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of the best land, the value of which, at the time of Peace, cannot be calculated at less than 10,000,000 of hard dollars, it being known that the value of lands has risen within the last 3 Years more than in a geometrical ratio. With these data, the Chamber should not hesitate to adopt the Project which the Government submits, (No. 5.) Experience will demonstrate that credit is the art of adding to our real fortune an artificial fortune, which in time becomes real.
The duties imposed by the Law of the General Congress, of 27th July last, on the export and import of products and commodities to and from the Provinces of the Interior being inconvenient, in as much as they shackled industry, and tended only to corrupt the honesty of trade, are suppressed in the Project (No. 6.)
The Government has the satisfaction of announcing to the Province, that the good Argentines and the Loyal Foreign Friends, have offered resources to accelerate the day of Peace by the triumph of reason; and, on taking leave of their Honourable Representatives, the Government seizes the occasion of fulfilling a duty which is very grateful to it, by offering its thanks to all the Citizens who have contributed to establish a system of Revenue, which the Legislature will consoli. date and perfect, since without it there is nothing but error and danger. MANUEL DORREGO.
JOSE MARIA ROXAS.
Then follow the Projects of Law alluded to in the Message.
No. 1, recognizes the liability of the Province for all the Debts of the State, &c.
No. 2, guarantees the value of 10,215,639 dollars, composing the circulation of the Bank on the 31st of August preceding, 2,000,000 of which, now in the hands of the Government, is to be applied to the liquidation thereof; and places the Bank under the immediate inspection of Government. By one of the Articles of this Project, the Bank is prohibited from issuing more Paper than it has at present in circulation. By another Article, the Government engages to pay the whole of the money which it owes to the Bank, in the course of 4 Years after the Peace.
No. 3, contains regulations for alienating or leasing Publick Lands for 10 Years, from the 1st January, 1828, on payment of 2 per cent. on the value of the lands, with a right of renewing the contract.
No. 4, continues the Law for direct contributions until the next Year.
No. 5, has for its object to procure for the Government, authority to negotiate a Loan of 6,000,000 of dollars. The minimum of the terms is fixed at 50 per cent.
No. 6, suppresses the Law of 27th July, imposing duties on exports and imports for the Interior.
MESSAGE of General Freire to the Congress of Chili, on resigning the Supreme Power of the Republick.
2d May, 1827. MESSIEURS,
(Traduction.) Le Présideut de la République a l'honneur de s'adresser pour la seconde fois au Congrès National, afin de le supplier de lui permettre de renoncer à la direction des affaires, et de confier les devoirs difficiles dont il est chargé à un autre Citoyen plus capable de les remplir. Après plusieurs années d'expérience dans l'Administration Publique, le Président Soussigné renonça au Pouvoir Suprême, parce qu'il avait reconnu qu'il lui était impossible d'organiser le Pays dans les circonstances compliquées où il se trouvait. Il aurait pu compromettre les intérêts les plus chers de la Patrie en conservant des fonctions qu'il ne pouvait pas entièrement remplir, et guidé par une aussi importante considération, il se déinit de la direction suprême en Juillet dernier.
Au mois de Janvier suivant, les dissentions tumultueuses qui avaient éclaté dans la Capitale engagèrent le Congrès à l'appeler de nouveau à la tête des affaires; fidèle aux devoirs d'un soldat lorsque le repos de la Patrie est menacé, il se rendit avec empressement aux désirs du Congrès, mais avec la résolution de rentrer dans la vie privée quand les troubles seraient apaisés. En conséquence, aussitôt que la tranquillité fut rétablie, il envoya sa démission au Congrès, qui, au lieu de l'accepter, le confirma solennellement dans sa dignité; mais si cette mesure pénétra le Soussigné de la plus sincère reconnaissance pour l'honneur qui lui était fait, d'un autre côté il ne put que se rappeler douloureusement combien il était peu en état de supporter un pareil fardeau. Il se décida toutefois à faire de nouveaux efforts pour répondre à la confiance du Congrès; mais s'étant convaincu encore une fois qu'il ne possède pas le talent de commander sans Lois, ni de mettre de l'ordre dans le chaos qui afflige le Chili, son devoir est de demander que le Congrès le dispense de l'emploi le plus pénible dont on ait pu le charger.
La vie privée devient nécessaire à la santé chancelante du Soussigné, la lassitude, le dégoût de tant d'années de Gouvernement, la lui font désirer, et la conviction où il est qu'il ne peut faire aucun bien, lui ordonne impérieusement de se retirer. Il y est irrévocablement résolu, et il espère que cette franche manifestation décidera le Congrès à agréer sa démission, bien entendu que le Soussigné se soumettra toujours à la puissance auguste du Congrès, quand il s'agira de l'envoyer au champ de bataille: il se dévoue à tout, sauf à être employé dans le Gouvernement politique du Pays.
Il attend avec impatience une prompte résolution du Congrès sur
l'objet de cette demande, et il a l'honneur de le saluer avec respect et reconnaissance. Palais du Gouvernement de Santiago, le 2 Mai, 1827.
RAMON FREIRE. M. J. GAUDARILLAS.
(Le Général Ramon Freire a été remplacé par le Général Pinto, Vice-Président de la République.]
PROCLAMATION of General Bolivar to the People of
Colombia, on his return from Peru.-230 November, 1826. COLOMBIANS,
(Translation.) Five years have elapsed since I departed from this Capital, to march at the head of the Liberating Army from the Banks of the Cauca to the silvery summits of Potosi. A million of Colombians, two Sister Republicks, have obtained their Independence under the shadow of your standards—and the World of Columbus has ceased to belong to Spain. Such have been the fruits of our absence.
Your misfortunes have called me to Colombia : I come full of zeal to devote myself to the National Will: that shall be my code, because being the Sovereign Power it is infallible.
The National wish compels me to assume the supreme command; I hold it in mortal abhorrence, because through it I am accused of ambition, and of aiming at monarchy. What! am I deemed so senseless as to aspire to my own debasement ?-Who does not know that the station of Liberator is more elevated than that of the Throne ?
Colombians-Once more I submit myself to the overwhelming weight of the magistracy; for, in the hour of danger, my retirement would be deemed cowardice; not moderation nor disinterestedness; but reckon not on me, when the Laws and the People shall have recovered their Sovereign sway. Permit me to serve you then, simply as a Soldier and a true Republican; as a Citizen armed in defence of the beautiful trophies of our victories—YOUR RIGHTS.
BOLIVAR Palace of Government in Bogota, November 23, 1826–16.
MESSAGE of the Vice-President, on the Opening of the Congress of Colombia, 20 January, (12th May) 1827.
(Translation.) FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE SENATE, AND CHAMBER OF
REPRESENTATIVES, I was far from thinking, when I addressed my last Message to you, that I should now have the painful duty of referring to wounds which
the internal events of the Republick opened in our hearts. The order and progress with which Colombia was advancing in her political career, when the last ordinary Session of the Congress commenced, announced days of consolation and tranquillity to the People, and impressed me with the agreeable idea of terminating the period of my administration, by leaving the Republick completely tranquil under the guarantee of its Institutions ; its external Relations established; the sources of National prosperity opened ; the Revenues and the Administration of Justice improved ; Education increasing ; Publick Credit consolidated; the Magazines of War supplied; a competent Maritime Force equipped ; and, what is more, the Spanish Government disposed to concede to us Peace; but Providence, which mocks the projects of Man, to teach us to know our weakness, has permitted that the most melancholy and calamitous events should serve as a trial of our constancy and love of liberty. I proceed to exhibit to you a picture of them, with the correctness and impartiality which my character and representative duties demand; not to afflict you and to dishearten you by affliction, but in order that, knowing the evil, you may be enabled to apply a remedy thereto. What ought to inspire you with confidence in attempting this, is, ou the one hand, the firmness and efficacious co-operation of the Executive Power, and, on the other, the progress which various branches of the Publick Administration bave made, in spite of those agitations which were calculated to impede it.
Endeavours to bring about Peace between Spain and the American States were continuing to be made with the Cabinet of Madrid, by those Powers who, consulting their own interests, had recognized our right to independence, when the events of Valencia, of the 30th of April, took place. The Executive had succeeded in inducing the most respectable Governments to interest themselves in this object, and the principal argument on which they founded their desire of Peace was the internal order and stability of our Institutions. Unfortunately, this basis has lost all its force, and the Negociations have been suspended. The Government of His Catholick Majesty, re-inspired with the hopes of conquest, or at least of invasion, which had long appeared at rest, conceived the idea, as soon as the commotion of Venezuela resounded in its ears, of involving us in a Civil War: but the Executive, without withholding from the restoration of Constitutional order all the attention which its duty imposed, took care to prepare the means of external defence as far as circumstances would permit, and relied tranquilly on the National sentiment, and the well-known valour of the Army. The cartying into effect the hostile views of the Enemy's Government, is now less probable, since its domestic affairs absorb all its attention-since it has lost the Fortified Posts of Ulloa, Callao, and Chiloemand since the Forces which it assembled in the Island of Cuba are reduced. In any event, however, the Colombians well know how to defend and
preserve their Independence, with the same glory with which they acquired it.
Our relations of friendship with all the States of America, far from having sustained any diminution, are acquiring that extension on which our mutual welfare and felicity depends. The great American Assembly contributed efficaciously to perfect the alliance of the Republick with some, and to define clearly our political and commercial connexion with others. This Assembly inet at Panama on the 22d of June, and was attended by the Representatives of Central America, Peru, the United Mexican States, and Colombia, when it laid open the great Volume of the destiny of America. The American Congress occupied but a few days in its first Sittings, but its labours were of immense importance. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs will soon present to you :-the Treaty of perpetual Union, League, and Confederation, between the States that assembled, to which the rest of South America may accede; the Convention which fixes the Contingent which each Covfederated State is to furnish for the common desence; and the Agreement with respect to the mode of employing and directing the Contingents thus furnished; the Convention which regulates the Apnual Meeting of the Assembly in time of War; and several Declarations founded on the Treaties which Colombia has entered into, and concluded, with the Governments of the States represented in the Congress at Panama. The Assembly transferred its Sittings to Tacubaya, in the United Mexican States, to which the Executive readily gave its consent, desirous to respond to the proofs of confidence and friendship, and to the sentiments of harmony and fraternity, which the Federal Government of that Republick had exhibited towards us. At Tacubaya there were also assembled, the Representatives of the Rio de la Plata, of the new Republick of Bolivia, and of the Emperor of Brazil, as well as the Ministers of the United States of North America,whose philanthropick Government, having accepted the invitation which we made to it, took a corresponding interest in this important object. Great Britain and The Netherlands will, probably, on a future occasion, send their Commissioners, invested with the same powers as the Ministers that went to Panama.
The Provisional Government of Peru has passed an Act, recognizing the Republick of Bolivia, but the Provinces of the Rio de la Plata appear to have refused to pass a similar one. The Executive of Colombia has been pained at the latter circumstance, and it trusts in the prudence and wisdom of the Mayistrates, in whose charge are the destinies of those States, that they will attend solely to the common interest, the National wislı, and the necessity of Peace.
The Government of the United Provinces of Central America bas received the Plenipotentiary of the Republick, with the usual formalities; and as, among other things, he was charged with the duty of exchanging the Ratifications of the Treaty of perpetual Union, League, and