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2d. The conduct of the Apostolick Junta, which holds great sway over the Spanish Government. That Junta, whose ramifications extend to Portugal, is composed of Men, who, covering themselves with the mask of Religion and of Royalism, conceal the most horrid crimes - that infamous Institution is undoubtedly the most baneful pest of modern Society, and ought to be accounted the most formidable enemy of the throne, the altar, and civilization.

3d. The embarrassed state of the negotiations, owing to the Marquis de Moustier, Ambassador of France, in Madrid. This Ambassador must not be confounded with the Government which he represents: from the latter, as I have already observed, we have received the strongest assurances of friendship, and I have, as I ought to have, the fullest confidence in its sincerity; but, I repeat it, the Marquis de Moustier, by not chusing to comply with the lostructions he received from his Govern. ment, acted very inimically to the cause of Portugal, and rendered the kind offices which His Most Christian Majesty was pleased to offer to us nugatory.

I think it right; no longer to take up the attention of the Chamber; but should it think proper to take a more enlarged view of the state of our relations with Spain, I shall be enabled to lay before it all the Correspondence which I have had with the Mission at Madrid, and all other Documents which can in any way tend to elucidate the merits of the question, That


be useful to my Country, and that I may always deserve the name of a Portuguese, is the only glory to which I aspire.


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MESSAGE of the President of The United States to Con

gress, transmitting Correspondence with The Netherlands, relating to Discriminating Duties.-18th January, 1827.

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To the House of Representatives of the United States.

Washington, 18th January, 1827. In compliance with a Resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 6th instant, I transmit, herewith, a Report from the Secretary of State, together with Copies of the Correspondence with the Govern, ment of The Netherlands, relating to discriminating duties.


Department of State, 17th January, 1827, The Secretary of State, to whom has been referred the Resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 6th instant, requesting the President to communicate to the House, if compatible with the publick

Laws referred to in Mr. Everett's Note herein before-mentioned, of the 7th March, 1823, so far as they have an unequal operation upon the Vessels of The United States, in comparison with Dutch Vessels, have been modified or repealed. It will afford the President much satisfaction to find, in your answer, that the contingency provided for in the third section of the Act of the 7th January, 1824, has not arisen, and, consequently, that it is not his duty immediately to withdraw from Dutch Vessels the privileges which they now enjoy in the Ports of The United States, equal with their own Vessels.

I pray you, Sir, to accept, &c. The Chevalier Huygens.


(2.)-The Chevalier Huygens to the Secretary of State. (Translation.)

Washington, 12th December, 1825. The Undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of The Netherlands, near The United States of America, has had the honour to receive the Note which Mr. Clay, Secretary of State, addressed to him, dated the 10th of this month, relative to representations made in 1823 and 1824, by the Chargé d'Affaires of The United States, near the Government of The Netherlands, against a deviation from the admission, at duties equal with the National Ships, of American Vessels in the Ports of The Netherlands, caused by certain fixations of duties in the Tariff of The Netherlands.

The Undersigned, not being furnished with Instructions in regard to this question, regrets, exceedingly, his inability to answer, in a positive manner, the demand, contained in the aforesaid Note: “ If the Laws which gave rise to the representations of Mr. Everett, in 1823, so far as they operate unequally upon American Vessels, in comparison with the Vessels of The Netherlands, have been modified or repealed ?"

The Undersigned thought that the differences, in this regard, had been discussed or explained between Mr. Everett and Mr. Reinhold, charged at that time with the Port Folio of Foreign Affairs, and that the result of this discussion was not of a nature to suppose than an uniformity of measures between the two Governments was far distant. It may be that the change of Persons in the mutual Missions, and the interruption of diplomatick relations, have been the cause that the state of the question is such as is represented, without being removed or decided.

The Undersigned, however, believes to a certainty, that his Go. vernment, having adopted a system of reciprocity, in its commercial Relations with friendly Powers, is always disposed to apply this system in regard to The United States.

The Undersigned ought to confine himself to the preceding answer to the above mentioned Note of the Secretary of State, but he hastened to inform his Government, whose instructions upon the subject he has demanded.

He prays Mr. Clay to accept, &c. The Hon. H. Clay.


(3.)- Mr. Clay to the Chevalier Huygens. Sir,

Department of State, Washington, 24th Dec. 1825. I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Note of the 12th instant, which has been laid before the President. Some surprise is felt that you have no Instructions on the subject of the inequality of duties, against which Mr. Everett remonstrated both to Mr. Reinhold and his Predecessor. Considering the nature of that inequality, and the time which has elapsed since its injustice was clearly demonstrated by Mr. Everett, to the Government of His Majesty the King of The Netherlands, it was expected that you would have been fully authorized to give the requisite assurances of its being done away. Since you have no such authority, and have referred home for Instructions, the President, willing to give a new proof of his desire to cultivate the most amicable relations with the Government of The Netherlands, will refrain, until he receive an answer, from exercising the power with which he is invested by the Act of Congress referred to in my

former Note. That Act leaving him no alternative, in the event of the persistance of your Government in maintaining the inequality alluded to, it is expected, after all that has occurred, that you will lose no time in obtaining, and communicating to this Department, information whether it be intended so to persist or not.

I pray you to accept, &e. The Chevalier Huygens.


(4.)— The Chevalier Huygens to the Secretary of Statc. (Translation.)

Washington, 27th December, 1825. The Undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of The Netherlands, has the honour to acknowledge the receipt of the Note which Mr. Clay, Secretary of State, addressed to him, on the 24th of this month, to communicate to him the friendly intentions of the President, with regard to the expectation of an answer or decision of his Government, on the representations made by Mr. Everett, respecting an inequality of the duties of tonnage borne by American ships, in comparison of those borne by Vessels of The Netherlands. The Undersigned returns his thanks for this communication, and for the desire which it expresses, of cultivating the most friendly relations with the Government of The Netherlands, and will hasten to transmit it, as he has not failed to do, with the pre

ceding Note of the Secretary of State, of the 10th of this month, upon the same subject; aud sure of the reciprocal sentiments entertained by His Majesty the King of The Netherlands, for The United States, the Undersigned Aatters himself that he will receive, with the least possible delay, the Instructions required. The Hon. H. Clay.


(5.)-Mr. Clay to Mr. Hughes. (Extract.) Department of State, Washington, 27th April, 1826.

I have received no assurance from Mr. Huygens that the inequality in the Ports of The Netherlands, between American and Dutch Vessels, which forms the topic of my Letter to him, under date of the 10th of December last, has been removed. You will again bring that subject before the Government of The Netherlands, and express the just expectation of the President, that it should be, forth with, done away, if it yet continues in operation. Mr. Hughes, Chargé d'Affaires U.S.



(6.)-The Chevalier Huygens to the Secretary of State.-(Translation.)

Washington, 15th September, 1826. FURNISHED with Instructions relative to the demands which you did me the honour to address to me, on the 10th and 24th of December, 1825, in regard to an article in the Tariff of The Netherlands, of the 22d August, 1822, which grants a restitution of 10 per cent. on the duties of merchandise imported and exported under the National Flag, I am now authorized to explain to the Government of The United States, the system which governed that of The Netherlands in this matter.

When, in 1817, negotiations were commenced between the two Governments, to relieve the languishing and interrupted commerce between the two Nations, and to favour their relations, it was intended to obtain, by mutual concessions, reciprocal advantages. At this period, the Flag of The United States already enjoyed in The Netherlands all the advantages which flowed from the liberal system which was then predominant. This system preceded what The United States wished to obtain; for, by the legislation of The Netherlands, the Americans were permitted to import and export any productions, without exception of origin, upon paying the same duties as National Vessels, with the exception of only a few articles. The Americans were, besides, permitted to navigate to the Colonies of The Netherlands.

The Government of The Netherlands does not think new concessions necessary, to strengthen the existing grievances against the discriminating duties which press upon its commerce in America. It is also authorized to think, that the Report of the American Commissioners, upon the fruitless issue of the above-mentioned Conferences,

directed Congress in its deliberations, on the passage of the Act of 20th April, 1818.

This Act was considered in The Netherlands as a commencement of a system of reciprocity; and they flattered themselves, it is true, that the advantages granted by this Act to the National Flag, over the Flags of other Nations, would have a salutary effect upon the Navigation, and produced the hope that it would pave the way to the establishment of the ancient commercial relations between the two Countries.

But experience has proved, that the direct relations continue languishing, and that the American flag alone possessed the advantages which the liberal system in The Netherlands presented to it. It was observed that, during six years, no amelioration took place in the direct navigation of The Netherlands in The United States, and that, during this time, the Flag of The Netherlands had scarcely participated in it.

From Rotterdam, where, formerly, the commerce with America had been very active, not a single Vessel under the National Flag had been despatched; from Amsterdam and Antwerp, the number was confined to a few. On the contrary, these Ports had been visited by a number of American Ships.

These, therefore, have alone derived the advantages of the equality of duties, whilst the Ships of The Netherlands have obtained, if I may so speak, no benefit from the Act of 20th April, 1818; and if this Act was not sufficient to encourage new speculations, and to excite emulation in the Flag of The Netherlands, it ought to be still less expected from that of the 7th January, 1824. This Act, instead of fulfilling the concession which might, in justice, be expected, diminishes the advantages stipulated by the former. This general measure, granting to almost all the commercial Nations of Europe, rights which had been granted, fately, to The Netherlands alone, by generalizing them, dispelled the illusion, if I may so speak, of the advantages which the Act of the 20th April, 1818, had produced.

In this state of affairs, the Government of The Netherlands did not expect a renewal of the representations against the 10th Article of the Law of 26th August, 1822. It flattered itself that the Government of The United States had admitted the explanation, “ that, by the Tariff of The Netherlands, the duties of entry and clearance are, in general, the same for all Foreign, and the National, Flags, and that the reimbursement of the 10 per cent. only aimed at the encouragement of maritime building, and can only be considered as a premium, or gratification."

In effect, this 10 per cent. is not a diminution of the duties of navigation, properly speaking, because it is not calculated by the capaciousness of the Ships, but is granted upon the duties of entry for merchandize loaded on National Ships, and is, consequently, entirely

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