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design to be worked out is undercut in the metal, yards east of the citadel the Great Mosque towers into this the gold or silver wire is laid, and the above the city. The Mosque was erected by scarp edge is beaten down with a hammer, thus Walid 'Abd-el Melik at the beginning of the 8th securing the wire in its position. Another method century on the site of the church of St John, just consists in scratching the surface, and beating into as that church had been erected by Arcadius about the scratched lines the gold or silver wire, after the beginning of the 5th century on the site of a which the whole surface is burnished to remove the pagan temple, which probably occupied the site of incisions,

the ancient Beit Rimmon. The church was conDamascenus. See JOANNES DAMASCENUS.

structed from the splendid material of ancient

temples, and the mosque is made up of the materials Damascus is the capital of Syria, and the of ancient churches. The old walls and many of largest town in Western Asia. It is called by the the columns of the church are still in position, and natives Dimashk es-Sham, or simply es-Sham, the on a portal, older than Mohammedan or (Christian name which is generally applied to all Syria. The times, is carved a cross, followed by the 13th verse city stands 1 mile from the mouth of the gorge, of the 145th Psalm in Greek, from the Septuagint, through which the Barada, the Chrysorrhoas of the with the abbreviation Xe added. The mosque is Greeks, forces its way into the plain ; and it is now adorned by three minarets, one of which, called the connected with Beyrout on the Mediterranean by minaret of Jesus, rises to a height of 250 feet, and an excellent French road about 70 miles long on this minaret, according to Mohammedan tradi. The plain of Damascus, 500 sq. m. in area, istion, Jesus will appear when he comes to judge the dotted by over a hundred towns and villages. world. Near to the pulpit there is a richly gilded It is bounded on the north-west by the Anti-dome, beneath which the bead of John the Baptist Libanus range, on the south by the Black is said to rest, and in the court there is another Mountains, beyond which are the hills of Bashan, dome which contains precious fragments of Kufic, and on the east by the marshes of the plain. Syriac, and other manuscripts. Damascus con Damascus is situated on the western side of the tains 70 other mosques, and more than 150 chapels great plain at an elevation of 2260 feet above the for prayer and instruction. The churches and level of the sea, and immediately to the north-west synagogues have no architectural pretensions, and of the city the Anti-Libanus rises to a height of 3840 their internal decorations are gorgeous but tawdry. feet. This elevated part of the mountain, called The tomb of Núr ed-Din is one of the ornaments Jebel Kasyún, is crowned by the Kubbet en-Nasr of the city, and the walls of the best baths are (Dome of Victory'). From the base of this dome decorated with beautiful Kishani tiles, and the the best view of Damascus is obtained. Its ex. floors with parian marble. The public cafés, though quisite beauty, as seen from the mountain, is picturesque when lighted up, are dirty and sodden. greatly enhanced by contrast. Towards the west The religious communities occupy different there are the bare chocolate sahara and the storm. quarters of Damascus. The Jewish quarter (Harat. bleached, lime-streaked mountains. But the el. Yahoud) lies to the south of the street called Barada, having forced its way through the moun Straight,' which runs east and west for about a tain, spreads fan-like by seven rivers over the plain mile, with Roman gateways at either end. The of Damascus, and everything lives wbither the course of the l'ia Recta can be traced by the river cometh. A beautiful green meadow, the joy columns in situ. The Christian quarter ( Harat-enof all orientals, extends almost from the mountain Vasara ) lies north of the street called Straight in to the city; gardens, in which all the trees of the the eastern part of the city, and the remainder of forest and the field blend their many shades, extend the city is occupied by Mohammedans. It is for many a mile and hold the desert at bay. From spoken of as Harat-el-Islam. The ('hristians are out this bower of soft green the city lifts to heaven | superior in physique, in education, in enterprise, its forest of minarets towering above pearly domes. in skill, in industry to their Mohammedan neighThe rivers of Damascus are the constant source of bours. the city's perennial existence. According to tradi The different industries are also carried on in tion, Abraham on his westward march lingered by separate quarters. There is the silversmiths' the crystal waters, and ruled the city in peace. bazaar, where rough but very effective personal

The seven canals by which water is drawn off ornaments are made ; the saddlen' bazaar, where from the central Barada are called rivers. The scarlet saddles and horse trappings are gaily most important on the right side is Nahar Abanias. | decorated with gold and silver thread; the shoe. This is the river Abana, and it flowed through the makers' bazaar, where red and yellow slippers of fashionable west-end suburb in the palmy days of gondola-form and gorgeous are made : Damascus. The most important canal on the left the Greek bazaar, where imitation Damascus side of the Barada is Nahar Taura--the Pharpar of blades' and 'antiques' newly made are offered to 2 Kings, v. 12. Both rivers flowed through the the unwary. The book bazar (the Paternoster Row residential parts of the city, and were largely used of the East), the cloth hazaar, the seed bazaar, the for bathing purposes.

silk bazaar, and all the other trader and commodities, The appearance of Damascus as viewed from the have their distinct locations. The narrow and mountain resembles a tennis- racquet. The handle, badly paved strerts of Damascus Are dusty in which lies in a south-westerly direction, is the summer and muddy in winter. On either side are Meidan, a suburb which extends along the Mecca the rows of arched niches which are the shops of pilgrim-route for about a mile, and ends at the the place. Each shopkeeper sits cross-legged in Bawabat Alla ("Gate of God'). The other part is his duhlan, with his spices or Manchester goods concentrated on the rivers, and is inclosed within piled up around him, awaiting customers, whom he ancient walls and encompassed by luxuriant gardens serves with great stateliness of manner. Behind which seem to surge around and over the pearl. the mud walls and mean entrances there are coloured city like a sea. At the western side of the splendid houses in Damascus. On entering, one is city within the walls stands the citadel. It is a dazzled by the harbane grandeur-white marble large quadrangular structure about 300 yards long pavements, terselated with coloured stone ; snowy and 230 wide, with projecting tower, and surrounded fountains where the constant music of falling hy a moat. It was erected in 1219 by Melik-el. water mingles with the coding of doves from their Ashraf, and has a massive appearance, but it is a nests in the lemon-trees or trellised vines; walls good deal dilapidated. The palace stands outside | frescued and decorated with mosaics and Persian the walls west of the citadel, and about 400 tales, and slabs inlaid with coloured pastes and

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precious stones ; arabesque ceilings set with terminating in hooks for lifting the warp threads. Venetian mirrors, and adorned with blue and The mechanism for raising such of these wires, and purple and gold-all that oriental art and lavish with them the warp threads as are required for expenditure can do has been done to attract and each throw of the shuttle, is explained under charm the eye.

JACQUARD-LOOM. It requires four JacquardGreat and steady progress is being made in | machines to complete some patterns of damask, Damascus in education, especially by the Christians; and a greater number if the design is exceptionally but the Jews and Mohammedans are also awaking / elaborate. to the necessity of a higher standard of civilisation. Table-linen damask is perhaps the kind most For many years the Irish Presbyterians have con- largely made. In Great Britain, the principal seats ducted successful educational establishments in the of this manufacture are Dunfermline in Scotland, city and neighbouring villages as auxiliary to their Belfast in Ireland, and Barnsley in Yorkshire. At mission work. The British Syrian schools have some of the linen damask mills in England and also an establishment, and the London Jews' Scotland, coloured union damask, of wool and linen, Society.

is also made on a large scale. Cotton damasks, One of the sights of Damascus is the Hajj (q.v.). both dyed and undyed, are woven extensively at When it is starting for Mecca the whole city turns Manchester and its neighbourhood, as well as at out to see the procession. For miles around there Glasgow and Paisley. The mills where all-wool is a surging sea of human beings, dressed in the damasks are chiefly manufactured are situated brightest and most striking colours. Circassians at or near Halifax and Bradford, where a new and Afghans, Kurds and Kalmucks, Turkomans and kind, consisting of mohair, or of mobair and silk, Tekkes, Bedouins from the desert, and shepherds has been recently fabricated. Silk damasks are from the steppes, and all the heterogeneous tribes | principally made in the neighbourhood of London. and peoples of the East, are represented in that Since 1860, largely through the labours of Dr brilliant procession. Damascus is also one of the Bock of Aix-la-Chapelle, one or two very interestmeeting places between the East and West. ing collections of European damasks and other Enormous caravans of camels pass to and fro figured stuffs, ranging in date from the 13th to between Bagdad and Damascus, exchanging the the 16th century, have been made. A catalogue dates and tobacco and spices and carpets of the with some illustrations of the specimens in the East for the produce of the looms and workshops | South, Kensington Museum was prepared some of Europe. The chief exports are grain, flour, years ago by the Rev. Dr Daniel Rock. Since native cotton and silk manufactures, wool, apricot then some remarkable examples have been added, paste and stones, raisins, and liquorice-root; the and the authorities of that institution are now imports include textiles, indigo, tobacco, coffee, publishing large coloured illustrations of these. sugar, and leather. In 1887 the total exports were The original pieces, even though many of them are valued at £341,294, and the imports at £398,423, much faded, give a vivid idea of the beauty of more than half of the latter being British. In the products of the looms of Sicily, of Florence, 1889 gas and tramways were introduced into the Venice, Lucca, and Genoa, and of some Spanish city. Pop. about 150,000, of whom 20,000 are towns, during the middle ages. The materials of Christians of various sects (32,000 before the great | which they are made are silk alone, silk and gold, massacre of July 1860); 6000 are Jews; and the silk and linen, and silk and cotton. When flowers remainder Mohammedans.

or animals are represented on these damasks, they Damask. This name, long given to certain are conventionally, not realistically, treated, and fabrics with ornamental patterns, appears to have the designs of most of them are so appropriate and originated through Damascus having become, as effective, that even the chromolithographs of them early as the 12th century, so celebrated for its are of great value not only to the textile designer, figured silks that they were sought for everywhere. but to students of every branch of decorative art. The term damask is now applied to stuffs made for Damasus, the name of two popes of Rome.table-covers, window curtains, and furniture cover. DAMASUS I. was born in 306, probably at Rome, ings, with floral, scroll, heraldic, or partly geo. became archdeacon of the Roman Church in 353, metrical patterns woven in the loom, but not to and pope in 366. The party of Ursinus, the rival printed designs. There are silk, woollen, linen, of Damasus, were overpowered after a sanguinary and cotton damasks. Some are of two materials, struggle of three days in the streets of Rome, and usually dyed of different colours, such as silk and afterwards in the Basilica Liberiana (S. Maria linen, or silk and wool, while many old damasks | Maggiore), from which 137 corpses were carried out are of silk and gold. There are other figured in one day, the 25th October 366. The Emperor textiles more or less resembling damask, such as Valentinian I. decided in favour of Damasus, and Brocade (q.v.) and figured Velvet (q.v.), but on these twelve years later, the schism still continuing, an the pattern is generally, at least slightly, raised, edict of Gratian (378) made him the judge in the while in damask the surface is flat, and the pattern is case of all the clergy of the hostile party who still distinct on both sides of the cloth. The structure of lived in Rome. He was a zealous opponent of damask, like diaper, is merely a variety of twilling the Arians, and condemned the Ilyrian bishops It is by the order in which the warp threads are Ursacius and Valens at a synod which he held raised and depressed for the interweaving with the at Rome in 368, and Auxentius, Bishop of Milan, weft that the pattern is produced ; the weft, as a at a second synod there in 370. Damasus induced rule, intersecting the warp from every fourth up to his friend Jerome to undertake the revision of the every eighth thread. This is accomplished by a Italia (in 383 and 384), which led him to the preJacquard apparatus attached to the loom. The paration of the Vulgate version; and he did much pattern is first painted on a specially prepared for the preservation and adornment of the Roman paper, and then read off' and perforated on cards catacombs. He died in 384, and was canonised. by a cutting inachine made for the purpose, each His festival falls on the ilth December. The card being made to control the arrangement for writings of Damasus, which are chiefly letters and one shot or weft thread. These cards, which m

"Tams, were published at Rome in 1638 (new be from 200 to 2000 in number, are laced in*

Rome, 1754, and Paris, 1840). See Langen, an endless chain, made to revolve on

der römischen Kirche (vol. i. Bonn, 1881), cylinder formir he apparatus. '

Damasus, Bischof von Rom (Freiburg, holes in the ca n certain numbe.

SUS II., previously Poppo, Bishop of cross ng ned upright wii

cted pope in 1048, through the intin

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ence of the Emperor Henry III., and died twenty- herded swine in his boyhood, but rose by his learn. three days after his accession.

ing and devotion to the interests of the church to Dambula, or DAMBI'L, a vast Buddhist rockbe cardinal and Bishop of Ostia (1057). He suptemple in ('eylon, 40 miles X. of Kandy, con ported with vigour the ecclesiastical policy of taining, among a profusion of carvings, figures of Hildebrand (afterwards Gregory VII.)," without Buddha of extraordinary magnitude. See CEYLON.

agnitude. See CEYLON. | sharing his arrogance and ambition, and was emDame (Lat. domina, 'a mistress'), a title of '

ployed in many important missions. He died at

Faenza in 1072. His letters, speeches, and other bonour which long distinguished high-born ladies from the wives of citizens and of the commonalty |

writings were collected by Cardinal Cajetan, and

often reprinted (best ed. 4 vols. Ven. 1743). See in general, and which still is the accurate title of a ! knight's wife (see also BARONET). In the age of

the Life by Neukirch (Gott. 1875). chivalry, it was customary even for a queen to

Damianus, Sr. See COSMAS. be so called by her chosen knight (the dame Damien, FATHER, a young Belgian priest who of his heart, of his thoughts,' &c.). In conse in 1873 devoted himself to the awful duties of quence of the greater courtesy shown towards spiritual guide to the lepers confined to the Hawaian women of higher rank, arose the custom of pre | island of Molokai. Sent on a mission to Honolulu, tixing the word ma to dame, as a special proof of where he heard from the bishop the neglected state veneration and homage. Hence, too, the Virgin of the lepers, some 700 or soo in number, who lived mother was called in France Notre Dame (Our on that small island, he volunteered to establish Lady, as if no single Christian could exclusively himself amongst them; and from 1877 onwards claim the privilege of serving her with the homage became physician of their souls and bodies, their of his heart). The daughters of the king of France, magistrate, teacher, carpenter, gardener, cook, and as soon as they came into the world, were called even gravedigger at need. For long he worked on Madame ; and this was also the sole title of the single-handed at his noble labours, but was ulti. wife of the king's eldest brother. In England, the mately joined by another priest. For twelve years word Dame, though not much used, is now applied he escaped all contagion of the fatal disease, though to married women of all classes ; but has recently in constant contact with the sick and dying; and acquired a special significance in connection with though in 1885 the malady appeared in him, he con. the Primrose League (q.v.). It is also applied | tinued his heroic labours until his death, April 10, specially to the mistress of a small elementary | 1889. His family name was Damien de Veuster. school, especially if elderly and ignorant. Madame His story is alluded to in Froude's Oceana. is shortened into Madam, a usual term of address

1 Damiens, ROBERT FRANÇOIS, the would be for ladies in general, but still also a word of honour,

murderer of Louis XV., was born in 1714 near applicable, in particular cases, to majesty itself.

Arras. Already known in his youth as Robert le Thus Tennyson in dedicating his poems to Queen Diable, he was by turns a soldier and a servant in Victoria, speaks as a chivalrous troubadour might Paris ; in 1756 he was forced for a robbery to have done

flee to Belgium, but ventured to return to Paris Take, Madam, this poor book of song.

about the end of the year. Already he had formed Dame's Violet (Hesperis ), a genus of Cruci. | the plan to murder the king, either, as he himfere, closely allied to stock and wallflower; natives, self alleged, on account of his conduct towards

chiefly of the i the parliament, or because, as was generally
middle and south asserted, he was instigated by the Jesuits. On
of Europe, and 4th January 1757 he went to Versailles, next day
temperate Asia followed the king and his courtiers about every.
One only, the where, and about six o'clock at night, when the
('ommon Dame's king was entering his carriage to leave Trianon,
Violet or Rocket managed to stab him. Damiens was seized before
(H. matronalis), , he could finish the deed, and was nearly three
occurs wild in / months later adjudged by the parliament to a
Britain as a gar. | horrible death. The hand which had attempted
den escape. The the murder was burned at a slow fire; the fleshy
usually lilac parts of his body were then torn off by pincers,
coloured flowers and melted resin and oil poured into the wounds;
are scentless by finally, he was torn to pieces by four horses. The
day, but very fragments of his body were burned, the house in
fragrant at night,' which he was born pulled down, and his family
on which account banished from France for ever.
this plant is cul. Damietta (Arab. Dimyat), a town of Lower
tivated in flower. Egypt, situated on the right bank of the chief
pots by German eastern mouth of the Nile, about 8 miles from its
ladies. The cus mouth in the Mediterranean. It is irregularly but
tom appears to well built, and has some handsome mones and
have been an old marble baths, and of course several bazaarn. Its
English one also, I commerce has been much injured by the prosperity
and from it the of Alexandria, but it still carries on a considerable

trade in exporting rice, fish (from Lake Menzin), technical name. coffee, and dates ; and imports charcoal, sonp, and The Night manufacturedi goods. It is the terminus of a branch.

scented Rocket railway from (niro. The cambric lasubi known Common Dame's Violet (Hesperis (H. frister) in also as damity received its name from Damietta, where it matronalus)

a favourite flower was firme manufactured, but it is so no longer (Lane

in Germany. Poole, Art of the Saracens), and the leather-work There are many florist's varieties ranging on each for which it very famons has also declined. A bar side of the familiar lilac tint to purple or white, at the month of the river prevents vessels of more often also variegated, and single or double.

than fifty or wixty tons bunden from ascending to Damiani, PIETRO, A great Italinn ecclesiastic the city. Pop, about 30,000. The existing town of the 11th century, was born in 1007 at Ravenna, was erected after 1251, but, prior to that, a city of


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the same name (more anciently Tamiáthis) stood surrounded by all the furniture of royalty, but in more to the south. It was strongly fortified by the the midst of his luxurious banquet, on looking Saracens, and formed on that side the bulwark of upwards, he saw a keen-edged sword suspended Egypt against the early crusaders, who, however, over his head by a single horse-hair-a sight that succeeded in capturing it more than once. It was at once altered his views of the felicity of kings. razed, and rebuilt farther inland on the site it now

Damodar, a river of Bengal, rises in the Chutia occupies, by the Mamluk sultan Bey bars.

Nagpur watershed, and after a south-easterly course Dammar, or DAMMAR PINE (Agathis, Dam of 350 miles, enters the Hoogly from the right. mara), a genus of Coniferæ, of the family Arau The valley of the Damodar abounds in coal and cariinæ, distinguished from Araucaria by its later iron; and some 40,000 tons of coal are brought ally winged seeds not being adherent to the down yearly in native boats, strengthened to resist carpellary lea There are four species, all oriental the strain caused by frequent grounding on sand

or Australasian, of banks.
which the most

Damoh, a town of India, in the Jabalpur familiar is A. (Dam- |

division of the Central Provinces, 50 miles E. of mara) orientalis or

is or Ságar, with 8665 inhabitants. The district of alba of the lower | Damoh has an area of 2799 sq. m., and a pop. mountain-regions of (1881) of 312,957. the Malay Archipelago, Borneo, and

Damon and Pythias (more correctly Phinthe Philippines, a

tias), two noble Pythagoreans of Syracuse, rememlofty tree with stout,

bered as the models of faithful friendship. Pythias leathery, lanceolate

having been condemned to death by the elder leaves. The timber

Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, begged to be is light, but the tree

allowed to go home, for the purpose of arranging is chiefly valuable

his domestic affairs, Damon pledging his own life for its extraordinary

for the reappearance of his friend at the time abundance of resin,

appointed for his doom. Dionysius consented, and which is not only

Pythias returned just in time to save Damon from obtained in quantity

death. Struck by so noble an example of mutual from incisions which

affection, the tyrant pardoned Pythias, and desired are best made in

to be admitted into their sacred fellowship. the large knot-like Damper, a door or valve which, by sliding, prominences of the rising and falling, turning on a hinge, or other lower part of the | wise, diminishes the aperture of a chimney or airstem and the root, flue; this lessens the quantity of air that can pass but which naturally through a furnace or other fire, and thus damps

exudes so freely as or checks the combustion. The damper of a pianoBranch of Dammar Pine. to form large lumps

forte is that part of the mechanism which, after a

underground, and key is struck, and the finger is lifted up from the foot-long icicles or stalactite-like masses hanging key, immediately checks or stops the vibration of from the branches. According to Miguel it even the string (see PIANO).-Damper is also the name drips from the branches in Sumatra in such quantity 1 given in Australia to a simple kind of unleavened as often to form incrustations and rock-like masses bread formed of wheat flour. It is made while on the banks of streams. At first semifluid and of travelling in the bush, and baked among the ashes pleasant balsamic odour, it soon hardens into an of a fire often kindled for the purpose. inodorous transparent mass, of no great hardness, Dampier, the name of several places in Ausbut of glossy appearance and conchoidal fracture.

tralasia : (1) Dampier Archipelago, a cluster of about It is soluble in cold ether, and at all temperatures

twenty small rocky islands off the NW. coast of in ethereal and fatty oils ; but not entirely in Australia, in 21° s. lat., and 117° E. long., divided boiling alcohol. It is of great value in the pre by the Mermaid Strait in two groups; in the paration of transparent and rapidly drying var eastern is Rosemary, the largest island.—(2) Damnishes. The name signifies in Malay, light.'

pier Island, off the NE. coast of New Guinea, with The Kauri Pine (9.v.) of New Zealand is A. aus

à volcano about 5250 feet high.—(3) Dampier's tralis. D. ovata of New Caledonia has also similar Land, a peninsula of Western Australia, fertile and properties.

well watered, lying between King Sound and the The same name is applied in commerce to the Indian Ocean. -- (4) Dampier Strait, between New resin of other and unrelated trees. Thus the

Guinea and the archipelago of New Britain, formdammar of shipyards is derived from a species of ing, with Goschen Strait to the SE., the shortest Canarium, an Amyridaceous tree, while Black | route from Eastern Australia to China by some 300 Dammar is a kind of pitch derived from the allied | miles.-(5) Dampier Strait, separating the island of Marignia. Shorea robusta, a dipteraceous tree,

Waygiou from the NW. extremity of New Guinea, yields pitch and resin used in Indian dockyards,

the safest and easiest passage between the Indian and sometimes also called dammar. Dammar is

and Pacific oceans. also occasionally confused with kinds of copal; thus the resin of Vateria indica (Dipteraceae) is some

Dampier, WILLIAM, a celebrated English times known as Dammar or Piny Dammar. It is

navigator and hydrographer, was born near Yeovil the source of the Piny Varnish of India. See

| in Somersetshire in 1652. He went early to sea, COPAL

saw much hard service, and gained a great know

ledge of hydrography in voyages to Newfound. Damnatory Clauses. See ATHANASIAN

land, Bantam, Jamaica, and the Bay of Campeachy. CREED.

After spending a few years among the lawless log. Damocles, one of the courtiers and flatterers wood-cutters on the coast of Yucatan, where honest of the elder Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse. Cicero trade was pleasantly varied with private piracy, he tells how Damocles, having extolled in the highest joined in 1679 a regular party of buccaneers who terms the grandeur and happiness of royalty, was crossed the Isthmus of Darien, sacked Santa Marta, reproved by Dionysius in a singular manner. The nyaged the coast as far south as the island of sycophant was seated at a table, richly spread and

andez. In 1683 he engaged in another

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buccaneering expedition, in which he coasted along successful management of that journal on demothe shores of Chili, Peru, and Mexico, sailing cratic lines. He has published several translations thence across the Pacific, and touching at the and anthologies, collaborated in a Life of Grant Philippine Islands, China, and New Holland. Put (1868), and, along with George Ripley, who had ashore on Nicobar Islands, May 1688, after a been an associate at Brook Farm, planned and dispate with his comrades, he made his way by edited the New American Cyclopaedia (1857-63), sheer seamanship in a native canoe to Atcheen, and and its revised edition, the American Cyrlopedia after two years' trading in the neighbouring sens, (1873-76), both in 16 vols. See ExcYCLOPÆDIA. male his way to England (1691), where he pub. Dana, JAMES DWIGHT, an American mineralo. lished his vigorous and interesting Voyage round

gist and geologist, was born at l'tica, New York, the World (1697). He was afterwards deputed by | 12th February 1813. He graduated at Yale College government to conduct a voyage of discovery to the

in 1833, and was sent out in 1838 as a scientific South Seas, in which he explored the west and

observer in the l'nited States exploring expedition, north-west coasts of Australia, also the coasts of

under Wilkes, visiting the Antarctic and Pacific. New Guinea and New Britain, giving his pame to

During the course of this expedition Dana's ship the Dampier Archipelago and Strait. On the

was wrecked. He was afterwards associated with return voyage his vessel was wrecked off Ascension,

his father-in-law, the elder Silliman, in the editor. and Dampier with his crew lived on turtles and

crew lived on turtles and ship of the American Journal of Science. In 1846 goats on that island for over two months, until

he was elected professor of Natural History and relieved. The old buccaneer was more skilful as a

Geology in Yale College. Among his works are a pilot than successful as a commander, and his over

System of Mineralogy (1837), a Manual of Mineral. bearing cruelty to his lieutenant led to himself

ogy (1848), two treatises on ('orals, a Tert-book of being court-martialled. Yet soon after he was

Geology (1864), and many highly valued reports on again appointed to the command of two vessels in

geological, mineralogical, and zoological subjects. Aprivateering expedition to the South Seas. He Was His principal text-books have been repeatedly enas unfortunate as before. According to an account | larged and revised. Dr Dana's labours have gained published by Fummell, one of his sailors, Dampier him world wide distinction and he has been elected wis guilty not merely of drunkenness and brutality,

to membership in most of the prominent scientific but even of cowardice, which at least is hard to believe of an old buccaneer. The master of one of

societies of Europe and America. his two vessels was that Alexander Selkirk who

Dana, RICHARD HENRY, an American poet wax marooned at Juan Fernandez, and was yet to

and prose writer, was born at Cambridge, Massabe male immortal as Robinson Crusoe. Dampier

chusetts, 15th November 1787. He was educated returned home at the close of 1707, poor and broken,

at Harvard College, and was admitted to the bar nor did his angry Vindication re-establish his

at Boston in 1811. In 1818 he became associate reputation. Next year he sailed again to the

editor of the North American Rerieur, to which he South Seas as pilot to a privateer, which rescued

contributed largely. Some of his poems, such as Selkirk, and returned in 1711 after a prosperous

The Dying Raren (1821), and The Buccaneer (1827), voyage. Dampier died in London early in March

were warmly praised by critics on both sides of the 1713.

Atlantic, The American public, however, received

them coldly, partly because it was not at that Damping off, in Horticulture, the death of

time educated up to the standard of Dana's work, plants from excess of moisture in the soil and

but chiefly because that work, with all its literary atmosphere. Young seedlings in stoves and hot

merits, such as learning, neatness of execution, and beds are particularly liable to it. Although the

precision in verbal expression, lacked the elements cause is sufficiently obvious, prevention is not

which most appeal to the popular feelings. Dana's always easy ; not only because some plants are

best literary work was done in the field of criticism. very sensitive as to moisture, but also because the

His abilities as a critic were very decided ; and Decessity of keeping sashes closed on account of

though many of his best efforts were not duly appretemperature often stands in the way of the ventila

ciated in his day, they did much to educate and ele. tion which would otherwise be desirable, and it is

vate the literary taste of New England. A collecwhen a moist atmosphere stagnates around them,

tion of his prose and verse appeared in 1833. He and the temperature is not very low, that plants

was for a time in 1821 - 22 connected with The Idle are most liable to damp off.

Man, A meritorious though ill-supported literary Damson, a rather small oval-fruited variety of periodical. He died at Boston, 21 February 1879.the common plum, much esteemed for preserving, His son, RICHARD H. DAXA, anthor and lawyer, and not wholly unfit for dessert. The tree grows was born Ist August 1815, and graduated at Harvard to a considerable height, but has a bushy, aloe-like College in 1837. During an interval in his collegi. appearance. It is extremely fruitful. There are ate career, occasioned in part by a tron blesome many sub-varieties, with fruit of different colours, affection of the eyes, he shipped as a common dark purple, bluish, black, yellow, &c. Damsons | sailor, and made a voyage to California and back. are produced in great quantities in some parts of | This voyage he described in Two years before the England. Damson pies and damson cheese-made Jast (1840), the best book of the kind in the somewhat in the manner of fig-cake--are well i language ; in 1840 he was admitted to the Massaknown. The name is a corruption of Daumascene, chusetts bar. As a lawyer he attained great dis. from Damascus. --The Mountain Damson or Bitter tinction, especially in the department of maritime Damson of the West Indies is the Simaruba (4.v.). law. Among his works are The Seeman's Friend

Dana, CHARLES ANDERSON, an American man I (1841) and To ('ula and Back (1839). He also of letters, was born at Hinsdale, New Hampshire published an edition of Wheaton's International sth August 1819, spent two years at Harvard,

Lan, and was prominent as a Free-roiler and Reand was a member of the Brook Farm (q.v.) com

publican politician. In 1979 he was nominated to munity. From 1848 to 1862 he was the managing

the powtion of minister to England, but after a editor of the New York Tribune, which he was

long contest the senate failed to confirm the largely instrumental in making the leading organ appointment. He died in Rome, 7th January 1882. of the party opposed to the extension of slavery to | Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, new territories; and from 1863 to the close of the himseli the great grandson of Danau An oracle war he was assistant-secretary of war. In 1867 he had announced that he would one day give birth purchased the New York Sun, and commenced the to a son, who should kill his graundiather. Acrisius,

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