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KINGDOM. For cellular tissue, see also CELL, in bast the proportion of associated mineral matter HISTOLOGY, and VEGETABLE HISTOLOGY.
becomes much more considerable. Cellulose has the
chemical composition C.H.0s, and spec. grav. 1:52. Celluloid, or PARKESINE. This substance was
Among its familiar natural modifications gum is first made by Mr A. Parkes of Birmingham in 1855
an isomer, and starch-dextrin and grape-sugar are or 1856. It chiefly consists of a dried solution of
all of similar ultimate composition, while its woody gun-cotton (pyroxylin), or of what is nearly the
and corky modifications (lignin and suberin) possess same thing, and oil. A variety of it can be made
an increasing proportion of carbon. Iodine alone with pyroxylin and camphor. "It resembles ivory,
stains cellulose yellow or brown, but blue when horn, tortoiseshell, and hardened india-rubber, as
strong sulphuric acid has been previously added. regards certain properties.
Strong hot sulphuric acid chars it, while brief im. The pyroxylin is prepared by treating Cellulose
mersion in the cold converts it into a tough and dense (q.v.) from such vegetable materials as cotton or
modification, well known in parchment paper, and fax waste, rags, paper-makers' half-stuff, or paper itself, with a mixture of one part of strong nitric
prolonged treatment dissolves it altogether. Dex
trin may thus be prepared and next transmited, acid and four parts of strong sulphuric acid. It is
by boiling the watery solution, into grape-sugar convenient to call the product so obtained pyroxy.
(see DEXTRINE, GLICOSE). By immersion in a lin, although the two things are not quite identical.
mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acid we The distillate obtained by distilling wood naphtha
obtain Gun-cotton (9.v.), while dilute nitric acid with chloride of lime is used as a solvent for
or potash oxidises it into oxalic acid. Ammoniacal the pyroxylin, but other solvents, such as nitro. !
oxide of copper dissolves it without change, as is benzol or aniline, and some camphor are added with
shown by its reprecipitation on dilution. By heatadvantage. When the excess of solvent is removed
,ing in closed vessels under pressure a dense coalfrom the pyroxylin, it is mixed with a considerable
le like mass is formed, while in ordinary dry distilla
lit quantity of castor-oil or cotton-seed oil, and made
tion, gas, tar, and acetic acid are given off, prointo a dough or paste between heated rollers. For
cesses which throw light on the formation of coal a hard compound the quantity of oil should be less
in nature and on the chemistry of gas-making. In than the pyroxylin, for a soft one it should be
natural decomposition cellulose turns yellow and greater. Chloride of sulphur is sometimes added to
brown with gradual formation of humus. See the oil. When articles made of celluloid are in a
SOILS. partially manufactured state, they are soaked in
Although so constant and characteristic a probisulphide of carbon or chloride of lime to remove
duct of vegetable life, the conditions and mode of any trace of solvent, which would render them apt
its formation are still very obscure. From that cellto shrink if allowed to remain. Celluloid is of a
cycle or rhythm of change between the passive and somewhat combustible nature unless the substances used to colour it are such as will neutralise this, or
cellulose-walled state and an active and wall-less i
one, which is so characteristic of the lowest forms unless some non-combustible chemical, tungstate
of life, and of which we find surviving traces of soda for example, is added to it.
(e.g. the rejuvenescence of the pollen-grain) in the Properties and Uses.-Celluloid has many valuable
reproductive processes of even the highest plants properties. It is buff or pale brown in colour, but
(see CELL), it would appear that there is some it can be made as white as ivory, which it much
relation between this increased passivity and the resembles, or manufactured in a transparent state.
formation of cellulose. And in this way arises the It can be moulded or pressed into any form, and
speculation that cellulose may be viewed essentially turned, planed, or carved. Neither the atmosphere
as a (mechanically coherent and thus useful) nor water affects it. It is elastic and can be united
excretion, an incompletely utilised waste product by its own cement. In a plastic condition celluloid
corresponding to the carbonic acid and water given can be spread on textile fabrics, or it may be made
off by the completer respiratory oxidation and larger as hard as ivory, for which it is largely used as a
evolution of energy of the active phase. Once substitute. Billiard-balls, piano-keys, and combs
formed by the plant, it may be again absorbed, as are made of it, the latter two articles extensively,
is well seen in the union of a row of cells into a conIt can be coloured to represent amber, tortoiseshell,
tinuous vessel, or in the consumption of endosperm or malachite. In imitation of red coral it has been a good deal used for jewelry. Like vulcanite,
of a seed during germination. Many seeds, such which it excels in durability but exceeds in price,
as vegetable ivory or date, have a great pro
portion of their reserve material in this form ; and it has very numerous applications. We need only
this must be digested into glucose by the growing mention brush-backs, knife-handles, buttons, nap.
embryo, and again worked up into new protoplasm, kin-rings, card-cases, thimbles, and dolls. It is
which deposits cellulose as before. Like the plant useful for optical instruments and for some surgical
itself, the similar digestive ferments of the animal instruments. One of the most recent applications
might thus be naturally expected to digest cellu. of it is for shirt fronts and collars. The manufacture
lose ; and this is actually, to some extent, the case of celluloid, although an English invention, has been
with the delicate young cell-walls of many green most largely developed in the l'nited States, where
vegetables, as can be experimentally verified, eren it is mostly, if not entirely, made by one firm, the
in man; while in herbivorous animals this power is Celluloid Manufacturing Co., Newark, New Jersey, I
much developed, and the nutritive utilisation of who use this word as a trade-mark.
their fodder is thus increased to an important Cellulose is the substance secreted by the extent. living protoplasm of a vegetable cell to form its The cysts of amaba and other protozoa appear investing membrane or cell-wall. (See CELL, and to be at least largely composed of cellulose, and the HISTOLOGY, VEGETABLE, for account of its mode external tunic of ascidians (see TUNICATA) is of of formation, its ligneous, corky and colloid change, identical, or at least isomeric, composition. Cellu. its mode of arrangement and union in cell-walls, lose has been described as a pathological product, &c.). It is obtained in a pure state by treating any
even in brain-tissue; and Chitin (q.v.), a very char unaltered cellular tissue with alkalies and acids to acteristic and in many respects comparable animal remove mineral matter and protoplasm, and suc. product, has been sometimes viewed as cellulose in cessive washings with water, alcohol, and ether to
association with a proteid substance, remove soluble substances. ('otton-pith or vege. Celsius, ANDERS, the constructor of the centi table ivory, although much contrasted in histologi. 'grade thermometer, was born at l'psala in Sweden, cal properties, are alike remarkably pure cellulose; 27th November 1701. He was the grandson of
Magnus Celsius (1621-79), a professor of Astronomy school of medicine. Indeed, to Celsus, next to and decipherer of the Helsing runes, and the nephew Hippocrates and Galen, we mainly owe our know
Olof telsins ( 1670-1736), professor of Theology | ledge of the medicine of antiquity. Celsus's works i at l'psala, author of the Hicrobotanicon, and an were translated into English in 1756. Next to the | early friend and patron of the great Linnæus. first edition (1478) the most important are those
Anders became in 1730 professor of Astronomy at of Targa (1769) and Daremberg (1859). See Broca's t'psala Two years later he set out on a scientific Conférences historiques (1865). tour, visiting the observatories of Nuremberg, Rome,
Celt (Lat. celtis (?), 'a chisel'), a name by and Paris. After his return he published his De
which the axe-heads of the early inhabitants of serrationibus pro figura telluris determinanda in gula habitis (t'psala, 1738). In 1740 he had the
Europe are known among British and French
archæologists. The Scandinavian archæologists satisfaction of seeing a splendid observatory erected I at t'pla, and here he laboured till his death,
use the word 'axe' and not "celt.' Its use is now 23th April 1744. The Inscriptions of the Swedish
considered pedantic, and it is fast becoming ob
solete. The word is generally believed to have Acuery contain many papers by Celsius on as.
originated from a misreading of Job, xix. 24, in the tronomy and physics. It is, however, as the first onstructor (1742) of the thermometer now chiefly
Vulgate, where Celte, understood to mean with a eri lry scientific men, that he is best known. In
chisel,' was read in place of Certe, 'verily' (corI at the space between the freezing-point and the
responding to the for ever' of the English Bible). tmuling point of water is divided into one hundred
Celte or Celtis is not elsewhere found in Latin. See
Notes and Queries (1878), vol. ix. p. 463 ; vol. x. p. es, hence Celsius's thermometer is often called
73. the crntigrade or centesimal scale. See THER
Celts are either of stone or of bronze. Stone XOMETER
celts vary in length from about 1 inch to 22 inches; Celsus, a Platonic philosopher, but tinged with but the most common size is from 6 to 8 inches Epirureanism, who lived in the 2d century after in length, and from 2 to 34 inches in breadth, Ihnst, was a friend of Lucian, and wrote, about They are made of almost every kind of stone, and 176-15), during the persecution of Marcus Aurelius, | show considerable diversity of shape, almost all, abuer the title Logos Alithes ('true word '), the first however, having more or less resemblance to the botable polemic against Christianity. The book mussel-shell. The ruder celts are generally of slate, itself has perished; but considerable fragments have shale, schist, or grit; the finer, of flint, porphyry, been preserved as quotations given by Origen in greenstone, syenite, or agate. Many of the finer bis answer, Contra Celsum, in eight books. In the celts are beautifully shaped and highly polished. fragmenta --- which are very interesting, as showing Some very remarkable examples of this class are in the views of a heathen philosopher in regard to the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, (Christianity-Celsus, with great acuteness and wit, and one found near St Andrews, in Scotland, is but without depth or eamestness of thought, prefers | described by Sir David Brewster in the Philoso.
unst the new religion charges of unphilosophi. phical Journal for 1823. The stone celt was calness and blind credulity; and especially endea. | fastened into a handle of horn, bone, or wood. voor to convict Christians of self-contradiction Bronze celts vary in length from about 1 inch to 8 in their spiritual doctrine contrasted with their or 10 inches, the most common length being about 6
thropomorphic representations of Deity; in their inches. They show much greater diversity of religious arrogance contrasted with their confession shape than the stone celt. As many as four classes of sinfulness; and in their views of the necessity have been distinguished by archæologists : (1) of emption. He also reproaches Christians with The flat wedge-shaped celt, most nearly resem.
tbrir party divisions and ever-varying opinion, and bling the common form of the stone celt. (2) The ! miienles them as worms in a corner who think flanged celt, with the side edges more or less over. I they occupy the centre of the world. Celsus lapping, and a stop-ridge or elevation between the
halds that the Supreme God can have no contact | blade and the part which received the handle.
with the material world, the creation of which is (3) The flanged-edges celt, with side greatly over1 the work of inferior deities or demons. He regards lapping, with or without the stop-ridge, but with a mil as an essential property of the material world ; loop or ear upon one side. (4) The socketed celt, he says: 'There neither has been in former times, or the celt with a hollow to receive the handle, and mox is there now, nor ever shall be, an increase or generally with a loop or ear upon one side. They diminution of evil. The nature of the universe is are sometimes ornamented with raised lines or erer identical, and the production of evil is not circles formed in the mould in which they were a variable quantity. ... It is evident that those cast. who sin by nature and by habit cannot be changed Both stone and bronze celts were probably used in any respect either by punishment or by pardon.' for many purposes, serving for chisels, adzes, and H. ebarges (hristians with having remodelled axes, as well as for weapons of war, like the stone **The Gospel" from the first writing" three times, hatchets of the South Sea Islanders. See under from times, and many times.' However, as Origen FLINT, STONE AGE, and BRONZE AGE. T arked, almost everything of an historical kind to birh (elsas refers is to be found in our Gospels,
Celtibe'ri, a brave and powerful people of Gecially the Synoptics. See Keim, Celsus' Wahres
ancient Spain, supposed to have sprung from a Ware 1873); Aubé, La Polémique Parenne in Les
blending of the aboriginal Iberians with Celtic Perrufsons de 'Eglise (1878); Pélagaud, Etude
invaders from Gaul. They inhabited a large per l'ele (1878); Froude's Short Studies, vol. iv.;
inland district of the peninsula, corresponding od the article on ORIGEN.
to the south-west half of Aragon, nearly the
whole of Cuenca and Soria, and a great part of Celsus, Arlis CORNELIt', a Latin physician Burgos, but the name Celtiberia had often a wider ud writer, who probably flourished about 50 A.D., signification, including the country as far south as
wrote not only on medicine, but also on rhetoric, the sources of the Guadalquivir. The Celtiberi history, philosophy, the art of war, and agriculture. were divided into four tribes, the chief the Arevacæ Hi style is succinct and clear, but full of Græcisms. i and Lusones, and were unquestionably one of the The only great work of his which survives is the bravest and noblest peoples in the peninsula. Their
Medicina. The portions relating to surgery cavalry and infantry were equally excellent. For De exreytingly valuable, as giving an account of many years they withstood the efforts of the
inions and observations of the Alexandrian Romans to subdue them, and it was not till after
the death of Sertorius (72 B.C.) that they began to lacing band might be replaced by an elongated adopt the Roman language, dress, and manners. animal form with its feet, its tail, and its top-knot The chief cities were Legobriga, the capital ; drawn out to interlace with each other, and with Bilbilis, the birthplace of Martial"; and Numantia, the corresponding parts of other lacertine forms, destroyed by Scipio Africanus after a desperate ten the whole forming a diaper of quaintly expressed years' resistance, 133 B.C.
and complicated construction. The fretwork was Celtic Ornament, a peculiar development of also elaborated with much ingenuity into most the system of iron-age decoration prevalent in the complicated patterns, a special feature of the style British Isles. Its history is divided into two being its partiality for diagonal frets and patterns periods by the introduction of Christianity, which produced by combinations of oblique lines, in direct engrafted on the older style a number of new ele contrast to the fretwork of Greek and Roman art, ments of decoration brought into the country with which was essentially rectangular. The elliptical the manuscripts of the gospels and psalters, and curves and divergent spirals of the older style, supplied new forms for the display of these ele. which had received their only expression in the ments, such as churches and crosses, shrines, bells, solid forms proper to metal work, were found to be and crosiers. In its pre-Christian stages, ranging equally capable of adaptation to the purposes of approximately from two or three centuries before i the illuminator, and by a similar process of comthe Christian era to about the end of the 6th bination and elaboration they also produced century A.D., it appears principally in connection patterns and diapers of inexhaustible variety and with the metal mountings of harness and horse-| beauty. A special feature of Celtic decoration trappings, and on shields, sword-sheaths, mirrors, was its tendency to divide the surface to be armlets, and other articles of personal use and
decorated into a series of panels, each of which ornament. The material is usually bronze, but
was treated as a separate whole. The finest occasionally silver or gold. The principal charac
examples of Celtic ornament are unquestionably teristics of the pre-Christian style are its pre
to be found in the grandly illuminated pages of ference for elliptical curves and divergent spirals ; manuscript copies of the Gospels, from the 7th its use of chased or engraved lines or dots as a to the 9th century. Of these the most famous for diaper in the spaces of the general design in
| the elaborate nature of their ornament and the contrast with other spaces left plain; its use of beauty of their colouring are the Book of Kells repoussé work, sometimes in very high relief, at
| in Trinity College, Dublin, and the Lindisfarne other times in low relief on thin plates riveted Gospels in the British Museum. Of enamelled on in their places in the general design ; the metal work in this period there may be mentioned production of peculiar patterns often in excess. the Ardagh Chalice, perhaps the most elaborate ively high relief in the casting; and the employ. and beautiful of all the products of Celtic art, the ment of champ-leré enamels of red, yellow, blue, Lismore Crosier, and the Monymusk Shrine. Ex. and green, and settings of coloured vitreous pastes. amples of filigree-work, and chasing or engraving One of the finest examples of such settings occurs in gold and silver of the highest excellence are in the decoration of an oval shield of bronze, from found in the Tara Brooch, the Ardagh Brooches, the bed of the Thames, ornamented with Celtic the Rogart Brooches, and the Hunterston Brooch, patterns in relief, enriched by twenty-seven set. the Shrine of St Patrick's Bell, the Shrine of tings of red enamel, kept in their places by small St Manchan, and the Cross of Cong. The approx. cruciform ornaments of bronze riveted in the centre imate dates of the metal work of the highest excel. of each. There are to be seen in the National lence range from the 10th to the 12th century. Mnseums of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin For sculpture in stone it is only necessary to refer enamelled shields, sword-sheaths, and ornaments generally to the incised slabs and sculptured crosses of horse-trappings in bronze, of great beanty of Scotland and Ireland, ranging from the 9th to and excellence both of design and workmanship, the 12th centuries, the special characteristics of and other articles in bronze, silver, or gold, orna their decoration being the same as those of the mented in repoussé work or in relief, with or manuscripts and metal work already mentioned. without enamel as an enrichment, found in many For illustrations, see BROOCH, Cross, SCULPparts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, in pagan TU'RED STONES. See further Kemble's Hora grave-mounds, in crannoys or lake-dwellings, in Ferales, edited by Latham and Franks (1863); earth-houses, in the beds of lakes and rivers, or in | Anderson's Scotland in Early Christian and casual deposits under the soil for concealment. In Pagan Times (1881-83); Westwood's Palæo. a work entitled Horae Ferales, Mr Franks of the graphia Sacra Pictoria (1845), and Fac-similes of British Museum has figured in colours many of the 'the Miniatures and Ornaments of Anglo-Saxon and best of these remarkable products of the earliest : Irish Manuscripts (1868); O'Neill's Fine Arts known process of champ-lere enamelling, and ad.' of Ancient Ireland (1863), and Sculptured Crosses duced evidence to show that it and this peculiar of Ancient Ireland (1857); Stuart's Sculptured style of Celtic ornament which accompanies it Stones of Scotland (Spalding Club, 1856 and 1867); were of indigenous origin, and at this early and Miss Stokes's Early Christian Art in Ireland period peculiar to the British Isles. The re. | (1887). markable development of Celtic ornament which succeeded the introduction of Christianity was
Celtis. See NETTLE-TREE. characterised by the association of interlaced Celts. The Celtic nations of antiquity had no work and fret work with the elliptical curves comprehensive name. Those of the Continent were and divergent spirals which up to that time called Galli by the Romans, and less usually Celta. had been the principal elements of Celtic design. | The Greek equivalents for these terms were Galatai To these were occasionally added a step-like, or Galatie, and Keltoi or Celti. But neither Greeks pattern, and diapers of the Z and I shaped patterns nor Romans regarded the British Isles as belonging sometimes seen in ('hinese decoration. The inter to the Celtic world. They were situated outside laced work was elaborated with excessive care into it, and lay over against it in the sea; still it patterns, presenting an infinite variety of combina. was known to men like Julins Casar that certain tions pleasing to the eye, and capable of being 'portions of Britain were inhabited by Celts in the harmoniously treated in colours. It was some sense of Galli or Belge. times a simple ribbon-like band, which might be Celtic ethnology involves many difficult questions, plain, or divided in the middle, or divided into and we shall speak of them in this article mostly three by lines close to the margin ; or the inter. i according to the more palpable distinctions of speech;
and in order to proceed as much as possible from the test of some of the most palpable differences that known to the unknown, we begin by classifying are known to exist between the Goidelic and the their idioms. These, whether dead or still spoken, Brythonic idioms to the remains of the Gaulish belong to the Aryan or Indo-European family of language, we find at once that it is to be ranked Languages, and those of them spoken in modern times with the Brythonic dialects, and not with the divide themselves into two groups-viz. Goidelic Goidelic ones, and our Brythonic group becomes and Brythonic. (1) The Goidelic group embraces what may be more exactly described as a Gallo. the dialects termed Gaelic, that is to say, Irish | Brythonic one. This further suggests the question Gaelic, or Irish as it is now more frequently and whether there was no continental Celtic idiom briefly called ; Manx Gaelic, or the Gaelic dialect which partook of the characteristics of the Goidelic not yet extinct in the Isle of Man; and Scotch branch. The probability is that there was ; for Garlic, or the Gaelic spoken in the Highlands and one finds Sulpicius Severus, an ecclesiastical writer Islands of Scotland. In ordinary Scotch and English of the 4th century, distinguishing between Celtic parlance this is what is understood by the word and Gallic or Gaulish, as if both were spoken in his Gaelic when it is used without any qualification. time. (See Dialogue i. 26, in Migne's Patr. Lat. In order to resist one of the delusions to which vol. xx. col. 201 : Tu vero, inquit Postumianus, charlatans are always leading the unwary, it is vel Celtice, aut, si mavis, Gallice loquere, dum. right to say that the words Gael and Gaelic have modo jam Martinum loquaris.') And the use nothing to do with Galli. Gael is the simplified of the two names Celta and Galli would seem English spelling of a word which is now written to point to the same inference-viz. the existan Scotch and Irish Gaelic Gaidheal, with an ence in Gaul of two Celtic peoples, the one, evanescent dh; but the most ancient form known probably, superimposed on the other, as on a vanof it was Goidel, whence the adjective Goidelic, quished population, or driving it towards the which has been resorted to by Celtic scholars as south and west. Thus, if the Celtic language applicable equally to all three Gaelic subdivisions which Sulpicius Severus distinguished from Gaulish
the (eltic group here in question. The Celtic should be ranked with the Goidelic dialects, we languages of this group are sometimes also called should have alongside of a Gallo-Brythonic group Erme, which is a term derived from the Scotch form another which might be called Celto-Brythonic of the adjective Irish; this was Ersch or Yrisch, were it not inconvenient to use the words Celt and tbe longer and shorter forms of which appear, used Celtic in two senses. For while the modern usage without any distinction, by Kennedy in his answer applies them indifferently to the whole family, to the poet Danbar, when the latter had called Sulpicius indicates a narrower sense ; and so, in Kennedy an Ersch brybour baird' and an · Ersch fact, had Cæsar done centuries before, when he katherine,' in reference to his alleged extrac. wrote that one of the three peoples of Gaul was tion from the Irish Scots of Galloway and Carrick. called Celtae in their own tongue. He states that Kennedy's reply contains the following line (see these Celte proper, so to say, were separated by Mary's Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scot. the Garonne from the Aquitani, and by the Seine land, 1873, pp. 43-44):
and the Marne from the Belgie. In other words,
their country extended from the Garonne to the Thou lavis nane Erische, elf, I undirstand,
Seine and Marne, and other Roman writers give it and he goes on to add
the name of Celtica ; and Dionysius of Halicar. Thy fore fader maid Ersche and Erschmen thin.
nassus had heard of a river Celtus, from which
Celtica was supposed to derive its name. From (2) The Brythonic group embraces the following this narrower Celtica, in the sense which Roman languages : Welsh, Breton, and Cornish, which has writers gave it, one might form the adjective been extinct now for about a century. Two of Celtican, to apply to its people, in order to avoid these belong to Great Britain, and one, the Breton the confusion which must arise from calling them or Armoric, to Little Britain on the other side Celts, whilst using that word also of the whole of the English Channel. These three might be family, collectively termed British or Britannic, but that In order to show the philological reasons for this both these adjectives have connotations which classification, it would be necessary to go into a would be misleading, as they tend to confusion; variety of details ; but let one of these suffice for ko bere, also, a neutral form, Brythonic, is used, the present. The Gallo-Brythonic dialects used p which is derived from Brython, one of the Welsh where the others would have qu. Take, for exwunds for the Welsh and the so-called Ancient ample, the early inscriptional Irish for the genitive Britons, whence their language is sometimes called of the word for * son'; it was maqri, corresponding
Brythoneg in Welsh. This last was in Cornish to a nominative which appears as mace or mac in I Brationer, and in Breton Brézonek, meaning re- the oldest manuscript Irish ; and mae is still the
spectively the Celtic of Comwall and of Brittany. word for boy' or 'son' in all the Goidelic dialects. Brython or Britto was the national name of all Now the early Brythonic form of this genitive people of this branch, just as (oidel or Gael may would have been mapi, while in the oldest manu. treated as the national name of the other script Welsh we have map, and in later Welsh
mab, boy' or *son.' From this word was formed All this applies only to the neo-Celtic nations, or another, mabon, a boy or youth;' and this in its tbome unong whom Celtic languages are or have old form appears in Latin inscriptions as maponus been in te in modern times, and a question of in Roman inscriptions found in Britain in honour much greater dificulty presents itself when one of the ('eltic god Apollo Japonus, so called in sitempts to classify likewise the continental Celts reference to his youthfulness. Now from Gaul of anrient history. The reason for this is chiefly we have such names as Eporedorir, Parisii, Petrothe fact that the linguistic data become more pre i corii, and many others, with the consonant p; but muins as one goes back. Thus, for example, the every now and then we have also names with lenge of the ruling people of ancient Gânl has qu, such as Sequana and Aquitani, together with been left us only in a very few inscriptions, so several instances from Spain, where a people of the than our knowledge of it from that source has to i same Celtic branch as those of Celtica had also le complemented by the study of Ganlish proper probably established themselves. E of which a considerable number is extant. So far, then, as one can get philological data to a Latin inscriptions and in the writings of Roman reason upon, it would seem that the west of Europe
Greek authors. Now, when we apply the i had in early times been subjected to two Celtic
invasions ; the one is represented by the Celts under BRITTANY, CORNWALL, GAELIC, IRELAND, whose position, geographically speaking, is the WALES. See also ARYAN RACE AND LANGUAGES, farthest from the home of the Aryans. These | ETHNOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, DRUIDISM. would be the Celticans of Gaul and Spain, as Besides the works already mentioned, the following compared with the Gallic tribes to the east of should be consulted : Müllenhoff's Deutsche Altertumsthem towards the Rhine and the Alps; the same kunde (Berlin, 1887); Windisch's article "Keltische relative position is also taken up by the Goidelic Sprachen' in the Allgemeine Encyklopædie der Wissen
schaften und Künste, together with the reviews on the Celts of the British Islands, occupying, as we find them doing, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and the
same in the Revue Celtique, vol. vi. pp. 395-400;
Hübner's Inscriptiones Britannia Christiance (Berlin, Scotch Highlands and Islands. The other, here
1876); Brambach's Corpus Inscrip. Rhenanarum ; and the represented by the Brythons, must have come
volumes of the Corpus Inscrip. Latinarum, published by later and driven out the Goidels, or subdued them,
the Berlin Academy, especially those for Britain (vii.). in the rest of this island. This may be supposed, Spain (ii.), Gallia Narbonensis (xii.), Gallia Cisalpina also, to have been the case on the Continent, so (v.), and Illyricum (iii.). that we have to regard the later comers, the Galli, | Cements. These may be roughly divided into as invaders and conquerors forming another Celtic three classes : (1) The stone cements, including population. In the eastern portions of Gaul they Roman and Portland cements, and ordinary mortar, may have formed the bulk of the population, but which are used in thickish layers for uniting stone in the rest of that country they probably only and brick work, and for protective coverings to constituted a ruling class of comparatively small buildings; (2) substances which form binding importance in point of numbers. Such a state of joints of much less but still appreciable thickness, things would adequately explain the great dearth such as white lead, red lead, and putty; and (3) of linguistic remains belonging to the older and cements which require to be used in extremely thin subjugated people. Roman authors and other coatings, such as glue, isinglass, and dissolved strangers would naturally speak most of the ruling caoutchouc. classes, and information about the others must Ordinary Mortar is a mixture of slaked lime reach strangers through the medium of the Gallic (calcium hydroxide) and sand, made into a paste rulers and their language, at anyrate, so far as with water. Generally one part of lime to three concerns the time before Latin became the official or four parts of sand are used, but the proportions tongue of all Gaul. A somewhat similar conclusion vary according to the purity of the lime employed. has been arrived at by studying the burials and very pure or fat lime, such as that made by burnmegalithic monuments of France and the neigh. ing white chalk or white marble does not make bouring lands to the east of it. In Central and so good a mortar as lime obtained from less pure Western France menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs limestones, which are by far the most abundant. prevail, while the eastern side of France shows The more thoroughly the ingredients are interthe prevalence of mounds and barrows, which are mixed, the more complete will be the subsequent here and there found penetrating into the other hardening of the mortar. As commonly laid in the domain, giving us a sort of rude sketch, as it were, joints of brick or stone work, mortar sets sufficiof an invasion advancing irregularly towards the ently fast to allow building operations to proceed west. See M. Bertrand's Archéologie Celtique et from day to day with occasional longer intervals, Gauloise ; also K. von Becker's Versuch einer but it takes years—perhaps in many cases cenLösung der Celtenfrage (1883), pp. 114-119.
turies--to reach its maximum hardness. The For reasons already indicated, the question of setting and subsequent slow hardening of mortar Celtic ethnology is a very difficult one, but it is are usually considered to be due, in the first inconsiderably more difficult than would appear from stance, simply to the loss of water, and afterwards what has here been mentioned; for besides two | to the absorption by the lime of carbonic acid from Celtic sets of invaders, there are also to be taken the atmosphere, the carbonate of lime thus formed into account the non-Aryan races that previously binding together the sand and stone. It is doubtoccupied the countries to which the Celts came. ful, however, if this is an altogether satisfactory These pre-Celtic populations probably survived in explanation. The mortar used in many medieval considerable numbers, and one of the effects of a buildings is largely mixed with small pebbles. In second Celtic invasion may be supposed to have a number of cases this has proved to be of a more been to force the earlier Celtic settlers to amalga- durable nature than the stone used along with it. mate with the ancient inhabitants, and to make Puzzolana or Pozzuolana, a loosely coherent common cause with them against the later Aryan volcanic sand found at Pozzuoli, near Naples, has hordes. So it may be expected that the language been long celebrated for its property of forming of the Goidelic Celts will prove to have absorbed a hydraulic cement when mixed with ordinary a larger non-Aryan element than that of the lime. It is composed of silica, with a little Brythons. Similarly, one might take for granted magnesia and potash or soda, alumina, lime, and that the physical type of the people speaking the oxide of iron. Goidelic dialects should prove less purely Aryan; Roman Cement.-Certain natural mixtures of but this feature is obscured by the fact of the lime and clay are called cement-stones. The clays counter-invasions which Wales and other western of some of the newer geological formations in the portions of Britain have undergone in historical south of England, for example, contain courses of times at the hands of Ireland. Lastly, it is right septarian nodules ( see SEPTARIA), which have been to add that in so far as the people, whose language in great request for making the best kinds of is or has been Celtic, are Aryans, one might expect Roman cement. They are concretions of impure the type to be that of tall men, with more or less calcareous matter, many of them having this light hair and blue eyes ; on the other hand, the analysis: (arbonate of lime, 66; silica, 18; alumina, smaller men, with dark hair and black eyes, which 7; and protoxide of iron, 6; or consist of these subit was the fashion till lately to regard as the stances in nearly that proportion. Cement-stones genuine and typical (elts, are probably not to be are carefully calcined in ‘kilns, and afterwards regarded as Celts at all, but as Ivernians or ground and sifted. Good Roman cement should representatives of the pre-Celtic and non-Aryan set in about 15 minutes, and this quick-setting race, whose hunting ground the soil of the British property makes it valuable for work which requires Islands may be said to have been long before the to be executed between tides and for other purposes first Aryan set foot in them.
where the cement used must harden quickly. It is The Celtic languages and literatures will be found l at best of but medium strength. Some natural