Universities and the Global Knowledge Economy: A Triple Helix of University-industry-government Relations
University and industry, up to now relatively separate and distinct institutional spheres, are assuming tasks that were formerly largely the province of the other in the development of new technologies. A new social contract is being drawn up between the university and the larger society, in which public funding for the university is made contingent upon a more direct contribution to the economy. Has economic development become a function of the university in addition to teaching and research? As the university crosses traditional boundaries through linkages to industry, it must devise ways to make its multiple purposes compatible with each other. The impetuses include: the industrial activities of individual academics in forming firms, which take on a collective force as they become Increasingly common; the organisational inititiatives of academic administrators in establishing procedures and administrative offices for university-industry relations; and conflict of interest controversies over linkages with industry. A new spiral model of innovation is required to capture multiple reciprocal linkages at different stages of the capitalization of knowledge.
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academia academic activities agents applications authorities basic become capital centers chapter collaboration companies competencies competition complex considered cooperation corporate countries created differentiation digital media direct discussed dynamics economic economic development effects emerging enterprises environment established evolutionary example expected factor fields firms focus formal forms functional funding further German ideas important increase industry initial innovation institutions integration intellectual property interactions interest involved knowledge laboratories lead major mechanisms ment networks operate organizations orientation participation patenting patterns perspective political possible potential problems production programs projects question range regional relations represent requires research-technology role scientific scientists sector selection social specialized specific strategy structures studies success technical technology transfer third tion traditional transformation translation triple helix types worlds
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