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physical science. For the great Encyclopédie was elected for Haddingtonshire. On the death of planned by Diderot he wrote the famous Discours his father in 1838 he entered the House of Peers Preliminaire, & noble tribute to literature and as Earl of Dalhousie. In 1843 Sir Robert Peel philosophy, a model of lucid and eloquent exposi. appointed him Vice-president of the Board of Trade, tion, although its classification of the sciences is and in 1845 he succeeded Mr Gladstone as Presi. open to question. Besides numerous articles in the dent of the Board. The railway mania ' threw an Encyclopédie (the mathematical portion of which immense amount of labour and responsibility upon he edited), he published books on philosophy, his department; but the energy, industry, and literary criticism, the theory of music, and a administrative ability he displayed in his office, no treatise, Sur la Destruction des Jesuites (1765), less than his readiness and Huency in parliament, which involved him in controversy. He became marked him out for the highest offices in the secretary to the Academy in 1772, and there state. When Peel resigned office in 1846, Lord after he wrote the lives of all the members John Russell paid the Earl of Dalhousie the rare deceased between 1700 and that year-one of the compliment of asking him to remain at the Board most pleasing of his works. His literary works of Trade, in order to carry out the regulations he have been published in a collected form, new had framed for the railway system. In 1847 he edition, by Bossange (Paris, 5 vols. 1821). This was appointed Governor-general of India, as suc. elition contains his correspondence with Voltaire cessor to Lord Hardinge, and arrived in Calcutta, and the king of Prussia. His scientific works January 12, 1848-the youngest governor general have never been collected.

ever sent to that country. His Indian adminis. So genuine was D'Alembert's love of independ. tration was not less splendid and successful in ence that wealth and rank had no fascination regard to the acquisition of territory than in the for him. Frederick II. of Prussia offered him means he adopted for developing the resources the presidency of the Academy of Berlin in of the country, and improving the administration 1752, but he declined to leave France, and only of the East Indian government. Pegu and the accepted a subsequent offer of a pension of 1200 Punjab were conquered ; Nagpur, Oudh, Sattara, francs. The king of France granted him a Jhansi, and Berar were annexed-altogether, four similar sum. In 1762 Catharine II. of Russia great kingdoms, besides a number of minor prininvited him, through her ambassador, to undertake cipalities, were added to the dominions of the Queen. the education of her son, with a salary of 100,000 Railways on a colossal scale were planned, and partly francs; and when he declined, she wrote him an commenced ; 4000 miles of electric telegraph were antograph letter, urging that to refuse to contribute spread over India ; 2000 miles of road between to the education of a whole nation was inconsistent Calcutta and Peshawur were bridged and metalled; with his own principles ; and inviting him, if he the Ganges (anal, the largest of the kind in the could not reconcile himself to the breaking off of country, was opened ; important works of irriga. his pursuits and friendships, to bring all his friends tion all over India were planned and executed ; with him, and she would provide both for them and the department of public works was reorgan. and for him everything they could desire. But ised. Among other incidents of his beneficent ad. he remained steadfast. D'Alembert never married. ministration may be mentioned his energetic action He was tenderly attached for many years to against suttee, thuggee, female infanticide, and the Mademoiselle Espinasse, with whom he lived in the slave-trade; the organisation of the Legislative same house in Platonic affection for nearly a dozen Council; the improved training of the civil service, years, but who was scarce worthy of his devo which was opened to all natural-born subjects of tion. Her death in 1776 was a crushing blow to the British crown, black or white; the successful the philosopher. His own health began to give development of trade, Agriculture, forestry, mining; way; for he was suffering from the stone, and and a great reform in the postal service of India. would not consent to an operation. He died In a minute which he drew up on resigning office, he October 29, 1783.

reviewed with pardonable pride the events of his Dalgarno, GEORGE, an almost forgotten but

eight years' governor-generalship. His constitution very able author, was born at Aberdeen about

had never been strong, and it gave way under the in. 1626, studied at Marischal College, and afterwards

cessant labour and responsibility imposed upon him kept a school in Oxford for thirty years, where he

by his noble ambition. Meanwhile, honours had

been showered upon him by his Queen and country died August 28, 1687. He deserves to be remembered for two remarkable works--the Ars Signorum,

with no sparing hand : in 1848 he was made a

Knight of the Thistle; in 1849 he received the mar. tulgo Character inirersalis et Lingua Philosophica (1681), and Didascalorophus, or the Deaf and Dumb

quisate, the thanks of both Houses of Parliament Man'. Tutor (1680). The former is a very ingenious

and of the East India Company for the zeal and attempt to represent and classify ideas by specific

ability displayed in administering the resources of arbitrary characters irrespective of words. It con.

British India in the contest with the Sikhs; in tains the germs of Bishop Wilkins's subsequent

| 1832, on the death of Wellington, he was nomin. speculations in his work, A Real Character and

ated by the then prime minister, the Earl of Derby, a Philosophical Language (1668). Leibnitz has

to the office of Constable of Her Majesty's ('astle

of Dover and Lord Warden of the Cinque Porte. repeatedly alluded to it in complimentary terms.

Dalhousie sailed from (alcutta in March 1836. On The latter work has for its design to bring the

his arrival in England he was unable to take his way of teaching a deaf man to read and write as brar as possible to that of teaching young ones to

sent in the House of Lords; and the remainder

of his days was spent in much physical suffering speak and understand their mother tongue.'

and prostration of strength. On 19th December Dalhousie, JAMES ANDREW BROU'X-RAMSAY, 1860 he died at Dalhousie ('astle in his 48th year, MARQE18 OF, Governor-general of India, and leaving behind him a name that ranks among the * greatest of Indian proconsuls,' was the third son highest in the roll of Indian viceroys for states. of the ninth Earl of Dalhousie, and was born manship, administrative vigour, and the faculty April 22, 1812, at Dalhousie ('astle, Midlothian. He of inspiring confidence among the millions sub. was educated at Harrow, and graduated at Christ jected to his sway. As he died without male Church, Oxford. In 1832, by the death of his only issue, his title of marquis became extinct, the remaining brother, he succeeded to the courtesy title i carldom of Dalhousie and other Scottish honours of Lord Ramsay. In 1835 he stood unsuccessfully 'reverting to his cousin, Baron Panmure. His for Edinburgh in the Conservative interest; in 1837. policy of annexation has been blamed for the

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mutiny which broke out ere his death ; but though, Dalmatia, a narrow strip of Austrian territory in Justin M'Carthy's words, he was a man of com extending along the Adriatic Sea, and bounded a manding energy and indomitable courage, with the the N. by Croatia, on the E. by Bosnia Her intellect of a ruler of men and the spirit of a con.govina, and Montenegro. Area, 4940 m. ; queror,' he was also of a most sensitive conscience, pop. (1886) 510,372. The coast of Dalmatis ad and entered on the Sikh and Burmese wars and numerous adjacent islands is everywhere to embarked on a policy of annexation against his will. and rocky, and the chief towns, all of wbich an See the articles INDIA, OUDH, PEGU, PUNJAB, on the coast, are Zara, Sebenico, Lissa, Spalata, SIKHS; the Duke of Argyll's India under Dalhousie Brazza, Ragusa, and Cattaro. The country is on and Canning (1865); and Captain Lionel Trotter's tainous, chiefly dry moorland, with nameroes seal Dalhousie in the 'Statesmen'series (1889).

lakes and rivers, most of which dry up in sames. Dalias, a town in the Spanish province of

The highest mountain is Orjen, near Cattaro, en Almeria, at the foot of the Sierra de Gador, with

feet. The climate is uncertain; mean temperature a pop. of about 9500, who are employed chiefly

about 60° ; rainfall about 28 in. The Bora 19. in mining and smelting.

wind is much dreaded. About one-ninth of the

| land is arable, and produces wheat, barley, Dalkeith, a town of Midlothian, 6 miles SE

maize, rye, and potatoes. Wine and olivo ar al of Edinburgh, on a tongue of land between the

produced. Nearly half of the land is in pasture, North and South Esks. There is a large corn

and wood occupies about a third. The islands exchange (1855); of nearly a dozen places of wor

are not very fertile, but supply good timber for ship the only old one is the parish church, collegiate

shipbuilding. Cattle-rearing, seafaring, and the once, of which Norman Macleod was for three

a was for three fisheries are the chief industries.

The um years minister. The chief glory of the place is

value of the exports and imports is £1,500,000

leach The exports consist principally of wine, el (see SCOTT). Standing near the end of the High

High brandy, hides, wool, wax, honey, and fruita Street, in a beautiful park of 1035 acres, it is a th Grecian edifice, built in 1700 by Sir John Vanbrugh

55,000 are Italians, 1000 Albanians, 1000 Germs for Monmouth's widowed duchess. The castle, its

500 Jews, and the remainder consists of Suathen predecessor, was the seat first of the Grahams,

Slavonians-chiefly Dalmatians and Mariaks Te and then of the Douglases from the 14th century

Dalmatians are a fine race of men, bold and lar till 1642, when the ninth Earl of Morton sold it to

as seamen and soldiers, and formerly were the the second Earl of Buccleuch. Dalkeith thus has

main support of the military power of Venice memories of the Regent Morton (the Lion's Den'

In ancient times Dalmatia was a consider the castle was called in his day), of General Monk kingdomandant

kingdom, and, after many unsuccessful attemu (1654-59), and of visits from James IV., James

was first subjugated by the Romans in the is VI., Charles I., Prince Charles Edward, George of Augustus. On the fall of the Western Empir. IV., and Queen Victoria. It is the scene, too, of Dalmatin which had formed the most a Moir's Mansie Wauch. Pop. (1841) 4831; (1881)

part of the province Illyricum, was captured 6931.

the Goths, from whom it was taken by the Avan Dallas, capital of Dallas county, Texas, on (490), who in their turn yielded it to the S o Trinity River, 265 miles NNW. of Houston by rail. nians about 620. The state founded by the Sun It is å flourishing place, with colleges for boys nians continued until the beginning of the 13th and girls, a medical institute, a number of flour. century, when King Ladislaus of Hungary mes mills and grain-elevators, several foundries, and porated a part of Dalmatia with Crostia, while the manufactures of woollens, soap, &c. Pop. (1880) other part, with the title of duchy, placed 10,358 ; (1890) 38,067.

under the protection of the Venetian reseble Dallas, GEORGE MIFFLIX, an American diplo.

The Turks afterwards made themselves master matist and statesman, was born in Philadelphia,

| a small portion; and by the peace of Campo For July 10, 1792. His father, A. J. Dallas (1759

(1797), the Venetian part of Dalmatia, with Veni 1817), was a distinguished lawyer of West Indian

itself, became subject to Austrian rule a birth and Scottish descent, who filled with credit

Austria, in 1805, had ceded this part of Dalmat the positions of secretary of the treasury and

to Napoleon, it was annexed to the kingdom acting-secretary of war under President Madison.

Italy; afterwards (1810) to Illyria Since 194 The younger Dallas graduated at Princeton Col.

Dalmatia forms part of Austria ; the C D lege in 1810. In 1813 he was admitted to the bar,

Spizza being added by the Congress of Berlin in and soon after entered the diplomatic service. In

1878. 1831 he was sent to the United States senate by

See Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Mean the Pennsylvania legislature. He was United (1848); Paton, Highlands and Islands of a States minister to Russia from 1837 to 1839, and I (1849); Wingfield, Tour in Dalmatia (18i: Tra. in 1844 was elected vice-president of the United

Les Bords de l'Adriatique (1878); Freeman, Skenen en

the Subject and Neighbouring Landa og VOM 1* States. In 1846 his as president of

Henri Cons, La Prorince Romaine de Dalmat (1983 the senate repealed the protective tariff of 1842,

and Jackson, Dalmatia, the Quarnard, and I 16 though he had previously been considered a Pro

Dalmatian Dog, or CARRIAGE-DX*, var tectionist. His course on this question aroused

of dog closely resembling in size and b e the much indignation in Pennsylvania. He was sent

modern pointer. It is often kept in stabben to Great Britain as I'nited States minister at St


comes attached to the horses, and mar he w James's from 18.36 to 1861. He died at Philadelphia,

running after carriages. Its colour and December 31, 1864. His principal published writ.

white with black spots not more than an cu ings were posthumous; they include a very read.

diameter regularly distributed over its body, O able and entertaining Series of Letters from London

cluding its ears and tail. Its origin is mortaa. (1869), and a Life of A. J. Dallas (1871). His life

the name Dalmatian is probably altogether was marked by a siduous devotion to official duties, which left him little leisure to look after his own

ies, leading; and it is supposed that it may ban les

brought from India, where a very similar til private interests, and he lived and died a poor

& poor dog exists.

los exists man.

Dalmatic (Dalmatica ), the deacon' rode ta Dalles. See COLUMBIA RIVER.

the Roman Catholic Church. The most Dalling, LORD. See BULWER.

I form of the dalmatic is exhibited in the anse

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woodcut, after an early Christian painting on a Quaker school in his native place, and, after 1781, wall in the catacombs at Rome. It was originally in a boarding school kept by a relative in Kendal,

of linen, but it is of which three years later he and a brother became now generally made the proprietors. Here his love of mathematical and of the same heavy physical studies was first developed. He wrote silk as the Chasuble several mathematical essays, and in 1787 com(q.v.).

menced a journal of meteorological observations, Dalmau, a city

which he continued throughout his whole life, of Oudh, on the left

recording in all 200,000 observations. He collected bank of the Ganges,

butterflies, and gathered a great hortus siccus and 60 miles NW. of

herbarium. In 1793 he was appointed teacher of Allahabad, with a

mathematics and the physical sciences in New Col magnificent Hindu

lege, Manchester:after the removal of the college to temple. Pop. 5367.

York in 1799, he supported himself in Manchester

by private tuition. “In 1803 he lectured at the Dalmelling. Royal Institution. His Meteorological Obserrations ton, an Ayrshire

|(1793), dealing largely with auroras, contained the village, near the

germs of many of his future discoveries. In 1794 he river Doon, 15)

first described the phenomena of colour-blindness, miles SE. of Ayr

observed by him in his own case and that of his by rail. In its

brother, and often called Daltonism. In 1808-10

he published his New System of Chemical Philoactive collieries

sophy, to which he added the first part of a second and ironworks.

volume in 1827. In 1817 he was appointed presi. Dalmatic

Pop, of the village dent of the Manchester Philosophical Society. He

alone (1881) 1437. was also a member of the Royal Society, and an Dalri'ada ('the home of the descendants of associate of the Paris Academy, and of several Riada'), the ancient name of a territory in Ireland, other foreign societies. In 1833 he received a pencomprehending what is now called the Route,' or sion of £150, afterwards raised to £300. In the the northern half of County Antrim. Its inhabit same year Dalton's friends and fellow-townsmen anta were Scots of Gaelic race living in the midst collected £2000, to raise a statue to his honour, of a Pictish population, and a number of them which was executed by Chantrey, and placed at crossed over to Argyll in 498 and founded there the entrance of the Royal Institution in Man. another kingdom of Dalriada. More than twenty chester. Oxford gave him its D.C.L., and Edinkings of this state are enumerated before Kenneth burgh, LL.D. He was twice a vice-president of Mac Alpin, who, about 843, united under one the British Association. In 1837 he had a shock sceptre the Dalriads or Scots and the Picts, and of paralysis, and he died, universally respected, thus became the first king of Alban, which about at Manchester, July 27, 1814. His chief physical two centuries afterwards began to be known as researches were on the constitution of inixed gases, Scotia or Scotland.

on the force of steam, on the elasticity of vapours, Dalry, a town of Ayrshire, on the Garnock, 23 and on the expansion of gases by heat. In miles SW. of Glasgow. Pop. (1851) 2706; (1881)

chemistry, he distinguished himself by his develop5010, this growth being due to the establishment of

ment of the atomic theory, as also by his researches neighbouring ironworks in 1845. -For the skirmish

on the absorption of gases by water, on carbonic at Dalry, near Tyndrum, see BRUCE.

acid, carburetted hydrogen, &c. Dalton was un.

questionably one of the greatest chemists that any Dalrymple. ALEXANDER, hydrographer, was

conntry has produced. Profound, patient, and & younger brother of Sir David Dalrymple, Lord

intuitive, he had precisely the faculties requisite Hailes, and was thus a member of an old and illus.

for a great scientific discoverer. His atomic theory trious Scottish family (for its chief members, see

elevated chemistry into a science. In his babits, STAIR and HAILES): he was born at New Hailes,

Dalton was simple: in manners, grave and renear Edinburgh, 24th July 1737. At fifteen be

served, but kindly, and distinguished by his truth sailed for Madras as writer in the East India

fulness and integrity of character. He beser ('ompany's service, and after a few years dreary work began to attract the notice of his superiors

found time' to marry. See the Lives of him by Dr

Angus Smith (1836). Dr Henry (1854, and Lons. by his industry and intelligence. In 1759 he madle a voyage of observation among the eastern islands,

dale (1874); and the article ATOMIC THEORY. and after returning to Madras in 1762, was sent! Dalton-in-Furness, a town of Lancashire, 16 to open up the trade with Sulu, reaching (anton miles WNW. of Lancaster, communicating with late in 1764. In 1775 he went to Malras as a the sea by a canal (34 miles ). It has extensive member of council, but was recalled two years malting and ironwork, and the ruins of Furne after on an unfounded charge of misconduct. He

Abbey (9.v.) are in the vicinity. Romney was a became hydrographer to the East India Company native. Pop. (1561) 2M12; (INT) 13,339. in 1779, and to the Admiralty in 1793, and djed, Daltonism. See ('OLO'R BLINDNESS three weeks after his summary dismissal from the Dalvell. or DALZELL, THOMAS, Scottish latter ofhce, 19th June 1808.

general famed for his zeal in the represjon of the Dalrymple, SIR JAMES, was the second son of Covenanten, was born about 130), the min of Sir James Dalrymple, baronet, afterwards first Thomas Dalvell of Binn*, Linlithgowshire Enter: Vixcount Stair. He was called to the Scottishing the army at an early age he wis mule a general bar in 1673, and ultimately became one of the chief major of foot by Charles II. in 1600); and excluded clerks of the ('ourt of Sexion, and A Nova Scotia from Cromwell's Act of Grace, he entered the baronet in 1698. He wAS a sound antiquary, and service of Russia and distinguished him-mi in his work entitled (ollartinns runcerning the tash the war arruinst the Tartan and Turke. At the Hidory preceding 11.53 Exlun. 1705) is still of value request of Charles II. he was permitted to rrturn

Dalton, Joux, chemist and physicist, was born bome, and in 1646 was appointed commander in. 6th September 1766, at Eagle-bele, near (ches chief in Scotland with the view of repressing the mouth, in ('umberland, and was the son of a Qunker Covenanten. Onth November he defeated them weaver. He received his early education at A at Rullion Green, in the Pentlands, and, in Burnet's

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words, 'acting the Muscovite too grossly,' made his coast of Africa, besides large quantities of opium name a byword of terror. A very devoted royalist, to China. The opium trade, however, has been he is said never to have shaved his beard after the stopped, and the chief industry, beyond the weaving execution of Charles I. He died 23d August 1685. of cotton cloth, and of bamboo mats and baskets, Dam. See WEIR, COFFERDAM.

is now the deep-sea fishing, in which about 4500 Damages, in Law, are the pecuniary repara

men are engaged. tion due for loss or injury sustained by one Daman. See HYRAX. person through the fault or negligence of another. Daman-i-Koh (skirts of the hills'), a tract Where a sum ascertained in amount is due, the of hilly country in Bengal, reserved for the Santals action is one not properly for damages, but of debt. and other primitive races. Area, 1366 sq. m.; But where the sum is not ascertained, as where an

pop. (1881) 353,413. injury has been done to a man's character or

Dam'araland, a territory in the west of South property, the action can in general only be for

Africa, between Namaqualand and Ovampoland damages the amount of which the injured party

proper, extending from the Atlantic to about 19° estimates, and which is determined by the judgment

45' E. long. Behind the waterless coast region (100 of the court or verdict of a jury. When parties to

miles) rises a mountain district, with peaks over a contract agree that if the contract be broken, a

8500 feet above the sea ; and farther inland stretch specified sum of money shall be paid, this sum is

wide prairies. The mountains are rich in minerals, spoken of as liquidated damages, a sum agreed

especially copper ; vegetation is confined to their upon to save the trouble of ascertaining the actual

valleys, and to the prairie region, which in the damage done. Nominal damages are those given to a plaintiff who establishes his right, but has not

north enjoys a fine rainfall. The produce of the

interior consists of ivory, feathers, skins, &c. The shown that he has suffered actual loss. Exemplary

Damaras, properly Herero, a Bantu (q.v.) stem, or vindictive damages are given not only to com

number about 80,000, of whom 50,000 live in the pensate the injured party, but to punish the

mountain district'; they are nomads, and own large offender, as in actions for damages by fraud, seduction, and the like. Damages uitra are

flocks and herds. The Hawkoin, or Hill Damaras, additional damages claimed by a plaintiff over and

in the north-east, however, who are a much lower

type, now speak Hottentot. The only harbour in above those paid into court by a defendant. Every

| this part of the coast is Walvisch Bay (q.v.), which person is liable in damages for injuries caused by

properly belongs to Namaqualand; it was annexed culpable neglect or ignorance. Professional persons

to Cape Colony in 1884. In the same year the are liable to make reparation of loss occasioned through their want of ordinary skill in their calling.

desert region along the coast was made a German Railway companies and steamboat owners are

protectorate. liable for injuries to person or property caused by

Damascening, or DAMASKENING, is a name the fault of themselves or their servants. The

which is given (1) to the watered or striated principal rules according to which damages are

structure seen in certain sword-blades and other awarded are, that the damage is measured by the

weapons, and (2) to the ornamental incrustation actual pecuniary loss, when ascertainable ; that the

with gold and silver of steel and iron surfaces. The injury suffered must be the immediate consequence

term in both its applications originates from the city of the faulty act or omission; and that all the

of Damascus, whence the crusaders brought into parties concerned in committing a wrong are liable

Europe swords and other weapons of remarkable each for the full amount of damages to the injured

strength, elasticity, and keenness of edge, the party.

surfaces of which were beautifully striated with In the United States, the same general principles

waved dark and light lines. The hilts of such apply as in England. But the tendency of modern

weapons, and the whole surface of defensive armour legislation, instead of restricting actions for damages

from the same source were in many cases elabor. to cases in which the restitution of property and

ately ornamented with incrusted gold, and hence the enforcement of rights are involved, is gradu

one term came to be applied to the peculiar structure ally being extended to cases involving civil injury

of the metal, and to its ornamental treatment. It arising from criminal negligence. This has been

is probable that even in the crusaders' times the made necessary from the great powers granted

making of the so-called Damascus blades and the corporations by law. Damages for the infringe

art of damascening were Persian, and to this day ment of patents and copyrights may by act of con

they remain characteristic of that country, the gress be double or treble the verdict of a jury, at

practice having spread thence eastward into India, the discretion of the court. See Costs, LIABILITY.

while the Persians still supply the Turks on the

west with their best and most highly ornamented Daman', an outlying portion of the Punjab,

weapons. The production of a watered or damasextending along the right bank of the Indus, and cened surface is illustrated by the manufacture of as far back as the Suliman Mountains.

Damascus twist' barrels for sporting-guns. The Daman', a Portuguese settlement and port in metal for the barrels is prepared from rods of iron the province of Gujarat, on the Gulf of Cam. and steel, piled alternately and forged and welded bay, “100 miles N. of Bombay. The settlement together into a single solid rod of small section. consists of Daman proper (22 sq. m.), and the Three of these composite rods are used in forming parganá of Nagar Havili (60 sq. m.), to the east. a barrel. They are separately twisted in contrary Pop. (1881) of the former, 21,622; of the latter, directions till each has the appearance of a fine 27,462, nearly all Hindus. The climate is generally threaded screw, then they are welded together into healthy, the soil moist and fertile. The magnificent a solid ribbon, which in its turn is spirally wound teak forests of Nagar Havili provide excellent and welded by the edges till the requisite length timber for shipbuilding, for which Daman has and bore of barrel are formed. The result of the some celebrity. The port, guarded by two forts, intertwisting of fine laminee of steel and iron is a stands at the mouth of the Daman-Ganga, a deep, beautifully damascened surface which shows itself navigable stream, with a bar at its mouth, when the barrel has been treated with acid. The while outside is an excellent roadstead. Although incrustation of arms, armour, and other objects of the Portuguese have held Nagar Havili since steel and iron with gold, and more rarely with 1780 only, Daman has been occupied by them silver, is extensively practised in the Northsince 1558. It formerly was noted for its weaving west P, { India, as well as in Persia


In and dyeing, and exported its own fabrics to the India it:

Kuft work or Kuftgari. The

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