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of the former is somewhat bitter, vengeance ? Wherefore, as long as and the fruit sour; the other of love, we rebelliously oppose against God is as a spiritual wine, which may be an array of our sins, let us expect he said to glad the heart both of God and will bring upon us his host of reman (Judges ix. 13); men on earth; vengeful enemies, as he once deblessed saints and angels in heaven, nounced against his people, saying and even God himself being delight that he would hiss for the fly that is ed at the true conversion of a sinner. in the uttermost part of the rivers All this while have we spoken of of Egypt, and for the bee that is in plague and famine, the two instru- the land of Assyria, which (saith he) ments of death and executioners of shall come with arrows and bows, God's vengeance; and wish that (Isa. vii. 18); that is to say, in no other matter of horror and dread huge multitudes of armed enemies could be represented unto you. But suddenly pressed and prepared to (alas, the intolerable burden of our execute God's judgments. sins !) the watchmen that stand on “O, but some will say, are not we the highest tower of this kingdom, the professors of God's truth, having being asked what they see, do an- the light of his Gospel among us, swer and behold a complete, vast, together with the holy seals of his and eminent preparation to war
covenant ? True, our Church of against us, by an enemy mighty in England, by the singular mercy of power, in malice implacable, in rage God in Christ Jesus, may truly and bent and incensed to the utter de confidently boast herself in compastruction of our nation, as being that rison with any other, that she, under which chiefly maintaineth the evan- a most gracious and religious king, gelical truth, and withstandeth his is for truth of doctrine and purity of boundless and unsatiable ambition. worship, as truly catholic and or.
“ This being our present doubtful thodox as ever any church of Christ and dangerous condition, what can hath been since the days of the we conceive, or pretend, that we Apostles ; insomuch that, in this our should not think ourselves liable and English and Spanish war, truth may subject to this the greatest and most seem to fight against falsehood, in. terrible vengeance even the devour- nocence against anti-christian cruing sword ? Shall we now conceit elty, and sincerity of worship against that we are become more conformable flat idolatry; and therefore (say you) to the commandments of God than what can be expected from God by heretofore? Let every one open his us in this battle but victory and great eyes both of mind and body, looking triumph ? Nay, deceive not your own as well inwardly into the closet of selves by claim of false privileges, as his own heart, as outwardly upon though, forsooth, Israel (even the the actions of other men, and then peculiar and only people of God, let him tell;, are not men commonly carrying the sign of his covenant in as sensually profane as they have their flesh, acquainted with his orabeen ? their drunkenness as general cles, and possessed of the ark and and loathsome, their swearing as temple of God,) did not (notwithprodigious, their pride as satanical, standing) complain that God (Psa. their hatred as rancorous and inve- xliv.) went not out with their armies, terate; and of all other reigning sins, but forsook them, so that they turned some as unreproved by preachers, their back upon their enemies; that many as unpunished by magistrates, (1 Sam. iv.) God's ark (the glory of and almost all unrepented of by trans- Israel and ensign of the victorious gressors themselves; who after their God) was taken of the heathen ; and afflictions are now grown so obsti- that their whole nation was often nate, as if they had made their hearts enthralled in manifold captivities in as anvils, to be more and more hard- Egypt and Babylon, a justice against ened by the late strokes of God's God's people which God himself
did avow, when he spoke of the the more ordinary providence of sword, saying (Isa. x. 15), "O As- God, which may beget confidence syrian, the rod of mine anger, I will in all extremities of warfare. What send thee against an hypocritical can men fear, being in reconciliation nation to destroy them.'
and confederacy with God, when our “In which process of God's judg- enemies are enemies of God? Is it ment against his people we are to the policy of their councils ? But he contemplate and consider the holi- confounded the counsel of Ahitophel. ness, justice, and power of our jea. Isit that enemies continue, togetherin lous God, together with the abomi- the name of a holy league? But when nation of our own sins. So holy a they say a confederucy, God maketh God is he, that he will not acknow. them like a wheel, turned with the ledge any professor of his law who is spirit of giddiness. Is it the courage not also a practiser of piety and of their hearts? But he possesseth holiness ; so just, that he will at the enemies' heart with fear, and length afflict his own children for maketh the hearts of Canaanites to their wilful transgressions; so pow- melt. Is it their strength, or hugeerful, that he can of beasts, elements, ness of stature? But were they the diseases, and (if these will not serve) children of Anakims and giants, and of the very heathen and enemies of we but as grasshoppers in compaGod's truth, and of their mortally rison of them, yet fear them not, malicious swords make rods to correct saith God, I will go before
Is them. Whereunto the prophet giveth it the multitude of their boasts ? But his estimation, saying (Heb. i. 12), it is the glory of God to overthrow O mighty God, thou hast ordained many thousands by a few hundreds. them (namely, the heathen) for cor- Is it their joint and united forces? But rection. And how shall not the he setteth the Egyptians against the transgressor himself appear to be Egyptians. Is it their importunity, abominable, who profaneth the re
not to be satisfied till they fight? ligion of God with his wicked life, But either he will draw Sennacherib which he professeth with his breath, back from warring against Israel by thereby causing as much as in him a rumour of wars begun in the bowels is, the name and truth of God to be of his own kingdom, or else, if they blasphemed among the adversaries will needs battle, he will hale them thereof, as if God were a patronizer on thereunto to their own destrucand protector of wickedness. But tion. Is it because no man can tell say not with yourselves that the when there shall come deliverance ? light of God's glory shall be in any But he can do thus to our astonishwhit eclipsed by punishing his own ment, before we can think on it. people. No; but the contrary, as When God turned the captivity of the prophet sheweth (Isa. v. 16), Zion we were like unto them that saying, The Lord of Hosts will be dreamed, saith Israel, as not perexalted in judgment, and God that is suaded it was so; no, not when they holy will be sanctified in righteous- saw it. Again, what greater matter of ness, that is his avenging justice. confidence can we have than our This may be sufficient for removing former experience of God's provithese fond pretences, which, like false dence ? David's remembrance of prophets, most commonly seduce the his deliverance from the lion and the hearts of men.”
bear did animate him in the encoun. We copy one passage more. It tering with that huge Goliath; and contains a beautiful adduction of is there any nation at this day, under scriptural example, and shews how heaven, that hath greater experience profitably and pertinently the sacred of God's manifold deliverances than narrative may be employed for argu- this our kingdom; especially from the ment and illustration,
fierypowder-plot and from the Spanish “ In the last place, let us examine invasion by water; in respect where
of, we might here take up a song “Veteres Romani, cum in omnibus answerable to that of Deborah, of aliis vitæ officiis, tum in constituthe river Kishon; so we, The main endis religionibus, atque in Diis imocean swept them away, the ancient mortalibus animadvertendis, castisand main ocean. To conclude ; do simi cautissimique, ubi terram movisse we cleave fast to God, then their senserant, nunciatumve erat, ferias, arms cannot touch us; for it is he ejus rei causâ, edicto imperabant." that maketh war to cease, knappeth (A. Gell. Q. 28.) And shall it then the spear asunder, and burneth the be said of any Christian nation, chariot in the fire.”
“ This people turneth not to Him There are those who account such that smiteth them?”. sentiments as the above unphiloso- We are unwilling to quote from phical and illogical. Old-fashioned these scarce and curious relics of they may be, but sure we are they our beloved church more largely are scriptural ; and we therefore than we think will be agreeable to think it an omen for good, that the our readers; but we should defraud nation in its public capacity is about them of much that is interesting solemnly to prostrate itself before and generally inaccessible, did we the Divine Majesty, with prayer and not resume the subject in at least humiliation of soul. We are not one Number more, taking in the wont to trouble our readers with clas- forms for the pestilential visitations sical allusions on Christian subjects ; in 1636, 1640, 1661, and concluding but we cannot but remember, that with the great plague of 1665. impelled, even by natural conscience,
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
A Church Establishment lawful, scrip- venture to suggest respecting church
tural, and necessary : Sir Dia- reform in general ; a subject in our logues between the Rector of Oak. view far more important than mere envale and Mr. Grainger, one of political reforms, or some other rehis Parishioners. By the Rev. forms which have of late been so SAMUEL CHARLES Wilks, A.M. much vaunted of; for if we have not (Published by the Society for speedily a very extensive system of promoting Christian Knowledge.) ecclesiastical reform carried fully London. 1832.
into effect, our national-church esThe Church and its Endowments : a tablishment is not worth many years'
Charge at the Visitation in Hamp. purchase, and with it would fall shire. By W. DEALTRY, D.D. more than can be easily calculated F.R.S. Chancellor of the Diocese. of the strongest bulwark, under the London. 1832.
providence of God, of the Reforma
tion, and the best human instrument We have, in a former page of this for the temporal and spiritual welfare Number, suggested a plan for cathe. of the land. dral reform; and we purpose in an
But in the revolutionary spirit of early Number taking up the ques- the present times, the very name of tion of church reform in general. reform is ominous; and what is good Our scheme of cathedral reform is, in itself is often made a two-edged we think, ample, practicable, and weapon to wound the best of causes. efficient, yet not one of spoliation We are anxious, therefore, to lay or revolution; and we trust the same a solid basis for improvement, by may be said of that which we shall shewing the security of the founda
tions on which the whole structure the exception of Warburton's Alliance rests ; lest some rash and reckless of Church and State, which no pious spirits, when the scaffolding is put or judicious churchman,
' we presume, up to repair the building, should would now adopt as his own, there suggest that it would be better was, till of late years, scarcely any ► to place a mine of gunpowder thing written on the general quesunder it, and get rid of it at once, tion, though this general question as an unchristian fábric and a poli- must be settled before the minds of tical nuisance. Now it is precisely men will be satisfied as to the soli. because we feel intensely the import- dity of the basis on which the deance, necessity, and scriptural sanc- fence of any particular church is tion of an established church, that we conducted. Hooker, and other of wish to see its breaches repaired; it our ancient defenders indeed, treat is because we dread and deprecate incidentally of the matter ; but they subversion that we desire reforma- do not go to the exact point of the tion, in order that the glory of God objection as urged in the present and the salvation of men may be in- day. Dr. Chalmers, however, has creasingly promoted, and our eccle- discussed it with great strength and siastical Zion become more than ever ability; and though his arguments a praise in the earth.
have been abundantly nibbled at, With these views we have prefixed we have never seen them refuted. the titles of the two publications be. His work, on “ the Use and Abuse fore us, intending to extract from of Literary and Ecclesiastical En. them a few passages on the point in dowments," is quite as valuable question, and which will form, as we and important on the south as the have said, a basis for our remarks on north side of the Tweed, and on the church reform. Dr. Dealtry's Charge west as the east side of St. George's is a publication of great interest and channel; for the question of national value at the present moment, and church-establishments is not conwe gladly avail ourselves of his nected with the rites or tenets of arguments. The other tract we any particular communion; and if mention chiefly as shewing the opi- it were better understood, and the nion of those who conduct the great importance of the subject affairs of the venerable Society for duly felt, men would not be so ready promoting Christian Knowledge, to dissent, at every slight blush of an that a publication was wanted on objection respecting some matter of this subject for popular instruction; non-essential detail, from an institufor it is somewhat remarkable, and tion which, as to its great leading it shews the altered position of the features, was seen to be of vital question of church establishments, importance to the interests of true that the society should not have religion. . We shall introduce the hitherto had on its list, as we be- subject with a few passages from lieve, any work that takes up pre- the six dialogues now before us. cisely the general ground of church We shall not review a popular establishments, which is in truth tractate, which
.may be procured quite a modern question; all the for a few pence, but the following older defences of the Church of extracts may both shew the general England being specific rather than state of the argument, and furnish generic, shewing the excellency of us with an introduction to Dr. our national communion, and answer- Dealtry's able and seasonable charge. ing objections to its doctrines or discipline, but not replying to the “ Rector. What, are you leaving the modern objection urged by “ Dis- neighbourhood ? I am sorry for it.
« Mr. G. Not leaving the neighboursenters, upon principle,” that all
hood, but quitting the church. national church establishments are “ R. You astonish me! Do you really unnecessary and unscriptural. With mean becoming a Dissenter?
• " Mr. G. Yes.
heart: we ought, Mr. Timkins, to be principle.
candid; my own objections in these mat“ R. You astonish me still more! You ters lie much deeper than the wording of are the last man in the parish I should a service.' 'Ay, Mr. Dickson,' rejoined have expected to take such a step. Timkins; • I know what you mean: you
“ Mr. G. And well, sir, you may say object to all set forms.' Why, not ex80. I myself should have said the same actly so, Mr. Timkins: there is nothing three months ago ; for if any man owes wrong in forms as such, whether forms of much to the Established Church it is I. ritual, or forms of prayer and praise ; and Al that I enjoy or hope for, as a Chris- the forms of the Church of England are tian, bas been derived within her walls, in general excellent, many of them emiand under your truly pious and zealous nently beautiful; and the pious members pastoral labours; and to this hour never of the church profit in the use of them, have I been in a dissenting place of wor- and doubtless find conscientious reasons ship, or known any thing of its forms. for approving even of those which to you My determination has cost me many tears and me seem objectionable.' 'Yes, yes,' and sleepless nights; but it is now fully returned Timkins, “I see where you are : formed; I cannot, I dare not, attend your you do not like men-made-parsons; there ministry, highly as I prize it, and much is no warrant for bishops in the word of as, by the blessing of God, I have pro- God. 'I am sorry, Mr. Timkins,' refited under it. Do not, sir, I entreat you, plied Mr. Dickson, to oppose you, as if be angry with me at this declaration. for the sake of quibbling; but the ques
“ R. I am far enough, my good friend, tion of episcopacy is one which you have from being angry with you: but grieved not studied : I have; and though I am and shocked I am beyond measure. But not myself an episcopalian, I can readily I do not despair ; you have been hearing, admit that a pious and honest episcopaperhaps, some objections against our forms lian may feel as conscientiously conor doctrines or services—the baptismal vinced on his side as I on mine; and I service or the burial service-or con- should certainly not think this alone a firmation or episcopacy—or some of the reason for dissenting from the church; I articles-or forms of prayer-or
should be very sorry to call such a servant “ Mr. G. No, sir, it is nothing of of Christ as the excellent rector of this this kind. I know there are objections parish a man-made-minister. I could not often niade to some of these things, and in conscience frequent his church ; but I I have at times considered such of them cannot doubt that he is truly called by as fell in my way, but they never gave me the Holy Ghost to the office of the Chrismuch trouble. Some appeared to me tian ministry, and that his labours have quite groundless; others I have often been eminently blessed of God to the heard you yourself speak upon in a manner spiritual welfare of his flock.' • Oh then,' that explained the subject fully to my sa- rejoined Timkins, ' I conclude you do not tisfaction: and at the worst there was like the rags of popery-fonts and surnothing in any scruple that I ever had or plices and steeples and so forth.' No heard on the subject that would have torn reasonable man, Mr. Timkins,' continued me from a church and a pastor that I have Mr. Dickson, no Christian of an enso long and justly loved.
lightened mind in the present day would “ R. I can only say, Mr. Grainger, you rend the church of Christ for scruples like puzzle me more and more as you proceed. this. I presume the rector attributes no What then is your objection? It is not, more holiness to his surplice than I to you say, to me, or my doctrine, or the my gown. There used to be vebement forms and doctrines of our church; what disputes about the lawfulness of appointthen is it? Do tell me what has passed ing ceremonies, not sinful in themselves, on the subject.
and intended for edification, but not pre“ Mr. G. You remember my brother- scribed by the word of God; but no Disin-law's funeral ?
senter in the nineteenth century dwells “ R. Yes; I buried him this spring. upon points like these. When the basis
" Mr. G. My brother-in-law was a dis- of a church is solid there is room for senter, and Mr. Dickson, the Independent amendment in the details : my chief obminister, whose preaching he attended, jection to the Church of England is, that and whom he has joined with myself in it is established by law ; I should equally the executorship, came back with the object to any other national church-estamourners after the solemn service. Iblishment, even were all the doctrines do not like that church service at all, Mr. sound and all the rites scriptural. I lay Dickson,' said a forward young man who it down as a fundamental principle, that happened to be present; it is very po- it is the duty of every true disciple of pish.' . And why, Mr. Timkins?' replied Christ to withdraw himself from a naMr. Dickson : " I do not myself, as you tional church, and to bear his testimony know, approve of some expressions in it against all act-of-parliament religion.' but on the present occasion I found it Wilks, pp. &ll. peculiarly solemn and impressive; it was uttered from the heart, and it went to the Then come on the various oba CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 362.