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from San Juan to Arecibo, a distance of about 50 to the removal of the honey, but have been used as miles; while another railway along the south coast an anæsthetic instead of chloroform. The same was about to be commenced. Owing to the great properties belong also to other species. Some of demand for cotton, consequent upon the American them, in a young state, are used in some countries war, the cultivators have turned their attention as food, and none of them is known to be poisonous to rearing that crop; and in 1863, four times

PUFF-BIRD. See BARBET. the quantity grown in the previous year was produced.

PUFFENDORF, SAMUEL, son of a Lutheran

clergyman, was born in 1632 at Chemnitz, in PUFF-ADDER (Clotho arietans), a serpent of Saxony. He received the early part of his educathe family Viperida, having a short and broad fiat tion at Grimma; whence he removed to the head, with scales so sharply keeled as to end in university of Leipzig. There he studied theology a kind of spine. It is one of the most venomous for several years. In 1656 he went to the university and dangerous serpents of South Africa. It attains of Jena, where he seems to have devoted himself a length of four or almost five feet, and is thick in at first chiefly to mathematics, and subsequently to proportion to its length, often as thick as a man's the study of the Law of Nature, as he, and others arm. Its head is very broad ; its tail suddenly who have treated on the same subject, have tapered; its colour brown, chequered with dark termed the law which regulates the duties of men

to one another, independent of the mutual obligation which is enforced by political government, or by revelation of divine will. After quitting Jena, he was appointed tutor to the son of the Swedish ambassador at Copenhagen. Soon after he had received this appointment, a rupture having taken place between Denmark and Sweden, P. was detained as a prisoner in the Danish capital. The power of his mind here shewed itself in a remarkable manner. Deprived of books and of society, he threw himself vigorously into meditating on what he had formerly read in the treatise of Grotius, De Jure Belli et Pacis, and in the writings of Hobbes on the principles of general law. The result was the production of the Elementa Jurisprudentice Universalis

—a work which was the foundation of its author's Farmers)

fortune. It was dedicated to the Elector Palatine;

and by this prince, P. was appointed to the ProPuff-adder (Clotho arietans).

fessorship of the Law of Nature and Nations at the university of Heidelberg. He now gave his atten

tion to the tissue of absurdities which existed in the brown and white; a reddish band between the constitution of the Germanic Empire. As was to eyes; the under parts paler than the upper. Its have been expected, the work (De Statu Reipublicae movements are generally slow, but it turns very Germanicae, 1667), in which he exposed the defects quickly if approached from behind. It usually of the system, raised a storm of controversy. creeps partially immersed in the sand of the South Austria was especially furious. P. had taken care African deserts, its head alone being completely to publish it under a pseudonym--that of Severinus raised above grounil . When irritated, it puffs out a Mozambano, but still

, to avoid the possible conthe upper part of its body, whence its name. The P. is easily killed by the oil, or even by the xl. of Sweden, in 1670, to become Professor of the

sequences, he accepted an invitation from Charles juice of tobacco. Its poison is used by the Bosjes- Law of Nations at Lund. During his residence mans for their arrows. - South Africa produces there, he published the work on which his fame several other species of Clotho, similar in their now principally rests, De Jure Nature et Gentium. habits to the P., and almost equally dangerous. He then removed to Stockholm, where the king

PUFFBALL (Lycoperdon), a Linnæan genus of of Sweden made him his historiographer, with the Fungi, now divided into many genera, belonging dignity of a counsellor of state. In his official to the section_Gasteromycetes, and to the tribe character, he published a very uninteresting history Trichospermi. They mostly grow on the ground, of Sweden, from the expedition of Gustavus Adol. and are roundish, generally without a stem, at first phus into Germany to the death of Queen Christine. firm and fleshy, but afterwards powdery within ;

1688, the Elector of Brandenburg invited him to the powder consisting of the spores, among which Berlin to write the history of his life and reign. P. are many fine filaments, loosely filling the interior of accepted the invitation, and executed the required the peridium, or external membrane. The cridium work in 19 dreary volumes. His intention was to finally bursts at the top, to allow the escape of the have returned to Stockholm, but death overtook spores, which issue from it as very fine dust. Some him at Berlin in 1694. P. lacked the genius to of the species are common everywhere. Most of render the subjects on which he wrote generally them affect rather dry soils, and some are found interesting, but his intellectual power was neveronly in heaths and sandy soils. The most common

theless very considerable, and it appears to have British species is L. gemmatum, generally from one

throughout been honestly exercised and with to two and a half inches in diameter, with a warty

unflayging industry.-See Jenisch’s Vila Pufenand mealy surface. The largest British species, the dordi in the Memoirs of the Academy of Stockholm, GIANT P. (L. giganteum), is often many feet in

1802. circumference, and filled with a loathsome pulpy PU'FFIN (Mormon), a genus of birds of the mass, when young; but in its mature state, its Auk (q. v.) family, Alcido, having the bill shorter contents are so dry and spongy that they have often than the head, very much compressed, its height at been used for stanching wounds. Their fumes, the base equal to its length, the rilge of the upper when burned, have not only the power of stupifying mandible as high as the top of the head, both bees. for which they are sometimes used in order mandibles arched, and transversely grooved. The PUG-PUGILISM.



bill gives to the birds of this genus a very extra- and good-natured, bearing without resentment the ordinary appearance. They have short legs, very roughest handling to which children can subject short tail, and short wings; their legs are placed them. They are all of small size. The common Eng. far back, and they sit very erect, like auks and lish Png is usually yellowish with a black snout, the penguins, resting not merely on the foot, but on the tail firmly curled over the back. New breeds have tarsus. Notwithstanding their shortness of wing, they fly rapidly, although they seem incapable of long-sustained flights. They swim and dive admirably. The best known and most widely distribttel species is the COMMON P. (M. arcticus), a nation of the arctic and northern temperate regions, breeding not only in high northern latitudes, but as far south as the coasts of England, and migrating from the colder regions in winter, when it is to be found even on the coasts of Spain and of Georgia. The P. is a little larger than a pigeon; the forehead, crown, back of the head, a collar round the neck, the back, wings, and tail are black, the other parts of the plumage white. The P. lays only a single egg, sometimes in a rabbit burrow, but more frequently in a burrow of its own, which often extends three feet, and is not unfrequently curved; Chinese Pug (Looty), found in the Summer Palace at

Pekin. Presented to Her Majesty. sometimes in deep fissures or crevices of cliffs. Great numbers congregate together, and their chosen breeding places are crowded with them. of late been introduced from China and Japan, These are mostly on unfrequented islands and interesting from their peculiar appearance, gentleheadlands, where there is some depth of soil. ness, and docility, with extremely short puggish In sone of them, the ground is covered by muzzle; the Chinese breed very small

, with smooth puffins, old and young, in thousands. The eggs hair; the Japanese rather larger, with an exuberance are sought after by fowlers, and also the young of long soft hair and a very bushy tail. birds, the flesh of which is used for food. The

PU'GET SOUND, a collection of inlets on the Scilly Isles were held in the 14th c., under the north-western border of Washington Territory, king as Earl of Cornwall

, by Ranulph de Blanc. U.S., forming the southern termination of Admi. minster, for an annual payment of 6s. 8d., or 300 ralty Inlet, which communicates with the Pacific puffins at Michaelmas. Puffins are not readily by the Strait of St Juan de Fuca, south-east of

Vancouver's Island. It forms a sheltered bay and harbour of about 15 square miles, surrounded by a fertile well-timbered country.

PU'GGING, a coarse kind of plaster laid on deafening-boards between the joists of floors, to prevent sound.

PU'GILISM, or BOXING, is the art of defending one's self or attacking others with the weapons which nature has bestowed—viz., fists and arms, The origin of boxing, or the use of the fists, is likely as old as man himself. We find numerous allusions to it in the classic authors. Pollux, the twin-brother of Castor in the heathen mythology, was reckoned the first who obtained distinction by the use of his fists, conquering all who opposed him, and obtaining, with Hercules, a place among the gods for his sparring talents. The ancients were not, however, satisfied with the use of the weapons of nature, but increased their power by the addi. tion of the Cestus (q. v.). With the ancients, pugilism was considered an essential part in the

education of youth, and formed part of the course Common Puffin (Mormon arcticus).

of training practised in their gymnasia ; it was

valued as a means of strengthening the body alarmed by the approach of man, and many are and banishing fear; but it was practised in public taken by means of a noose at the end of a rod. rather with a view to the exhibition of the power Their food consists of small crustaceans and fishes. of endurance than for mere skilful self-defence. -Other species are found in different parts of the The earliest account we have of systematic British world; one in Kamtchatka, the Kurile Islands, &c., boxing is in 1740, when public exhibitions of prowith two silky tufts of long feathers on its head. fessors of the art attracted general attention. Up -The name P. is given in France to the Shearwaters to this period, the science of self-defence had made (q. v.), or Pufin Petrels, the genus Pufinus of some but little progress, and strength and endurance ornithologists.

constituted the only recommendations of the prac. PUG, or PUG-DOG, a kind of dog much like titioners at Smithfield, Moorfield, and Southwark the bull-dog in form, and in particular, in its much fair, which had long had booths and rings for the abbreviated muzzle. The nose is often a little display of boxing. Broughton, who occupied the turned up. The disposition is, however, extremely position of champion of England,' built a theatre unlike that of the bull-dog, being characterised by in Hanway Street, Oxford Street, in 1740, for the great timidity and gentleness. Pug-dogs are only display of boxing; advertisements were issued an. kept as pets. They are often very affectionate nouncing a succession of battles between first-rate



pugilists, who never quitted the stage till one or most influential backers. The more distinguished other was defeated, the reward of each man being patrons of the ring gradually seceded; the · Pugidependent upon, and proportioned to, the receipts. listic Club,' which had been established in 1814, Broughton was for 18 years champion of England, and which included all the aristocratic patrons of and with him commences the first scientific era the ring, was broken up. The magistracy of the of pugilism. He propounded some rules for country set their faces against the lawless assemthe regulation of the ring, and these remained in blies of roughs' and pick pockets who latterly authority till 1838, when they were materially formed the greater part of the spectators at prizealtered. Rule 1 is, That a square of a yard be fights. The electric telegraph, and the establishchalked in the middle of a stage, and that in every ment of an efficient rural police, have given the fresh set-to after a fall, the seconds are to bring finishing touches to an already-expiring profession. their men to the side of the square, and to place Matches can now only be got up by stealth, and them opposite each other, and until this is done, it, the place of meeting is kept a profound secret to is not lawful for one to strike the other. Rule 2, the last moment, for fear of interruption. A few That if either of the combatants is unable to be years ago, however, the international combat brought up to the square within 30 seconds after a between Tom Sayers the Englishman, and John fall and the close of a round, he shall be deemed Heenay the American, revived for a moment public a beaten man. No man is permitteil to hit his interest in the art ; but apart from exceptional adversary when he is down, or to seize him by the matches, the popular feeling is that prize-fighting breeches, or below the waist, and a man on his knees should not be countenanced, and we may look for is to be reckoned down. These rules laid the foun- its gradual extinction. The art of boxing, as an dation of fair play, and robbed boxing of half its active and healthy exercise, is likely to be mainhorrors. To Broughton also is due the introduction tained; and the display of science between two of gloves for ósparring-matches,' where lessons accomplished boxers is very interesting, while it could be taken without injury. The greatest pro- is deprived of all the horrors of the prize-ring; fessor of the art was Jackson, who was champion in the rapidity of the blows, the facility with which 1795. He was not only the most scientific boxer of they are mostly guarded or avoided by moving his day, but he gave his art such a prestige and the head and arms; the trial of skill and maneuvre popularity that half the men of rank and fashion of to gain a trifling advantage in position, all give a the period were proud to call themselves his pupils. wonderful interest to the spectator, who can watch He opened rooms for the practice of boxing in Bond the perfection of the art devoid of the brutalities Street, and for years these were crowded by men of of the ring. The pugilists of the present day are note. His “principles of pugilism' were, that con- mostly publicans ; their friends and the patrons tempt of danger and contidence in one's self were of the fancy' meet at their houses for convivial the first and best qualities of a pugilist; that in evenings, sparring-matches, ratting, and the like. hitting, you must judge well your distances, for a It has constantly been urged in defence of pugi. blow delivered at all out of range, was like a spent lism, that were it abolished, the use of the knife shot, and valueless ; that men should fight with their would increase, and Englishmen would lose their legs, using all possible agility, as well as with their present manly system of self-defence. This may be hands; and that all stiffness of style and position true, if the use of the fist in self-defence depended was wrong. Jackson is still regarded as the best on the mercenary exhibition of pugilistic encounters, theorist on the ‘noble art, and since his time, it which, however, is mere assumption. The best has received no essential improvement. Shaw, the authority on the subject of pugilism is Fistiana, Life Guardsman, who immortalised himself at 24th ed. 1863, office of Bell's Life. Waterloo, was a pupil of his, and the prowess which PULCI, Luigi, an Italian poet of distinguished he so brilliantly displayed on that occasion, was family, was born at Florence, 3d December 1431, owing as much to his scientific training as to his and devoted his life to study and to literary comgreat strength. At this period, pugilism was position. He was one of the most intimate friends actively supported by many persons of high rank of Lorenzd de' Medici and of Poliziano, from the -the Dukes of York and Clarence, the Earls of latter of whom he derived no little assistance in the Albemarle, Sefton, &c., Lords Byron, Craven, Pom composition of his poem Il Morgante Maggiore (

Mor. fret. In 1814, when the allied sovereigns were in gante the Giant). This celebrated work, a burlesque England, among other entertainments, a 'sparring' epic (in 28 cantos), of which Roland is the hero, is display was provided under Jackson's management; a vivacious parody of the romances of Carlovingian and the distinguished foreigners expressed the chivalry, which had become (as P. thought) undegreat gratification they had experienced from the servedly popular in Italy. His mocking imagination exhibition of so much science and fine physical took a pleasure in turning into ridicule the combats development. Besides Jackson, Belcher, Gulley, with giants, the feats of magicians, and all the and Cribb were noted champions at this period. incredible alventures that form the material basis George IV. was a staunch patron of boxing in of the medieval epic; and he manages to do it with his youth, and although he discontinued by his a wonderfully pleasant and original naïveté. But presence to give countenance to the sport, fre- although the poem is essentially heroico-comic, it quent indications were observable of his desire occasionally contains passages of the finest pathos, for its promotion. At the time of the coronation, in which P. fortunately seems to forget his design when the popular feelings were much enlisted on of travestying the inventions of the trouvères, and behalf of Queen Caroline, who was excluded from comes out undisgnisedly as a real poet. Moreover, the throne, a body of pugilists were employed to in the midst of the most extravagant buffooneries, preserve order; and so well did these men perform we come upon the truest and most natural pictures their duties, that the king presented each man with of manners--the vanity and inconstancy of women, a gold medal, to commemorate the event, and to the avarice and ambition of men. P. died in 1487. shew his satisfaction. This period may be termed The Morgante Maggiore is one of the most valuable the palmy days of the ring;', and from various sources for acquiring a knowledge of the early causes, its decline has since then been uninterrupted. Tuscan dialect, the niceties and idioms of which Among other causes, several cases occurred of prize. have been employed by P. with great skill. The fighters who were tempted to lose fiults on which first edition appeared at Florence in 1483, and has large sums had been staked, and to deceive their since been frequently reprinted. Other works of





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P. are a series of sonnets (often grossly indecent), the block of the next pulley, with the exception of La Beca du Dicomano (a parody of a pastoral poem the last cord, which passes round a sixed pulley by Lorenzo de' Medici); Confessione a la San Ver. above, and is attached to the counterpoise P. The gine, a novel ; and some letters.-- BERNARDO Pulci, tension of a string being the same in all its parts, elder brother of Luigi, wrote an elegy on the death the tension of every part of the string marked (1) of Simonetta, mistress of Julian de' Medici ; and a in fig. 3 is that which is poem on the passion of Christ, and also executed produced by the weight of P, the first translation of the Eclogues of Virgil. — consequently, as the last movLUCA Pulci, another brother, achieved some literary able pulley is supported on reputation too by his Giostra di Lorenzo de' Medici, both sides by a string hav. a poem in honour of the success won by Lorenzo ing a tension P, the tension in a tournament; I Cirito Calvaneo, à metrical applied in its support is 2P. romance of chivalry; Driadeo d'Ancore, a pastoral | The tension of the string poem; and Epistole Eroidle.

marked (2) is therefore 2P, PU'LEX. See FLEA.

and the second movable PULKOʻVA, a village of Russia, in the govern equal to 4P. It may similarly

pulley is supported by a force ment of St Petersburg, about 9 miles south of be shewn that the force the capital, contains a population of 600. It stands on a ridge called the Pulkova Hills, (4) in support of the last

applied by the strings marked which command a splendid view of St Peters- I pulley (which is attached to burg, and is noted for its magnificent observatory, | W), is 8P. Hence we see, that built by the Czar Nicholas, and placed under the according to this arrange.

Fig. 3. direction of M. Otto Struve. For an interesting ment, 1 lb. can support 4 lbs., if two movable pulleys description of the observatory, see Professor C. are used ; 8 lbs., if there are 3 movable pulleys ; 16 Piazzi® Smyth's Three Cities in Russia (2 vols., Ibs., if there are 4 movable pulleys ; and if there ar3 Lond. 1862).

n movable pulleys, 1 lb. can support 2" lbs. It PU'LLEY, one of the Mechanical Powers (q. v.), must be noticed, hewever, that consists of a wheel, with a groove cut all round its in practice, the weight of the circumference, and movable on an axis ; the wheel, cords, and of the pulleys, and the which is commonly called a sheave, is often placed friction of the cord on the pulleys, inside a hollow oblong mass of wood called a block, must be allowed for; and the fact, and to the sides of this block the extremities of the that in this system all of these

sheave's axle are fixed for sup. resist the action of the power P,
port; the cord which passes over and that to a large extent, has
the circumference of the sheave rendered it of little use in practice.
is called the tackle. Pulleys may – The second system is much in-
be used either singly or in com- ferior in producing a mechanical
bination; in the former case, advantage, but it is found to be

they are either fired or movable. much more convenient in practice, PO

The fixed pulley (tig. 1) gives no and is modified according to the
mechanical advantage ; it merely purpose for which it is to be used;
changes the direction in which a two prevalent forms are given in
force would naturally be applied figs. 4 and 5. In this system, one
to one more convenient--thus, string passes round all the pulleys,

W can be raised without lifting and as the tension in every part it directly by merely pulling P down. The single of it is that produced by the weight morable pulley, with parallel cords, gives a of P, the whole force applied to

Fig. 4. mechanical advantage = 2 (fig. 2), for a little con elevate the lower block with its sideration will shew that as the weight, w, is attached weight, w, is the weight P multiplied

supported by two strings, the by the number of strings attached to the lower
strain on each string is 4 W, and block; in fig. 4, W = 4°, and in tig. 5, W = 6P,
the strain on the one being sup- the pulleys in the upper block
ported by the hook A, the being only of use in changing the
power, P, requires merely to direction of the pulling force. This
support the strain on the other system is the one in common use
string, which passes round C. in architecture, in dockyards, and
The tixed pulley, C, is only of on board ship, and various modi-
service in changing the natu- fications of it-such as White's
rally upward direction of the pulley, Smeaton's pulley, &c., have
power into a downward one. been introduced; but the simpler
If the strings in the single mov. forms shewn above have been

able pulley are not parallel, found to answer best. ---The third
Fig. 2. there is a diminution of mecha- system (tig. 6) is merely the tirst

nical advantage-i. e., P must be system inverted, and it is a little more than half of W to produce an exact coun. more powerful, besides having the terpoise ; if the angle made by the strings is 120°, weight of the pulleys to support P must be equal to W; and if the angle be greater the power, instead of acting in than this, there is a mechanical disadvantage, or opposition to it, as in the former P must be greater than W. The following are case. By this time, it will have examples of different combinations of pulleys, gener- been evident to the reader that

Fig. 5. ally known as the first, second, and third systems the mechanical advantage is not of pulleys. In the first system, one end of each cord produced by the pulleys, but by the strings, and is fastened to a fixed support above ; each cord that the pulleys are merely useful in kemping the descendis, j'asses round a pulley (to the lowest of strings in a certain position, changing with as little which the weight, W, is fastened), and is fastened to friction as possible the direction of the pull, and

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affording a convenient means of attaching the subjects. The pulpit (in Arabic, mimber) forms weight. Theoretically, the larger the number of

movable pulleys in one combin-
ation, the greater is the mecha-
nical advantage afforded; but
the enormous friction produced,
and the want of perfect flexi-
bility in the ropes, prevent any

great increase in the number of
영 pulleys.

PULMONATA, an order of

gasteropodous molluscs, having, a

for the purpose of respiration, a
vascular air-sac or lung, which

opens by a hole under the mar. a

gin of the mantle, capable of a

being contracted or dilated at
pleasure. Some are terrestrial,

some aquatic. Slugs and snails På

are familiar examples of the

former; water-snails, or pondWHI bnails (Limnæa, Planorbis, &c.),

of the latter. Most of the P. Fig. 6. are protected by a shell ; in

some, as slugs, the shell is internal and rudimental.

PULNEYS, a range of hills in the Madura district of the Madras Presidency of India. The average height of this range is about 7500 feet above the level of the sea. It possesses peculiar advantages for the establishment of sanitarium. The climate is one of the most equable anywhere to be found, the variation of the thermometer during twelve months in a closed room without a fire being observed to be Pulpit (Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, 1440 A. D.). no greater than between 58o and 62o. At present,

(From Parker's Glossary.) there are only a few European residences built on these hills.

one of the scanty appliances of Mohammedan


PULQUE, a favourite beverage of the Mexicans

and of the inhabitants of Central America, and PULP, a term employed to describe those very some parts of South America ; made from the juice soft and succulent parts of plants, almost exclu- of different species of Agave (q. v.), which is col. sively of fruits, which consist of cellular tissue lected by cutting out the flowering-stem from the with much juice. The pulp of a fruit is sometimes midst of the leaves in the beginning of its growth, found in one part of it, sometimes in another; and scooping a hole for the juice. From this cavity, thus, in the peach, plum, and other drupes, it is large quantities of juice are removed daily for the mesocarp; in the grape and gooseberry, it is months. The juice is an agreeable drink when developed from the placentas, and the seeds are fresh, but is more generally used after fermentation, embedded in it.

when it has a very pleasant taste, but a putrid

smell, disgusting to those unaccustomed to it. PU'LPIT (Lat. pulpitum), an elevated tribune or Pulque is retailed in Mexico in open sheds called desk, from which sermons, lectures, and other solemn Pulquerias, which also serve for dancing-rooms. religious addresses are delivered. In great churches, When mixed with water and sugar, and allowed to the pulpit is commonly placed against the wall, or ferment for a few hours, it forms a beverage called in juxtaposition with a pillar or buttress. Originally Tepache. A kind of spirit is also prepared from it. it would appear to have been used chiefly for the singing, chanting, or recitation which form part of

PULSE (Lat. puls), a name for the edible seeds the public service, and was a kind of stage suffi- of leguminous plants, as corn is the name for the ciently large to accommodate two or even more edible seeds of grasses. Peas and beans are the most chanters. For the convenience of the hearers, this common and important of all kinds of pulse; next to stage began to be used by the bishop, priest, or

them may be ranked kidney-beans, lentils, chick. deacon, for the delivery of the homily; and thus by peas, pigeon-peas, &c. Legumine (q. v.), a very degrees a tribune expressly suited to the latter use

nitrogenous principle, abounds in all kinds of pulse. alone came to be introduced. In some of the older Legumine forms a thick coagulum with salts of churches, the ambo or pulpitum is still used for the lime, wherefore all kinds of pulse remain hard if chanting of the Gospel and Epistles. In Catholic boiled in spring-water containing lime. The best churches, the pulpit is generally distinguished by kinds of pulse are very nutritious, but not easy of some religious emblems, especially by the crucifix'; digestion, and very apt to produce flatulence. and the pulpits of the Low Countries and of PULSE (Lat. pulsus, a pushing or beating). The Germany are often masterpieces of wood carving, phenomenon known as the arterial pulse or arterial the preaching-place in some of them forming part pulsation is due to the distention of the arteries conof a great artistic group, as of the Conversion of sequent upon the intermittent injection of blood into St Paul, the Vocation of Peter and Andrew, the their trunks, and the subsequent contraction which Temptation of Adam and Eve, and other similar results from the elasticity of their walls. It is

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