among Flemish, Int* Wonderjaer, 1566. Wappers the the ancient Persians and Egyptians, marriages painter finally got him appointed in 1841 to an were sometimes sanctioned between brother and office in the Antwerp Academy, which he consister, and even father and daughter; and in the tinued to fill until 1834. Three years later he book of Genesis we read of Abraham marrying his received a place in the local administration of ('our. half-sister.

trai, and became in 1866 director of the Wiertz The Roman law prohibited marriage between Museum at Brussels. Here he died, September ascendants and descendants, a prohibition extended 10, 1883. His Phantazy (1837), a fine collection to relations by adoption. In the collateral line, of tales, and his most popular romance, De Leeuro the prohibited degrees included brother and sister, van Vlaenderen (1838), early made his name dear and all cases where one party stood in loco parentis to his fellow.countrymen ; but it was his series of to the other, as uncle and niece. Marriage between charming pictures of quiet Flemish lite, beginning cousins-german, at one time prohibited, was de. with the little book, Hoe men schilder trordt (1843), clared lawful by Arcadius and Honorius. The that, through French, German, and English transdegrees prohibited in consanguinity were by Con- lations, carried his fame over Europe. Amongst stantine also prohibited in affinity.

those translated into English, besides the Lion of By the old canon law and early decretals, mar Flanders, are Blind Rost, Ricketichetuck, The Peor riages were prohibited between persons as far Gentleman, The Miser, and The Demon of Gold. removed as the seventh degree of consanguinity or The historical accuracy of his Geschiedenis run affinity. The fourth council of Lateran, 1215 A.D., Belgien (1843) was somewhat impaired by his Arrowed the prohibition from the seventh to the ('atholic predilections The vast popularity of Con. four vertee : i.e. the grandchildren of cousins. science's novels depended mainly on the unflagging

A marriage between persons related in vigour and interest of the incidents in which they
Rys was accounted incestuous, and abounded, although these often enough defied all

Is. The pope assumed the right historical consistency and verisimilitude alike. It
nations from impediments to should be remembered to his credit, as, indeed, it

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was his own proudest boast, that in his hundred them upon the infinite gradations of consciousness, volumes he had never painted vice in seductive and some amount of consciousness, however infinicolours. A complete collection of his works tesimal, is postulated so long as we can speak with appeared at Antwerp in 10 volumes, 1867-80; a propriety of mental phenomena at all. This sub. German translation of the same at Münster in 75 conscious region is understood to include not only small volumes, 1846-84. See his Life, in French, the phenomena of habit referred to above, but the by Cekhoud (Brussels, 1881 ).

mass of organic or bodily feelings which, though Conscience, COURTS OF, IN ENGLAND. These

intellectually unanalysed, are constantly present as

a kind of background to our more distinct conwere courts for the recovery of small debts, constituted by special local acts of parliament in

sciousness, and mainly determine both our habitual London, Westminster, and other trading districts.

temperament and our varying moods. The hypo

thesis is also employed to explain the phenomena The county courts have superseded them. See, under County, County Courts, vol. iii. p. 522.

of memory as well as that instinctive basis of

human life to which, under the name of the l'nconConscience Money, money paid to relieve scious, Hartmann (q.v.) has of late assigned such the conscience, is a not inapt term for money sent important philosophical functions. to the Chancellor of the Exchequer in payment of Consciousness is sometimes used in a special a tax that had previously been evaded, and in regard sense to denote the mind's cognisance of itself, to which a tender conscience feels that something as opposed to the cognisance or examination of the remained to be done. The conscience money is outer world. Hence, in studying our own minds, often sent anonymously.

we are said to be using consciousness as the instruConsciousness. This is the most compre ment; but in studying minerals or plants, we hensive term employed in designating the mind. resort to external observation by the senses. A In the widest and most unexceptionable meaning, contrast is thus instituted between consciousness consciousness is a term which includes all mental and observation, which contrast gives to the former states, operations, or processes, and, as has been word a peculiarly contracted meaning ; for in the truly said, it is not strictly susceptible of definition, | wide sense above described, observation is truly an seeing that we can have no experience of the un act of consciousness. But such a usage is confusing conscious. We may specify different modes or

and undesirable, and has been generally abandoned varieties of consciousness, such as thoughts, feel. by accurate writers. The study of our own mind ings, and volitions ; but the quality in which they | may be more appropriately expressed by such all agree, and which constitutes them mental facts phrases as ‘self-consciousness,' 'reflection,' or 'inor states of consciousness, cannot be otherwise trospection.' explained than by a mere reference to the constant

Important philosophical points are involved in experience of every human being. Consciousness, the determination of the conditions of consciousness, in this its strict sense, thus embraces the whole or the circumstances attendant on the manifestafield of mental experience, and the expression

tion of mental energy. The most general and 'facts of consciousness' is frequently used as fundamental condition of our becoming conscious synonymous with psychical facts or facts of mind

is difference or change. The even continuance of to designate the subject matter of psychology. one impression tends to unconsciousness; and there

Popularly, therefore, when we are mentally alive, are a number of facts that show that if an influence or performing any of the recognised functions of were present in one unvarying degree from the the mind, we are said to be conscious ; while the first moinent of life to the last, that influence total cessation of every mental energy is described would be to our feeling and knowledge as if it by the term 'unconsciousness,' among other phrases. did not exist at all. This condition of our mental In dreamless sleep, in stupor, fainting, and under life has been formulated by Professor Bain as the the influence of the anesthetic drugs, we are un Law of Relativity. For the varieties or divisions conscious; in waking, or rallying into renewed of our conscious states, see MIND. See also mental activity, we are said to become conscious. PERSONALITY.

The difficulties of the subject, however, have Conscription has been defined as the call to prevented a perfectly definite and uniform usage military service by the drawing of lots, a certain from being adhered to. As the mind in its waking annual contingent of men for the army being or active condition may be more or less excited, or selected by lot from the youths who have reached vary in the intensity of its manifestations, there are military age, while a man with sufficient means degrees of consciousness; and, accordingly, the name has the right to buy himself off, or pay for a substiis apt to be applied to denote the higher degrees in tute. This system obtained in France, with interopposition to the lower. Thus, in first learning to vals, from 1798 until 1872, when substitutes were write, to cast up sums, to play on an instrument, abolished and personal military service made oblig. or to ride a bicycle, our mind is put very much on the atory upon every Frenchman not physically incastretch ; in other words, we are very much excited pacitated. All such must enter the army at the or highly conscious. But when years of incessantage of twenty ; but those who choose to enlist may practice have consummated the process into a full do so at eighteen. The term, originally twenty formed habit, a very small amount of mental years, was extended by the Military Bill of 1888 to attention is involved; and we may then be said twenty-five-viz. three in the regular army, six to perform the work all but unconsciously. Such and a half in the army reserve, six in the terri habitual actions are frequently designated second. torial army (militia), and nine and a half in the arily automatic, and Sir W. Hamilton, for example, territorial reserve. At forty-five years of age speaks in this connection of unconscious mental liability to service ceases. A register is kept of modifications. But as he has previously defined the number of youths in France who reach the consciousness as co-extensive with all mental age of twenty in each year (abont 280.000). All phenomena, such a phrase evidently involves a under 5 feet 2 inches in height are exempt ; also contradiction in terms, being equivalent to uncon.) any whose natural infirmities unfit them for active scious consciousness. It is explained, though not service ; the eldest of a family of orphans; the only justified, by the (unavowed ) double use of the son of a widow, or of disabled fathers, or of fathers term consciousness just adverted to. Later writers above seventy years of age; and the pupils at have sought to escape from this inconvenient ter certain colleges. Moreover, if the younger of two minology by speaking of the more obscure mental brothers is efficient, the elder is exempt; and if of processes as 'sub-conscious.' Stress is laid by two only brothers one is already in the army, or

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