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Dagger, a weapon resembling a sword, but | itants number about 1500, are under the rule of a considerably smaller, being used for stabbing at sheik holding authority from Egypt, and carry ou close quarters. Daggers are generally two-edged, | a trade with the Arabian coast. and very sharp towards the point. The dagger of Dahlgren, KARL FREDRIK, Swedish poet and lath was the weapon given to the Vice in the old humorist, born at Stensbruk in Ostergötland, moralities.
20th June 1791, studied at Upsala, and acted from Daghestan ('mountain-land '), a triangular 1815 as preacher at Stockholm, where he died, 2d territory of Ciscaucasia, between the Caucasus May 1844. As a writer he made his debut in and the west coast of the Caspian Sea Area, Atterbom's Phosphorus, and afterwards published 11,425 sq. m.; pop. (1883) 529,705. The surface novels, humorous tales, poems, and dramas. His is generally mountainous, being traversed by | works fill 5 vols. (1847-52). offsets from the Caucasus ; the level tracts are Dahlgren Gun is so called after John Adolph chiefly near the coast, and here and in the valleys Dahlgren (1809-70), an officer in the United States the land is very fertile. The country is well
navy, by whom it was introduced in 1850. It is watered, the climate generally mild in the low
| a muzzle-loading, cast-iron, smooth-bore gun, with lands, and dry, except along the coast, where the great thickness of metal at the breech. Many rainfall is considerable. In the highlands large Dahlgren guns are still in the l'nited States flocks of sheep are herded. The chief town is service. In 1883 six of 10-inch calibre and muzzle. Derbend (q.v.). See CAUCASUS, and SHAMYL ; loaders were converted into 8-inch breech-loading also Cunynghame's Daghestan (1872).
rifle guns, by lining and strengthening them with Dago, an island near the entrance of the Gulf wrought-iron coils. of Finland, forming part of the Russian govern Dahlia (Dahlia Georgina )-after Dahl, a ment of Esthonia, and separated by the narrow | Swedish botanist, and pupil of Linnæus--a genus channel called Sele-sund from the island of Oesel of large perennial composites (sub-order on the south. Area, 367 sq. m. ; pop. 15,000, of | flora, family Asteroideae). It was first brought whom one-third are Swedes and Germans. The from the botanic garden of Mexico to that of coast is rugged, and the soil fertile only in the south Madrid in 1784, whence it reached England in and south-west ; inland there are large forests and swamps (54 sq. m.).
Dagoba, the common name in Ceylon for a Buddhist tope. See TOPE.
Dagobert was the name of several of the Merovingian kings of France, the first of the name reigning from 631 to 638. See FRANCE.
Dagon, the national god of the Philistines, half-man, half-fish, is mentioned in the Old Testament as having temples at Gaza and Ashdod. Several names of places prove that the worship of Dagon existed also in other parts of Palestine. It seems to have come to Canaan from Babylonia, the Assyrian monuments presenting a figure with the body of a man and the tail of a fish, and the cuneiform inscriptions containing the name of a god Dakan or Dagan, which is probably identical with Dagon. Baudissin favours the old derivation of the name from dag ('fish'), with the formative syllable -on. Dagon and the fish-goddess Derketo or Atargatis probably answered to each other as male and female water-deities.
Daguerreotype is the name of the photographs fixed on a plate of copper thinly coated with silver by the successive action of the vapours of iodine, bromine, and mercury. Louis Daguerre,
Dahlia : after whom the invention is named, was born in Normandy in 1789, was a scene-painter in Paris,
A, single; B, double varieties. made a famous diorama in 1822, and devoted the rest of his life mainly to perfecting the processes
1789, and France in 1802, while in 1804 Humboldt of photography, from 1826 till 1833 in conjunction
sent a fresh supply of seed to Berlin. Its extrawith M. Niepce. He wrote two works on the
ordinary variability soon attracted the attention of subject, and died in the neighbourhood of Paris,
florists, who brought to bear on it all the resources 12th July 1851. The history of the invention is
of selection and crossing, with so much success given at PHOTOGRAPHY.
that by about the middle of the present century no Dahabeeah, a boat used by voyagers on the
fewer that 2000 varieties had been described, all
from D. variabilis or D. coccinea or their hybrids, Nile, which varies in size, has one or two masts, and accommodation for from two to eight passen
and chiefly from the first named. For a long time gers, including a raised cabin on the after-deck.
only double' dahlias were cultivated, but of late The boat sails, is rowed, or is dragged by ropes,
years the single dahlia, in which the florets of the according to circumstances.
disc remain tubular, has again come into fashion;
while among double dahlias the less regular cactus Dahl. JOHANN CHRISTIAN CLAUSEN, a Nordahlia is highly esteemed. They are easily cultiwegian landscape-painter (1788-1857), who from vated, and propagated by seeds, cuttings, or tubers; 1821 onward was professor of Painting at Dresden.
| but the tubers require to be taken up and stored in Dahlak, a group of three islands, with many a dry place out of the reach of frost. They flower smaller rocks, in the Red Sea, off the Bay of luxuriantly in autumn, until cut off by the first Massowah. They were famous in Roman times frosts. On account of the quantity of inalin for their pearl-fisheries, but the beds have long in their tubers, they are cultivated for food in since been exhausted and abandoned. The inhab. Mexico, but similar attempts in Europe have fsiled
because of their unpalatableness. See Nicholson's Groves of oil-palms encircle each town, and palmor other Dictionary of Gardening, also any florist's oil is made in large quantities. Maize, beans, and catalogue.
peas, as well as cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, Dahlmann, FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH, German limes, oranges, pine-apples, and other tropical historian, was born May 13, 1785, at Wismar. fruits, grow in splendid luxuriance ; cotton, sugar, His earlier studies in Copenhagen and Halle were
and spices of all kinds are also grown, and sheep, devoted to archæology and philology; but his goats, swine, and poultry are raised, though not in attention was subsequently directed to the study
large numbers. Cotton cloth is made, and weapons of politics and the history of the middle ages.
and tools are forged from native iron. From 1813 on, he filled the chair of History at The people are negroes, of the Ewe group, gener. Kiel, and in 1829 was appointed to that of Politi.
ally of small stature, but very robust and active. cal Science in Göttingen, where he published
They are sociable, equally fond of dancing and of (1830) his invaluable Quellenkunde der deutschen
rum, but warlike and prone to theft. The DahoGeschichte. Banished in 1837 by King Ernst man kingdom dates from the beginning of the 18th August of Hanover, on account of his protest
century, and reached its zenith under Gezo, who against the abolition of the Hanoverian constitu.
ruled from about 1818 to 1858. Since then its tion, he went to Leipzig, next to Jena, where he
power has declined, and even its population has wrote his historical masterpiece, Geschichte von
fallen off; but little reliance can be placed on Danemark (3 vols. 1840-43). In 1842 he became the estimates of the numbers, which range Professor of History at Bonn, and took a prominent from 150,000 to 900,000, the former number being part in the political affairs of Germany after the
probably most correct. The army may be taken at movement in 1848, heading the constitutional | 10,000 men ; the Amazons (devoted to celibacy). liberals, who were unfortunately too reasonable to who are distinguished for their bravery and ferocity, be successful. At the close of the struggle, he
may perhaps be limited to 1000. Fetich-worship 1 to his academic duties, to which he | prevails, taking the form of serpent-worship along devoted himself till his death, 5th December 1860. | the coast ; a temple with over a hundred of these See Life, by A. Springer (2 vols. Leip. 1870-72).
sacred snakes exists at Whydah. The king is the Dahn, JULIUS SOPHI'S FELIX, publicist, his.
most absolute of despots. Wholesale murder is one torian, and poet, was born at Hamburg, 9th
of the chief features in religions and state cereFebruary 1834, the son of a well-known actor and
monies ; but, according to Sir Richard Burton, who
visited Dahomey in 1863, the number of the victims actress. He studied law, philosophy, and history at Munich and Berlin, became extraordinary
has been greatly exaggerated, and they are princi. professor at Munich (1862), next year ordinary
pally foreign captives. Still, as many as 500 human
victims have been sacrificed at one of the grand professor at Wurzburg, and in 1872 was appointed to the chair of German Jurisprudence at Königs
"customs' which take place every October. The berg. Among his contributions to public law are
revenue formerly depended greatly upon the sale of LALS Kruegerecht (1870), Handelsrechiliche Vortrage
slaves; but the vigilance of the cruisers employed (1975), Deutsches Rechtsbuch (1877), and Deutsches
to prevent the traffic has ruined the trade. Hence Prirtrecht (1878). Of his historical works the chief
the monster slave-hunts which periodically took are Prokopius von Casarea (1865), Die Könige der
place are a thing of the past. In 1876 the coast of
Dahomey was placed under a strict blockade by Germanen (1861-71), Westgotische Studien (1874), Langobardische Studien (1876), L'rgeschichte der
Great Britain, on account of an outrage on a British germanischen und romanischen Volker (3 vols.
subject, for which the king of Dahomey refused 1XX1-81), and Geschichte der deutschen l'rzeit (1885).
satisfaction. - ABOMEY, the capital, stands on a roll. Dahn's versatility is as remarkable as his erudi.
ing plain, nearly surrounded by marshes. It is about
8 miles in circumference, and is surrounded by a tion is profound. He has written a series of popular historical romances, and of lyrical and
deep ditch and clay walls, pierced by six gater.
There are three palaces belonging to the king here, dramatic poems. Of the former may here be named, Ein Kampf um Rom (1876), one of the
several large squares, and a number of farnis, which
are cultivated within the city. Pop, about 30,000, inost powerful of modern German novels, Odhins Trost i 1880), and Die Kreuzfahrer (1885).
Whydah has a pop. of about 12,000; and ('ana,
where is the king's country residence, 8 miles SE. Dahna. See ARABIA, Vol. I. p. 362.
of Abomey by a good road, about 3000. See Bur. Dahomey, a kingdom of Western Africa, ex ton's Mission to Gelele, king of Dahomey ( new ed. tending inland from the Slave ('oast, in about 6° 13' | 1864); Skertchly, Dahomey as It us (1874); and
- 30' X. lat., and 1° 302 30 E. long. Its limits, Bouche, La Cote des Esrlares et le Dahomey (Paris, however, are not clearly defined, and it is only 1885). certain that their extent has been greatly over.
Dahra, a district of Algeria, to the east of estimated; the seaboard is confined to a district of
Mortaganem, and near the coast. In June 1845 x 35 miles, between Cotanu and Mount Pulloy, and
tribe of Kabylex took refuge in a cave here, and on elsewhere the kingdom is encircled by tribes either
their repeatedly refusing to surrender, Pelissier, subjugated or in active hostility. The boundaries
the French commander, caused them to be xuflocated of Dahomey and Ashanti do not meet to the north
by kindling large fires of green branches at the of the Avon lagoon, as shown on some maps. The lony lagoon which, shut in from the ocean by a pro
mouth of the cave. Some 30 Kabyles thus met
their death. See PELISSIER. tecting bank of sand, affords an easy route along nearly the whole of this const, extends in Dahomey,
Daimiel, a town of Spain, 28 miles ENE. of from its western frontier almost to the Denham
('indal Real by rail, with manufactures of woollens,
Cindau lagen, in the east. About midway is the port brandy, &c. Pop. 9652 of Whydah, whence a road extends inland' to Paimios, the old territorial nobles of Japan, Abomey, a distance of 65 miles. Denne forests and who, before the resolution of 1871, enjoyed almost dismal swamps cover nearly two-thirds of this alsolute power within their own domains, paving distance, but from the Great Swamp of Agrime little inore than nominal allegiance to the m ando, vast undulating plains rise for many miles, in the At the restoration of the mhado, however, they direction of the Kong Mountains. The Avon and were obliged to surrender their castles and muster. Denham lagoons receive the rivers of the country, i rolls to the government, who took away their bude of which are very important. The soil is a privileges and relevanci them of the duty of paying rieh, red color lay, and is extremely fertile. allowances to their retainen. See JAPAX.
Dairy is a word used in speaking of a number the cows calve, and this goes on year by year from of cows kept for milking purposes, or to indicate the age of two or three (depending upon size and the buildings in which Milk (q.v.) is sold or manu. condition) until ten years old, when all should, factured into Cheese (q.v.) or Butter(q.v.). The byre without exception, be replaced by heifers. A ring or cow-house should be connected by a covered way appears on the horn to mark each year after the with the milk-house proper, and the arrangements third year, and by this the age can be deterinined. for ventilation made so perfect that it should not Where winter dairying is also practised, the cows be possible to detect in the vicinity of the milk any are made to calve at all times of the year, so that smell from the cows, pigs, or other source. The a number come in possibly every week, to replace milk-house should on no pretext be made a common others that have ceased to milk satisfactorily. The storeroom for meat, game, onions, or any material temperature of the cow-house has to be maintained which will taint the air and then the milk and the at such a high point, to keep up the full flow of cheese or butter, as the case may be. The first milk during winter, and the feeding is made so essential in a dairy is the absolute cleanness not forcing and unnatural that the constitutions of cows only of the floors and walls of the building, but of would show the effects of this high-pressure system all its furnishings. This is secured by daily wash- if they were kept to calve another year. In conseing and by the scalding or steaming of all vessels quence, few farmers who adopt this system of or implements which come in contact with milk management retain their cows more than one milk. or its products; the object being to destroy the ing period. They shut them in the house both microbes which live and multiply in milk and summer and winter, and give a full supply of food bring about its acidity and decay. The thermo | all the while, to maintain their condition. Some meter in the dairy should stand at 55° F. in sum- send them to auction as soon as the yield of milk mer, and 60° F. in winter. At temperatures higher falls to the net cost of its production. Others than these milk is liable to spoil, owing to the attempt to feed the cows after this until they put greater activity of the above-mentioned germs; on flesh, so that they command a higher total price many degrees below this it gets chilled, and will | and a higher rate per stone in the fat market not manipulate satisfactorily. An abundant supply than ordinary milking cows. Unquestionably of pure water is necessary, and means for boiling the system of changing cows after one milking water must also be provided, not only to secure period pays farmers who are favourably situated for scalding water for washing, but to raise, when the disposal of milk to private families, better than necessary, the temperature of the products of milk keeping them for a number of years and bringing during manufacture, or maintain a suitably high them round' to calve each season ; yet there is one temperature in the air of the cheese-room or the serious drawback as regards the suspension of the milk-house. A small steam or gas engine is improvement of dairy cattle, by neglecting the frequently employed in a dairy conducted on a selection of calves for rearing from the best milking large scale, to supply the power necessary for a mothers. The system is only possible, without centrifugal Cream Separator (q.v.), also for churn-doing serious injury to the breeds of cattle, because ing whole milk or cream, and at times for driving it is not general throughout the country, but conthe compressed-air refrigerator. The latter is used fined to dairies supplying milk to large centres of to lower the temperature of vaults in which fresh, population. summer-made butter is stored until the winter Eight to ten cows is a sufficient number for each season, when the prices for good grass' butter are milker, and the operation should be performed as high. As the cost of the necessary machinery is quietly and as expeditiously as possible. Men are considerable, the method can only be made to pay usually employed in England, and women in Scotwhen the business is extensive.
land. When cows give a large flow of milk, or Dairying has developed much within recent when it is wanted for town consumption, milking years. The growing demand for milk in large is done thrice daily; but in the great majority of towns has increased the volume of the milk-trade, cases throughout the country it is only performed and modified the system of management. Summer morning and evening. Heavy milking cows condairying, while suitable for the inaking of cheese, sume a large quantity of water, which should be and so far for butter also, must be supplemented supplied to them at least twice daily. Cows not by winter dairying to keep up the supply of milk in milk are often allowed to drink only once a day, and fresh butter throughout the year. For summer though it would be better to let them do so twice. dairying it is usually arranged that the cows calve To offer tepid water to a cow immediately after during March, April, and May, so that they go to calving is an unnatural and altogether unnecessary pasture when they are coming to the period at precaution ; she should have cold, but not iced, which, with a proper supply of succulent food and water in small quantities, and given frequently suitable surroundings, they should develop their until she is satisfied. Cows consuming large greatest yield of milk. They lie out day and night, amount of sloppy food and roots do not require and have the whole summer and early autumn before much water. them—the period in which grass, the most natural It is important that the water should be pure and food of a cow, is most abundant, best, and cheapest. clean. Outbreaks of typhoid fever among children In some instances the grass is supplemented by 2 or have been traced to cows drinking water contam3 lb. a day of cotton-seed or other cake, and when inated with the germs of this disease. Though the grass begins to fail in autumn, some variety of sewage irrigation grass is extensively used, under green food, as cabbages, rape, vetches, &c. As the soiling' system, by cowfeeders near to towns frost begins to appear the cows are housed at night, (Edinburgh, for example), no injurious results have and in spite of liberal and careful feeding, fall off been traced to this practice. Irrigation grass has been in their yield of milk. Nevertheless, it is the better largely superseded within recent years by supplies practice to house them in good time, because they of better quality got from immense crops of Italian keep in better condition during winter than if left ryegrass ('Lolium italicum), grown without irrigaout too long, and for the few remaining weeks of tion by means of heavy and repeated dressings of the milking period they give a larger average nitrate of soda. In no place can this system be return. All naturally dry off,' some more rapidly seen to greater perfection than around Edinburgh. than others. Milking should be stopped abruptly at In some parts clover and vetches take the place of the end of the year-experience points to this being ryegrass. Succulent food is essential for the prothe best and simplest method of drying off cows duction of large returns of milk. As the use at this season. After two or three months of rest, season ends in October, the sueculent portion of
food may be derived from brewers' and distillers' being exceedingly favourable in regard to the grains (i bushel per day being a full allowance for quality and increased market value of the pro
large cow), and from turnips-a favourite variety duct which was then cheese only), many other at present being the Fosterton hybrid. Turnips, factories were organised, until in 1866 there were when given in excessive quantities, produce an nearly 500 of them in operation in the state menobjectionable taste in the milk and butter, but as tioned, the cost of these being about $1,000,000 an ingredient in a liberal and well-balanced diet (£200,000), with a stock of cows worth, at the they may be used with impunity, where milk is the then low valuation, at least $10,000,000. The product wanted. Swedes and mangels are not so farms thus associated were then worth, for the liable as common turnips to taint cow products, and million acres covered by them, not more than as they keep well when stored, they are reserved $40,000,000 (£8,000,000), or an average of $40 per for use during the winter and spring inonths. Cows acre. Five years later there were factories in in full milk require a daily allowance of perhaps 5 several of the states and also in Canada ; the list to 8 lb, of concentrated food-a mixture of various comprising 946 in the state of New York, 103 in farinaceous meals and oil-seed cakes along with Ohio, 46 in Mlinois, 5 in Kentucky, 4 in Minnesota, bran, which acts as a corrective as well as a food sub- 34 in Wisconsin, 26 in Massachusetts, 32 in Ver. stance. Bean meal is prominent among the meals ! mont, 14 in Pennsylvania, 7 in Iowa, 2 in Indiana, for encouraging a flow of rich milk and at the same and I each in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, time maintaining the condition of the cow. Tur- Kansas, and Connecticut. This associated industry nipe, unless liberally supplemented, are liable to became known in foreign countries as the Ameri. reduce the condition. The ingredients in the food can system of dairying,' and was quickly intromixture should be determined by their market duced into England, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerprices from time to time. There is a decided ! land, Holland, and other countries where the dairy alvantage in giving a mixed food, as compared business was carried on extensively, but it has not with one variety, provided a proper proportion is increased to anything like the extent it has in secured between the albuminoids and the carbo- America. Very soon the manufacture of butter bydrates-one to five is a good ordinary average was introduced into the factories, as well as into to aim at under ordinary circumstances, hav. special establishments for butter-making alone, the ing estimated oil as equivalent to two and a latter being called creameries, in contradistinction half times its weight of starch. Not only must to the factories where cheese only was made, or the proportion of the components of a food mix where butter and skim-milk cheese were made, ture be adjusted, but the total bulk of the food, or where the skim-milk was adulterated with must be great enough to distend the stomach fats and oils of various kinds, as substitutes for suthciently to promote healthy action in the diges. cream. It was about this time (1872) that the tive system. About 30 lb. of dry food substance French oleo margarine (a preparation of beef-fat) is good allowance for a healthy milking cow of was introduced into the American dairy as a one of our large breeds. If that were given entirely substitute for pure butter fat in the manufacture in the form of concentrated food, such as meal and of cheese. It is a disagreeable truth to confess cake, the animal could not chew the cud, and im. that this fraudulent dairy (?) product,' as it is paction of the rumen would result. The practice called, still maintains a firm hold upon American of chaffing straw into very short lengths is associ. dairying, and largely as a distinct fraud, made use ated with the same danger. Dry fodder, more of for the purpose of making and selling adulter. specially straw, is vastly improved for milk cows ated cheese, and butter as well, for a pure product. by cooking-either steaming it, or throwing warm And in addition to the fat of beeves, lard and water over it, and covering it up for a few hours. cotton-seed oil are extensively used. Laws recently In spring, before the grass comes, the flow of milk passed in several of the states and in the l'nited in newly-calved cows is often largely developed and States congress forbid the sale of butter so adul. maintained by treating hay in this fashion, and terated under heavy penalties, but no legislation as supplying them with the hay tea and the solid resi. yet protects cheese from the fraudulent mixture. due mixed with meal. When very large quantities This stigma upon the American dairy (Canada, it of concentrated food are used, it is safer to add to may be said, is happily free from it) remains to the daily allowance of each cow from 1 to 2 lb. of this time a reproach and severe pecuniary damage inolasses, which supplies not only a valuable in to the dairy business, gredient of food, but maintains a healthy action in American dairy cheese is made under the wellthe organs of digestion. Without some such pre known Cheddar system, so called, which is preval. aration the percentages of ailments and deaths, inent in parts of England, and in Ayrshire and other the case of cows kept under a high-pressure system localities in Scotland. This is the American cheese of feeding, are likely to be considerably above an which is so well known and highly regarded in average. Epsom salts should never be given to a Great Britain, when purely made under the best cow in milk, as they permanently reduce the yield system of management. But a considerable variety for the season : 8 to 10 lb. of warm treacle is of cheese is now made in imitation of foreign kinds, more rapid in its action, safe, and free from injuri. and is used by the foreign-born citizens, who have ous after consequences. Bought concentrated food not forgotten their acquired taste for the old home. has another function than the above to perform made cheese. Its ash ingredients which pass away in the manure (reameries, or butter factories, came into use make good to the land the considerable loss of bone with the cheese factories, but were not numerons earth and other valuable substances which are until a way was found to utilise the skim-milk removed in dairy products-more especially milk. by adding artificial fats to it. Then the combined See ('ATTLE, BUTTER, CHEESE, Milk.
butter and cheese factory turned out its butter and Dairy Factories. Dairying, as a special its full-milk cheese together. This questionable twiness, has been extensively developed during method of business, however, became unpopular, the latter half of the 19th century Copyright jeg in Pa
and actual creameries came into vogue, and have in America, the t'nited States by Limpineut rapidly increased during the past few years. In and Canada included, mainly Company,
180 there were 3932 chere and butter factories through the introduction of the peculiarly Ameri. in the l'nited States : in 1888 there were at least can factory system, or associated dairving. The 5000, the largest numerical increase having been in first factory was organised in the state of New creameries. In the creamery, the cream gathered York, by Jesse Williams, in 1860, and the result from 600 or 800 cows is worked up by one skilled
butter-maker, and the product is a good article the average. The land held to be most suitable for of even quality all through ; it is made in suffi-| the dairy is a rich limestone loam or gravel, that is cient quantity for shipment and sale under the productive of the best variety of grasses, especially best conditions, and hence it cominands a higher the so-called blue grass (Poa pratensis), which price than the best ordinary farm-dairy butter. It affords the best pasturage. The best dairy districts is made with the best apparatus, is packed and are in the states of Vermont, New York, Pennshipped in cold-storage or refrigerator cars, and sylvania, Ohio, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, and the reaches the domestic consumer within a week after province of Ontario, in Canada. it is made; and the foreign purchaser may have it The cows mostly kept upon dairy farms are the upon his table within two weeks of the churning Dutch or North Holland, commonly called Holstein in the creamery, more than 4000 miles distant. or Holstein-Friesian, Shorthorns, Ayrshire, the These are advantages which the solitary butter half or higher bred grades of these, and the maker cannot secure; hence he can only get the common 'native' cows, the descendants of the creamery price by securing special customers near promiscuous mixture of the various races of cattle his dairy. A few so-called fancy dairies are able brought into America. The most popular of these to secure 40, 50, or even 75 cents (ls. 8d. to 3s.) | is the grade shorthorn, which may be purchased per pound for their butter, but even the best when in fresh milk; the Dutch cow is next in ordinary farm-dairy butter sells at a lower price popular estimation, but it is scarce and high-priced, than creamery butter, and fully three-fourths of it and is much less used. The average yield of these sells for less than half the price of the other.
cows varies from 6000 to 8000 lb. of milk per year, American creamery butter is made by the deep or between calves, where calves are bred; the setting system, borrowed from the Swedish method, largest yield of the shorthorn and its grades and improved by American ingenuity. The milk averages 50 lb. daily, that of the Dutch cows is is strained from the pail into cans 9 inches in somewhat greater, and a few of the best have a diameter and 20 inches deep. These are set in record of more than 24,000 lb. of milk between tanks of water cooled by ice to 45°. At the end of calves and within a year. These cows can be kept twelve to twenty-four hours the cream has separ. | with profit only upon high feeding and the best of ated, and the milk is drawn off by a tap in the pasture. For the butter-dairy the Jersey breed bottom of the can, view being given by a strip of and its grades are the most profitable, and Ameri. glass let into the side of the can. The cream is can pastures are now quite thickly sprinkled with then drawn off by itself. For the use of the the Jersey colours. Ayrshires come next, and the creamery the quantity of cream is measured by the Devon follows in favour; but of necessity the inch, and is paid for on the basis of so many inches common native and much cheaper cow forms the to the pound of butter. One hundred and thirteen rank and file of the dairy herds. cubic inches of cream is taken as the standard in In America the whole of the work of caring for this respect. The creamery gathers the cream once the cows, feeding and milking them, is done by men. a day, and secures it perfectly sweet, while the The feeding consists of pasturing wholly; pasturing skim-milk is also left sweet for the feeding of with partial soiling, or full soiling in the summer; calves, for sale for consumption, or for the making and feeding upon hay and meals of various kinds of pork. The cream is kept until it is slightly acid with pulped roots or silage in the winter. A large before it is churned, making thus a quality of number of dairies are devoted to making butter in butter which keeps better and longer than that | the winter, by which a higher price is obtained for made from sweet cream. The churns most popular | the product, and leisure is secured in the summer for are those without any dash, being a cubical box the growth of the feeding crops for use in the winter. turning on an axis passing through diagonal corners; With the rapid rise in the value of farms suited to or a barrel turning on an axis passing through its the dairy, pasturing is found to be too costly for the centre sidewise ; or an oblong square box oscillat- largest profit, and partial soiling is almost univering endwise in swinging supports. The action of sally resorted to. Complete soiling, by which one churning thus consists of a dashing of the cream cow may be kept on the product of one acre of land violently against the sides or ends of the churn, all the year, is practised in some of the best of the and, by concussion, causing the globules of fat in fine-butter dairies, where land is worth $200 per the cream to adhere together, and gradually acre or more, and where pure-bred Jersey, Guerncoalesce and form small grains of butter. When sey, or Ayrshire cows of high value are kept, a these grains are as large as wheat-grains, or peas | yield of 12 to 14 lb. of butter per week being at the largest, the buttermilk is drawn off, cold obtained by the high feeding of these cows. One water or weak brine is poured into the churn, and of these cows, a Jersey, recently produced 49 lb. of the churn is moved gently, to agitate and wash the butter in a week, under a forced test, while from butter. When the butter has been completely freed 14 lb. to 24 lb. of butter weekly has been given by from milk, and no longer clouds the water, it is more than 100 Jersey cows now living. This, howdrained, and salted with finely-ground pure salt, at ever, is an example of what is known as fancy dairy. the rate of from 4 oz. to 1 oz. to the pound of butter. ing, which is closely connected with breeding cows The salt is easily incorporated with the small grains for sale at high prices. In a good working dairy & of butter, and after a rest of a few hours for the salt cow is required to yield 7 to 10 lb. of butter weekly to absorb the excess of moisture from the butter in the height of the season, and at least 200 to and become completely dissolved, a butter-worker 250 lb. in the season. is used to press the butter, make it solid and even The average feeding of a dairy cow in the snm. in texture, and as dry as possible. It is then packed mer consists of the best pasture that can be afforded, in new spruce or oak tubs, or pails, of 20 to 50 lb., with some fresh green fodder as soon as the great for domestic sale, or in 100-1b. firkins for export. heat of the summer hardens the grass, and from
The dairy interest has reached vast proportions 2 to 12 quarts of ground feed-ground corn and in America and Canada. At least 1,500,000 oats, brañ, cotton-seed meal, or linseed meal. A farms, with 10,000,000 cows and 100,000,000 acres very common method of feeding is to give 2 or 3 of land, are devoted more or less closely to the quarts of mixed corn meal and bran, with & various branches of the industry. In the most quart of cotton-seed meal at each milking time, populous of the states, where the dairy is the the cows generally being brought to the barn to principal agricultural employment, good dairy be milked. In winter, hay of clover and timothy farms are valued at $100 (£20) per acre and up-grass mixed, with the sar a ntity above menwards, as the buildings may be more valuable than end of meal and a pe rawers' grains, is