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vious circulation in manuscript and he and his the marvels of this marvellous book is its perennial brother-dramatists showed how bitterly they re- youth. After well-nigh three centuries it is as sented the criticism in chapter 48. Cervantes was fresh and full of life as when it came from La slow in taking advantage of his popularity. In Cuesta's press. In his other works Cervantes stead of giving his readers the sequel they asked studied recognised models and consulted the tastes for, he busied himself with writing for the stage of the day ; in Don Quixote he followed the lead and composing short tales, or exemplary novels' of his own genius alone, and wrote only as instinct as he called them. The Viage del Parnaso, a prompted him. Written in a desultory fashion, it poem of over 3000 lines in terza rima, reviewing had time to grow and ripen under his hand ; Don the poetry and poets of the day, was another of Quixote and Sancho, outlines at first, became by his productions at this time. In 1613 he published degrees flesh and blood realities to his mind, and his twelve Novelas, and promised his readers the beings that he loved ; and the book-the second part second part of Don Quixote “shortly.' But in 1614 especially--served him as a kind of commonplacea writer, under the pseudonym of Alonso Fer- book to which he turned to when he was in the nandez de Avellaneda, brought out a spurious mood, making it the depository of his thoughts second part, with an insulting preface, full of and record of the experience and observation of a coarse personal abuse of Cervantes. It was the stirring life. We need not commit the disloyalty work of a dull plagiarist, an imitator insensible of doubting his word when he says that all he to the merits of his model ; but it served as the sought was to cure his countrymen of their passion spur Cervantes needed to urge him to the com for chivalry romances. He had motive enough in pletion of the genuine second part, which was sent the magnitude of the evil, and his was only one to the press early in 1615, and published at the of scores of voices lifted up against it; nor is end of the year. It was not too soon ; his health there anything extraordinary in a champion of was already failing, and he died at Madrid on the true chivalry, as he was, resenting a mockery that 23d of April 1616. His last labours were given made it contemptible. But the genius of Certo things more important in his eyes than Don vantes was essentially discursive, and many other Quixote. While it was in the press he revised offenders and offences were comprehended in the and published his rejected comedies and inter indictment that he brought against the romances ludes, and but a short time before his death he of chivalry and their readers. finished his romance of Persiles and Sigismunda. The only complete edition of Cervantes' works There are few pieces of his writing more charac is that of Rivadeneyra (in 12 vols. large Svo, teristic of the man than the last two that ever Madrid, 1863-64). Editions of the selected works came from his pen-written, indeed, upon his very are those of Ibarra (16 vols. small 8vo, Madrid, deathbed-the address to the reader and the dedi 1803-5), Bossange (10 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1826), cation to the Conde de Lemos, whose generosity and vol. i. of the Biblioteca de Autores Españoles had relieved him from the pressure of poverty ; (Madrid, 1846). Of Don Quixote in the original and, like every glimpse of himself that his pages about 150 editions are known, and more than give us, they make us wish that we knew more double that number of editions in other languages. of one so full of wisdom, patience, and charity, so The first worthy of the book was Tonson's (London, bright and so brave.

1738, in 4 vols, Ato); other notable ones are the AcaIt is in right of Don Quixote that the name of demy edition (4 vols. 4to, Madrid 1780); Bowle's Cervantes has a place here; but his minor works (6 vols. 4to, Salisbury and Lond. 1781); Pellicer's entitle him to an honourable one in the history of (5 vols. 8vo, Madrid, 1797-98); Clemencin's (6 vols. Spanish literature. His novels are the best of 4to, Madrid, 1833-39), with exhaustive commentary their kind-a kind Spain excelled in ; and though and notes ; Hartzenbusch's, in vols. ii.-vi. of the Galatea is doubtless inferior to the Diana, its the complete works, and also in 4 vols. small greatest fault is that, like the Diana, it belongs 8vo. 1863, a beautiful pocket edition printed to a radically insipid species of romance. The at Argamasilla, in the house which was, accordtitle of poet is commonly denied him ; but if a ing to local tradition, the prison of Cervantes; in good deal of his poetry is weak, there is much these last the editor has in many instances restored that only a poet could have written, and not even the text of the first edition, but in many also Garcilaso had a finer sense of melody or a truer recklessly tampered with it. F. Lopez Fabra's touch in verse. It would be unjust to judge of '(2 vols. 4to, Barcelona, 1871-74) is an admirable his dramatic powers by the comedies printed in reproduction by photography of the first edition. 1615. They were nothing more than a desperate The claim of Señor Ortego's edition (Palencia, attempt to gain a footing on the stage by a con. 1884) to give corrections made by Cervantes himcession to the popular taste. To found a great self cannot be seriously maintained. There are national drama worthy of his country was the translations in fourteen languages. The oldest is ambition of his life, and the first step was to the English by Shelton, made in 1608 and printed obtain a hearing. The tragedy of Numancia, 1612 (second part, 1620), a vigorous but rude and with all its defects the most powerful and original inaccurate version. Other English translations are drama in the language, is a better measure of those of Phillips (1689), Motteux (1702), Jervas Cervantes as a dramatist. And if it is impossible (commonly called Jarvis, 1742), Smollett (1755), to accept his own estimate of the Persiles and A. J. Duffield (3 vols. 8vo, 1881), John Ormsby (4 Sigismunda, no reader will deny its invention and vols. Svo, 1885), and H. E. Watts (5 vols. 4to, 1888 grace of style. His minor works all show signs et seq.). In French there are nine versions, besides of the author's care; Don Quixote, on the other abridgments: the oldest is Oudin's (printed in1616), hand, is the most carelessly written of all great the best Viardot's (1836). In German there are no books. Cervantes, it is plain, did not look upon less than thirteen, from the earliest in 1621 to the it in that light. He was very proud of its popu. latest and best by Ludwig Braunfels in 1883-84. larity ; but all he ever claims for it is that it will There are as many as ten Russian versions, but amuse, and that it did the state some service in most of these are from the French, or abridgments. laughing chivalry romances out of fashion. He | Franciosini's Italian version appeared as early as wrote it by fits and starts; he neglected it for his | 1622, and has been followed by two others; and other works; he sent it to the printers without there are versions in Dutch, Danish, Polish, Porturevision, and made merry over their blunders and guese, Swedish, Hungarian, Bohemian, Servian, his own oversights. But it may be that we owe and Greek. The best Life of Cervantes is by more to this carelessness than we think. One of | Navarrete; but there is also a good one by D.

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Geronimo Moran attached to the édition de luxe and summary method of distributing a small estate of Don Quirote, in 3 vols. imp. 4to, Madrid, 1863. among the creditors. The petition must be pre

Cervet'ri (from Cære Vetus), a village of Italy, sented in the sheriff-court either by a creditor or 19 miles WNW. of Rome, on the site of the ancient by the notour bankrupt himself. Notice is given ('one or A gylla, formerly one of the most important in the Gazette, there is a meeting of creditors, the cities of Etruria. Conquered and degraded by the debtor is publicly examined, the sheriff grants a Ramans in 353 B.C., ít experienced but a brief decree appointing a trustee and ordering the debtor

reDewal of prosperity under the empire as a water to convey all his estate (except working tools, · ing place (the warm Bagni del Sasso, still used), alimentary funds, and future acquisitions) to the

and finally fell into decay in the 13th century. | trustee, who then ranks the various claims on the Many Etruscan remains have been found near by. estate, subject to an appeal to the sheriff. A most Cer'vidze and Cervus. See DEER.

| important change was introduced by the Bank

ruptcy and Cessio Act, 1881, which provides for the Cervin, MOXT. See MATTERHORN.

first time that the debtor under a cessio may Cesalpino. See CÆSALPINUS.

obtain a statutory discharge, but only if he pays Cesarewitch. See CZAR.

58. per £1, or satisfies the sheriff that failure to pay

such a dividend is not due to his fault. The proCesari, GIT'SEPPE (sometimes called ARPINO), cess of cessio must be distinguished in some of its an Italian painter, born at Arpino about 1568, effects from the English and American assignment wa greatly honoured by no less than five popes, for the benefit of creditors under insolvent statutes. and died at Rome, 3d July 1640. His works-in See BANKRUPTCY, SEQUESTRATION ; Goudy on fresco and oil-display lively imagination, and Bankruptcy (1886). great tact in execution.

Cesspool. See SEWAGE. Cesarotti, MELCHIORE, an excellent Italian poet, was born 15th May 1730, at Padua, where he

Cestoid Worms (Cestoda), an order of flat Elled the Greek and Hebrew chairs. He gained

worms (Plathelminthes), of internal parasitic a reputation by his translation of Macpherson's

habit, and generally known as Tapeworms (q.v.). I DONN (1763). "The versification of this work, like

The adult consists of an asexual 'head,' attached that of his free translation of the Niad, under the

by hooks or suckers or both to the host, and title of La Morte di Ettore, was admired by Alfieri,

budding off a long chain of flat sexual, hermaphroand ('esarotti unquestionably threw fresh life into

dite joints,' which become mature at a certain Italian literature. He also wrote on the philosophy

distance from the head,' have a measure of inlanguage and of taste. His Lingue (8 vols.

dividuality and independence, and are eventually 11331 and Ragionamento sulla Filosofia del Gusto

expelled. There is no alimentary canal nor vas. ar buis best works. He died 30 November 1808.

cular system ; the nervous system is usually com

plex, but of a low order ; there is a well-developed (ese'na, a town of Central Italy, 12 miles SE. of excretory system of branching tubes. The reproFurla by rail, with a cathedral and a trade in silk, ductive organs of the joints' are usually very sine, bemp, and sulphur. Cesena gave birth to i complex. The liberated joints' or 'proglottides' Iwo popes-Pius VI. and VII. Pop. (1881) 11,435. break up, and set free embryos, which find their Here Jurat defeated the Austrians, 30th March 1815. way into other hosts, and undergoing considerable

Ces 'nola, CotxT LUIGI PALMA DI, archaeolo change become bladder-worms, develop a head, or pist, was born near Turin, June 29, 1832. He served in some cases heads, and only become sexual when with the Sardinian contingent in the Crimean war, their host is in turn eaten by the original species Tent to New York in 1860, and served as a volunteer in which the tapeworm flourished. There is thus in tbe civil war. Appointed American consul at an alternation of generations between the asexual (sprus in 1865, he commenced a series of excava. , bladder-worm and the sexual tapeworm. The order tions which he continued for about ten years with includes about 25 genera and 500 species, mostly the must remarkable success. His splendid collec. parasitic in vertebrates. The genus Tania (tape. tion of statues and figures, lamps, vases, inscrip. | worm) includes more than half the known species. tions, and other antiquities, was opened in New | The Cestodes are linked to the tiukes or Trematodes York in 1972 as the Cesnola Collection of Cyprian by forms like Amphilina, Caryophylleus, and ArchAntiquitirs Doubts expressed in 1879 as to the igetes, which have no joints, and a single reproauthenticity of part of the collection were proved to

ductive system ; and there is a well-inarked series begandlers. His chief work is ('yprus, its ancient from these up to the most specialised Tænia. pa , Tombs, and Temples (1877).

Echineibothrium, Phyllobothrium, Anthobothrium, (es pedes, PABLO DE, Spanish painter, born

Acanthobothrium, Tetrarhynchus, Ligula (q.v.),

Bothriocephalus (q.v.), are the important genera * Cardova in 1536, studied at Rome under Michaeli Angelo and Raphael, and in 1577 became a pre

wichael , besides Tænia. See TAPEWORMS ; also BLADDERolary at ('ordova, where he established a school

|| WORM, PARASITISM, and Leuckart's Parasites of

V. e art, and was also active as an architect, trt, and writer. He died 26th July 1608.

Cestracion, a genus of sharks, regarded as Cess (short for assess ). See LAND-TAX.

constituting a distinct family, Centraciontidre, al.

though not more than four species are known as Cessio Bonorum (Lat. cession or surrender now existing. It is characterised by having two of we'l, a process which the law of Scotland, dorsal fins and one anal, the first dorsal situated browed from that of Rome, and which also over the space between the pectorals and ventrals; appear in most of the continental systems. On a spine forming the front of each dorsal; a short mag a surrender of estate to his creditors, the wide tail, with its upper lobe strongly notched deltar was granted a judicial protection from im., beneath; the month at the fore end of the shout; pisment in respect of all debts then due by him. I spiracles distinctly visible, rather behind the eyes ;

As lowever, imprisonment for debt was abolished , and small gill-openings. The front of the mouth by the Debtors Act, 1880, except in the case of is armed with obtuse angular teeth, whilst the me and taxes due, cessio as a process for the margins and inner surface of the jaws are covered potertin or liberation from imprisonment of in- with pavement-like teeth, presenting a general

dent debtors is now practically obsolete. The i continuity of surface, as in skates, and disposed Art 1890, however, introduced a new process of in rounded oblique scrolls--the former evidently

to, resembling sequestration, and really a cheap adapted to the seizing of food, the latter to the

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crushing and bruising of it. They are of obvious neck indistinct; there is generally a median dorsal use with a diet of hard-shelled crustaceans and fin, and the tail has lateral flukes; the fore-limbs

are reduced to paddles, the hind-limbs are at most represented by slight internal traces; the skin is smooth, and, with the occasional exception of a. few bristles near the mouth, hairless; there is a thick layer of fat or blubber under the skin which serves instead of hair as a heat-retainer. The eye is small, there is no external ear, the nostrils are situated vertically. The bones are spongy and oily, the neck vertebræ are compressed and often fused, there is no union to form a sacrum. The skull is peculiarly modified, the brain-case being high, and the front part prolonged into more or less of a snout. There are no collar-bones ; the bones of the arm are flattened and stiff; the joints of the second and third fingers are always above the normal number; the whole arm forms a flipper; the hip-girdle and hind-leg are degenerate. In one group teeth are absent except in the fætus, and are replaced by "whalebone' growths from the

palate; in no case is there more than one set of Upper Jaw of Port-Jackson Shark (Cestracion philippi). I teeth. The stomach has several chambers ; the

| intestine is simple. The liver is less divided than molluscs. The front teeth are sharp in the young, usual, and there is no gall-bladder. The bloodforms. The egg-case has two curious spiral ridges i vessels form wonderful networks (retia mirabilia ).

surrounding it. The Port-Jackson The top of the windpipe is prolonged forwards so Shark, or Nurse' (C. philippi) of as to form, when embraced by the soft palate, a the Australian seas, and the Cat

continuous air-passage from nostrils to lungs. Shark of Japan and China (C. The brain is large. The placenta is ‘non-decidnate zebra), seem to differ chiefly in the and diffuse. The teats are two in number, and patterns of colour. None exceed lie beside the female genital aperture; the milk five feet in length. The Cestra.

is squeezed into the mouth of the sucking young. ciontidæ are particularly interest

The Cetacea are widely distributed in all seas ing to geologists, for the oldest

and in some large rivers. They swim powerfully, fossil sharks belong in great part to and the tail works up and down, not sideways. this family. The remains are They rise to the surface to breathe, and do not found even in the Palæozoic strata;

spout sea-water from their blowholes. The expira. they become more numerous in the tion is periodic and violent, and the forcibly exCarboniferous series ; they are very

pelled air being laden with water, vapour may numerous in the Lias and Chalk 'condense in a pillar of fine spray, or the ascending Outside view of formations ; but there they cease column may carry up some surface sea-water along of almost entirely, the strata of the 1 with it, but it must be recognised that the process Cestracion Tertiary series containing scarcely is simply that of ordinary expiration in peculiar philippi. any of them.' In modern times the conditions. They are mostly inoffensive, generally species are reduced, as we have

social in habit, vary from 4 to 60 feet in length, seen, to four at most, and other types of shark

and feed on jelly-fish, crustaceans, pteropods, have become more prevalent. The fossil forms

cuttlefish, fishes, and in one genus (Orca) on seals were abundant, also much larger, and the cestra

and on other whales. cions thus furnish a particularly good illustration

Two very distinct series have to be distinguished of a decadent family.

-(a) the Toothed Whales or Odontoceti, and (6) Cestui que Trust, a person for whom another the Baleen Whales or Mystacoceti. The fornier is a trustee. The term is Norman-French, and include Sperm Whales (Physeter), the Bottlenose means in English law, and also in the United (Hyperoodon), the genus Platanista and its allies, States, exactly what Beneficiary (q.v.) means in and the great family of Dolphins (q.v.). The Scots law.

latter sub-order includes the Right Whale ( Balæna), Cestus (Gr. kestos, embroidered'), a girdle | the Humpbacks' (Megaptera), and the Rorquals worn by Greek and Roman women, but at what (Balænoptera). part of the body is somewhat uncertain. It was In the Eocene, Cetacea are represented by primi. worn apparently between the cingulum, which was tive, less specialised forms, known as Zeuglodons, a sash or girdle over the tunic just under the but the remains are, as one would expect, somebosom, and the zone, worn mostly by young un what fragmentary, and the conclusions to be drawn married women lower down the body, just above from them very uncertain. In Miocene and Pliothe hips. According to Winckelmann, the cestus cene strata still more fragmentary cetacean remains was itself worn round the loins ; according to have been found, and are grouped together in the Heyne and Visconti, immediately under the bosom. genus Squalodon. The cestus of Aphrodite was covered with such There is much doubt and dispute in regard to the allaring representations of the joys of love that she origin and affinities of Cetacea. They are related who wore it was irresistible. It was borrowed by by some to Carnivores, but the researches of ProHera when she desired to win the love of Zeus. fessor Flower have made it more probable that they -CESTU's, or more correctly, C.ESTI's, the boxing have much closer affinities with t'ngulates. He gauntlets worn by the ancient prize-fighters, which regards it as not unlikely that the whole group had consisted of leather thongs bound round the hands a fresh-water origin. Fuller details must be sought and wrists. They sometimes reached as high up as under the article WHALE. See Flower's article the elbows, and were armed with lead or metal · Mammali. "Ency. Brit. bosses to increase the force of the blow.

Ceteo (ketos, “whale;' sauros, lizard'), Cetacea, an order of mammals, of aquatic a large code 2 reptile belonging to the habit and fish-like form. The head is large, the Jurassic

According to Professor

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Phillips, it may have reached a length of 50 feet, several sieges by the Moors (1694-1720 and 1732), and when 'standing at ease' was probably not less and is still the most important of the four African than 10 feet in height and of a bulk in proportion. | Presidios (q.v.). It appears to have frequented the marshes and | Cevadilla. See SABADILLA. river sides of the period, and to have been a vege.

Cévennes (ancient Cebenna), the chief moun. table-feeder. The word is also spelt Cetiosaurus.

tain-range in the south of France. With its conCetewayo. See Zull's.

tinuations and offsets, it forms the watershed Cetinje (also spelt Cettigné), capital of Monte between the river-systems of the Rhone and the negro, lies in a rocky valley 2093 feet above sea. Loire and Garonne. Its general direction is from lesel, and 17 miles E. of Cattaro, with which it is north-east to south-west, commencing at the connected by a carriage road. It is the residence of southern extremity of the Lyonnais Mountains, the prince, and of an archimandrite, and consists of and extending under different local names as far as an tinpretentious palace, a few private houses, an the Canal du Midi, which divides it from the abtrey, yaol, arsenal, theatre ( which serves also for northern slopes of the Pyrenees. The Cevennes the state library and national museum), hospital, extend for over 150 miles, through or into nine theological seminary, gymnasium, and a girl's high departments. The central mass lying in Lozère school, maintained at the charge of the Empress of and Ardèche, where Mont Lozère attains 5584 feet, Rusis Behind the palace is an elm, under which and Mont Mézenc (the culminating point of the the prince delivers judgments. Pop. 1200.

chain ) 5754 feet. The average height is from 3000 Cetotolites, a name given by Owen to fossil to 4000 feet. The mountains consist chiefly of cetacean ear-bones, which occur in great abund. primary rocks, covered with tertiary formations, ance in the Red Crag of Suffolk (see PLIOCENE). which in many places are interrupted by volcanic They are rubbed and water-worn, and have rocks. For the religious wars of which the Cevennes evidently been washed out of some earlier strata, have been the arena, see ALBIGENSES, CAMISARDS, which remain yet unrecognised. The extent of WALDENSES; and for a vivid description of the these earlier strata must have been very great, scenery and the peasantry, Mr R. L. Stevenson's bring that the crag beds now extend over a large Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879). district in Essex and Suffolk, and attain a thick Ceylaniter See SPINEL. Des in some places of not less than 40 feet. Ceylon (the Taprobane of the Greeks and Professor Henslow in 1843 drew the attention of Romans, and the Serendib of the Arabian Nights), ayricaltural chemists to this deposit as a source of an island and British crown colony in the Indian materials for manure, and since then superphos. Ocean, to the south-east of India, from which it is phate manures have been manufactured from it to the value of many thousand pounds annually ; a stnking example of the valuable practical results

CEYLON whirh frequently flow from a purely scientific dis. lo NDIA auery.

English Miles

2510 20 30 40 59 Cette, an important seaport town of France, in the department of Hérault, is built on a neck of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 miles SW. of Montpellier. The space Irkosed by the piers and breakwater forming the

Choendic-colom bartwar can accommodate about 400 vessels; and

Ramiseram the harbour is defended by forts. A broad deep

MAlativu canal, lined with excellent quays, connects the port with the Lake of Thau, and so with the Canal du

A PROVINCE Sokelay i and the Rhone, thus giving to Cette an ex.

Alle Mand Grants Tank

Naber tensive inland traffic; it has likewise an active Gulf of Aripo o


d foreign commerce. The principal trade is in wine, Μαηαα

Tankla Trincomalee

Madawatch brandy, salt, dried fruits, fish, dyestuffs, per Kara-tivo IN ) NORTH CENTRAL Gottlar famery. and verdigris. Cette has shipbuilding

Kolasharadhapura Mihintate Katlan



i nge Aaror yands, salt-works, glass-works, factories for the inanufacture of syrups and grape-sugar, &c.

Valowe TAMAN


Pollmay e ndeloos a resort for sea-bathing, and has extensive

NORTH feberie Colbert founded it in 1666. Pop. (1872)


Batticaloa 23.151: (1886) 36,762.


Ceuta, a fortified port belonging to Spain, on

Kurunegalas the coast of Morocco, opposite Gibraltar. The

Negombo, town oocupies the site of the Roman colony of Ad Septem Fratres, so called from the seven hills rising R KelaniGanga bere in a group, of which the most prominent are

COLOMBO 8 Muotes Almina and Hacho; on the latter, the sarient Abyla one of the Pillars of Hercules), is a

Kalutara trag fort, and on the former, among beautiful

Bentotos gardens, lies the New Town. Ceuta contains a

Palata pane cathedral, a hospital, and convents, but is chiefly

Hambanota kmportance as a military and convict station.

Pt.deGalle The harbour is small, and exposed to the north, hat has a lighthouse and some small trade. The mixed population number about 9700. The pare was a flourishing mart under the Arabs, who certapted its Roman name to Sebtah; there the Erot paper manufactory in the Western world is mid to have been established by an Arab who had eraght the industry from China. In 1415 it was separated by the Gulf of Manaar and Palk Strait, captured by the Portuguese, and annexed to 32 to 120 miles broad. It lies between 3° 53 and Portugal; it fell to Spain in 1580. It has resisted | 9° 51' N. lat., and 79° 42' and 81° 35' E. long.

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Extreme length from north to south, from Point which provides safe anchorage for ships of any size Palmyra to Dondera Head, 266 miles ; greatest in all weather, has concentrated the commerce of width, from Colombo to Sangemankande, 140 miles. the island there, and has also attracted from Galle Area, 24,702 sq. m., of which more than one-fifth the mail and passenger steamers from Europe, is under cultivation.

India, Australia, and China, which used to coal Physical Features.-In natural scenery Ceylon and tranship at Galle. At Trincomalee are the can vie with any part of the world ; and as it rises navai stores and dockyard, and the harbour is the from the ocean, clothed with the rich luxuriance of | finest in eastern waters. a tropical vegetation, it seems to the voyager like In climate, Ceylon has a great advantage over some enchanted island of Eastern story. Its hills, the mainland of India, and as an island enjoys a ‘draped with forests of perennial green,' tower more equable temperature. The average for the grandly from height to height, till they are lost in year in Colombo (q.v.) is 80° in ordinary seasons. clouds and mist. Near at hand, a sea of sapphire | April is the hottest month; and in May the southblue dashes against the battlemented rocks that west monsoon commences amid a deluge of rain, occur at isolated points, and the yellow strands are and continues the prevailing wind till October, shaded by groves of noble palms. In shape Ceylon when the north-east monsoon sets in : 80 inches is resembles a pear, but its inhabitants more poetically the average annual fall of rain, though in an compare it to one of their elongated pearls. Un. exceptional year 120 inches have been registered. dulating plains cover about four parts of the island, The beautiful tableland of Nuwara-Eliya was first and the fifth is occupied by the mountain-zone of visited by Europeans in 1826, and is now used as the central south, which has an elevation of from a sanatorium. Here the thermometer in the shade 6000 to 8000 feet above the sea-level. Pedrotalla- never rises above 70°, while the average is 62° ; the galla, the highest mountain in the range, attains nights are cool and refreshing. The north of the the height of 8260 feet; the celebrated mountain of island, including the peninsula of Jaffna, the Adam's Peak, 7420 feet; and the tableland of plains of Nuwara-Kalawa, and the Wanny, may be Nuwara Eliya, 6210 feet.

reckoned as a third climatic division. Here the Geology. - The mountain-system is mainly com- annual fall of rain does not exceed 30 inches, and posed of metamorphic rocks, chiefly gneiss, fre. | irrigation is largely employed in agriculture. quently broken up by intrusive granite. With the Flora.- The general botanical features of Ceylon exception of some local beds of dolomitic limestone, are in many respects similar to those of Southern the gneiss is everywhere the surface rock, and the India. A very large number of the species of plants soil is composed of its disintegrated materials. is, however, peculiar to the island. About 800 species The northern part of the island is rising; and the (nearly 30 per cent. of the whole number found in immense masses of corals continually increasing, | Ceylon) are endemic-that is, found nowhere else retain the debris brought from the Indian continent in the world. The tree-vegetation of the forests by the currents of the sea, and thus form a flat, is almost wholly composed of such endemic species, ever-increasing madrepore plain.

and not a few of endemic genera. The affinities Metals and Precious Stones.--Iron can be obtained and near alliances of these are with the plants of in great quantities, and anthracite and rich veins the Malay Islands and Peninsula. Hence, to of plumbago exist on the southern range of hills. speak more correctly, the flora of Ceylon partakes Gold has recently been found. The gems of of an Indian as well as a Malayan character, but Ceylon have been celebrated from time immemorial. is identical with neither. As may be expected Sapphires, rubies, the oriental topaz, garnets, from the climatic peculiarities of the country amethysts, cinnamon stone, and cat's-eye are the the flora is greatly diversified. In the south-west principal gems and precious stones of the island. mountainous parts of the island, with the excepThe declared value of the precious stones exported tion of some grassy tracts called patanas and the is about £10,000 annually ; but as large numbers plantations of tea, coffee, and cinchona, the slopes are purchased by passengers calling at Colombo and summits are forest-clad. The trees are everand by native merchants for sale in Southern India, green, with thick coriaceous leaves, growing closely the actual value is doubtless very far in excess of together and forming dark jungles. The underthe sum named. The pearl-fisheries of Ceylon were growth is largely made up of gregarious plants known at a very remote date in the commercial known as Nilu, species of the genus Strobilanthes, history of the world. Under the Portuguese and which only flower at regular intervals of five, Dutch governments, and now under the British six, or seven years. Tree-ferns, often 25 feet in government, the pearl-fisheries form a monopoly, height, scarlet-flowering rhododendrons, numerous and are under the inspection of an officer, who tufted bamboos, melastomads, and orchids are reports when a sufficient number of pearl-yielding found in mountain forests. In the low country oysters have reached maturity, and when the pro the vegetation is marked by the prevalence of spect of a successful fishing is thus probable. palms, the cocoa-nut being pre-eminent. The The fishings are intermittent and occur at irreg. | beautiful areca-palm, the feathery jaggery or ular dates. In 1863 the value of pearls obtained kitul, and the fordly talipat are the glories of was £56,000; in 1874, it was £10,000; in 1877, Ceylon lowland vegetation. In the recesses of £19,000; in 1879-80, £29,500; in 1881, £59,800 ; low-country forests the trees are high and closely in 1887, £39,000; and in the intermediate periods packed. Amongst the timber-trees the most between these dates there was practically no fishing valuable are the calamander, satin-wood, and at all.

ebony. Two very interesting and peculiarly Rivers,—The most important river in Ceylon is slender tree-ferns grow in the hot steamy forests the Mahavila-ganga. It has its source in the of Ceylon, as also the most admired of Ceylon vicinity of Adam's Peak, and after draining more orchids, Dendrobium Maccarthice. There has been than 4000 sq. m., it separates into several branches, extensive cutting down of forest in the mountains and enters the ocean near Trincomalee. The south of Ceylon to establish plantations, and the lowside of the island is watered by ten rivers of con- lands have suffered no less severely by the indolent siderable size.

and improvident practice of native cultivation. Harbours.-Galle, at the southern extremity of As a consequence numerous foreign weeds, such Ceylon, and Trincomalee on the eastern coast, are as the lantana, white weed, and Spanish needle, the only natural harbours capable of containing have established themselves to the exclusion of ships of large draught. The construction of a native vegetation in the hills; while in the low. breakwater at Colombo, the capital of the island, lands coarse grasses and worthless scrub have

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