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much of “ romantic attachment ” to to do in celebrating masses for de-
the old forms of education at our livering souls out of purgatory, but
universities, and still think so highly whom Protestantism has emancipated
of them as salutary for the mind, from such vain and onerous offices,
and a basis for ulterior labours, that might surely, under a well regulated
it requires an effort of abstraction plan, superintend a school of theolo-
and reason to reconcile it to our gical instruction, deliver lectures to
feelings to deduct two years from the students, and in other ways be-
the usual course ; and we should nefit the church and diocese. But
prefer, were it generally convenient, more of this hereafter.
which we fear it would not be, that Our much respected and judicious
the student should reside at college author proceeds to lay a solid foun-
for theological study, a year after dation for his argument by shewing
taking his degree, the degree being the necessity of a regular education
perhaps somewhat anticipated, as for the Christian ministry, and the
proposed by Dr. Adams in his com- limits which should be assigned to
mencement sermon at Cambridge in it. He admits, indeed, the apoph-
1830. But if this could not be ge- thegm of Bishop Burnet, that much
nerally carried into effect, on account piety with little learning will, by the
of the additional time and expense, blessing of God, effect more than
Mr. Raikes's plan would well deserve much learning with little piety : but
a trial. It is at least simple and fea- this does not prove that learning,
sible, and would, we believe, be in a when brought into subjection to the
good measure efficient, provided the cross of Christ, is not of great and
theological tuition was what it ought essential value. Besides, even in
to be.

those cases where there has been much
We have often thought that some- usefulness with moderate scholarship,
what might be done in our cathedrals, Mr. Raikes most justly remarks, there
to make them, as some of the Re- might be peculiar qualifications in
formers proposed, schools for theo- the things which were most import-
logical education, and seed-beds to ant and indispensable, notwithstand-
the church. We will not, however, ing the defects in other matters.
discuss this point at present, both
because it would take us too far dered illiterate, if tried by the standard of

“ A man, for instance, may be consifrom the book before us, and because human attainments, who still may be, we purpose devoting a few pages to like Apollos, mighty in the Scriptures. the important question of cathedral He may be destitute of outward graces, reform in our next Number.


and still may be able to speak to the

souls of his hearers with a power which will only say at present, that if the they cannot gainsay or resist. violent hand of spoliation is to be be ignorant of this world's wisdom, and effectually warded off, the most likely still be deeply read in the intricacies of means to effect this object will be to

the human heart. He may have received

none of those artificial assistances by which make these seats of ecclesiastical

man endeavours to supply the want, or dignity and emolument so obviously to increase the effect, of natural powers; and practically useful, that no man and still he may have been endued with who has the least regard for religion shall set all the feeble imitations of man

an unction and a power from above, which or the church, would wish to curtail at defiance. It is easily possible to contheir revenues, or diminish their ceive a person such as this; one who splendour. Chancellors, archdeacons, should be to all appearance destitute of and deans, are more or less working education, and who should still possess,

in a degree which education cannot reach, officers, though not in every case to

that great power of moving men's minds, the extent that might be desirable ; for which it is the office of education to but canons, prebendaries, or other prepare the preacher; and who, in his dignitaries who succeed to a portion Bible only, thus read, marked, learned, of the emoluments designed for those tained just the only knowledge that is

and inwardly digested, should have obwho in the times of Popery had much wanted for the work of the ministry; the,

He may

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knowledge, without which no saving effect of antiquities, but it will be merely that
can be produced; but with which, when he may comprehend more fully the pecu-
duly and affectionately exerted, the man, liarities of expression he meets with in
whosoever he may be, becomes at once a the Scripture. He will need, more or
scribe rightly instructed unto the kingdom less, those sciences which are usually
of heaven.”
pp. 31-33.

taught under the names of logic, rhetoric, But this very alleged case of great that he may be able to state more clearly,

or philology; but he will only need them utility without what is by many con

and to impress more deeply, through their sidered essential learning, leads to help, the inferences be deduces from the the essence of the whole question; Scripture. To enable bim to extract namely, that the chief qualification, from Scripture something of its inex

haustible riches of wisdom and of knowso far as schools and study can

ledge, he will need every aid which study, qualify, is that which this supposed or

or experience, or learning can afford. To unlearned man possessed in a very enable him to meet the obstinate deceithigh degree,--a thorough knowledge fulness of the human heart, and to apply

to the conscience those wholesome truths of the word of God. Most delightful

which it is unwilling to admit, he will is it to us to observe the explicitness need every art which the schools of rheand Christian boldness with which toricians used to offer ; but these will be our author, himself an examining

merely used as means for a certain end, chaplain, lays down and

and they will be all sought in order that

they may be turned to that purpose. The important proposition. The candi.

comprehension of Scripture, the interpredate for holy orders has been too tation of Scripture, and the application of often relegated to rival schools of Scripture, these will be his employments; theological dialectics, instead of being Scripture will be the material on which

but, under all the varieties of his work, sent at once and supremely to the

he is employed; and nothing will possess oracles of Inspiration. Many a young any value in his eyes, nor seem to contrimanwelldisposed to religious inquiry, bute to the accomplishment of his end, and not inclined to shrink from a

except it is derived from the authority of reasonable portion of study, has felt

Scripture as its principle, or tends in

some way or other to maintain and impress himself so overwhelmed with an array it upon others. of Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Syriac, “ In conformity with this principle, by fathers, antiquities, ecclesiastical which the preparatory studies of her mi

nisters are to be regulated, the Church history, intricate controversies, her- of England seems herself to have been meneutics, thorny and thistly systems guided. She does not despise antiquity; of divinity, elaborate collations of she does not neglect those human means families of texts, and individuals of which may add dignity to her offices and

solemnity to her worship; she does not families, as almost to despair of ever

reject the use of that light which God being able to understand the plain kindled originally in the intellect and meaning of the Bible, or to compose

reason of men ; but she endeavours so to a discourse for popular edification.

use, so to employ and exercise them, that We are not disposed, nor is Mr. vealed word, and display and manifest

they may act in subordination to the reRaikes, to undervalue this sort of forth its powers to greater edification. Biblical apparatus, so far as it can be in the same manner the studies of her obtained without unreasonable sacri- ministers are to be applied, not to the fice: but after all, the Bible, and the Scripture ; but simply and entirely to the

neglect, far less to the exclusion, of the Bible alone, is the religion of Protest- development of its statements, to the eluants; and the Bible, and the Bible cidation of its mysteries, for the purpose alone, is the foundation of knowledge of inquiries carried on in the most reve

rential respect for its authority, and in for the Christian minister.

the most entire submission to its conclu“ The Bible, and we may add with sions. That sacred volume which is placed safety, the Bible alone, is the learning in the hands of her ministers at the moment essential to the Christian minister. Other of their ordination, is not merely the token, accomplishments he will need; but he but it forms the substance of their future will need them only in reference to this, labours. Thenceforward that book is to and in subordination to this. He will be their all. In that, they are to trace need the knowledge of languages; but it their own credentials. In that, they are will be merely that he may understand to find the terms of the reconciliation more accurately the meaning of the word which it is their office to proclaim to of Scripture. He will need a knowledge others. In that, they are to seek the re

medy for the various evils which it will terpretation. In all pursuits, something

that they can find within that book thing may be taken for granted; and can be neglected, for all is given by in- we may safely enter into the labours spiration of God; and in its various appli- of other men in points of mere reeations is profitable for reproof, for cor- search, which we cannot work out rection, for instruction in righteousness. for ourselves. The full length and Nothing that they can say will possess authority, unless it be derived from

this ; breadth of theological lore are, at all and nothing which is derived from this events, rather for subsequent study can be rejected with impunity by those to than for previous training. If much whom it is addressed. “ Look at it in whatever way we

can be attained, it is well; the more choose, the claims it possesses are para

solid and valuable reading the better, mount, are irresistible. As coming from provided the student duly ruminates God; as being literally his word—the upon, and prays over, what he reads; word which the Creator utters to his but if candidates for orders cannot creature man, the knowledge which Infinite Wisdom sees fit to communicate attain every thing, it is surely better what can demand such reverence? As to begin with the beginning, and to addressed to man himself, as containing learn what is most essentially, dithe message of reconciliation, the means rectly, and substantially serviceable. by which the sinner may find peace and acceptance with God—what can be of so

The sacred Scriptures, read, marked, much importance for men to hear? As learned, and inwardly digested, are offering comfort to those that are wretched, the nourishment of spiritual life, and light to those that are in darkness,

hope the peculiar qualification for one who so welcome? As opening heaven to the aims to be a faithful minister of Jesus view of man, as unfolding the purposes Christ. In religion a text is an arof God towards ourselves ; as clearing up gument, and the strongest of all arthe doubts

and uncertainties of our present state by the realities of that which is to guments; and much of excellent decome; as raising us above ourselves, and monstration and declamation is often as shewing us things which are beyond all quite thrown away, when “ Thus nature-what can be so glorious ?” pp. 33 saith the Lord” would have settled

the question. Every merely moral This brings the whole matter into argument in a sermon may be met a comparatively small and manage- by counter arguments; for if virtue able compass. There is ample study is excellent, vice is alluring ; but for the longest life and most power. what can be replied to “Be ye holy, ful intellect; yet there is tangible for I am holy;" or to “ We beseech instruction for those whose leisure you by the mercies of God that ye is little, and their ability not great. present your bodies a living sacrifice, The most simple may rise to it; the holy and acceptable unto God,”. most elevated cannot ascend above even if it had not been added, that it. Few clergymen have time, even this is “

a reasonable service ?” Forif they have taste, to go very deeply, cibly does Mr. Raikes demand, and least of all in their preparatory

“ Alas! is it not obvious, that while studies, into some of the matters

men have been engaged in this lengthened, of critical and biblical learning, so fruitless course, time has been passing, admirably condensed by Mr. Hart- souls have been perishing, and breaches well Horne ; nor is it every one, church of Christ? Is it not notorious,

many and wide have been made upon the Mr. Raikes remarks, that can fill up that the victories gained in this mode of the whole outline traced by even Mr. proceeding, have been few, and questionBickersteth and Mr. Bridges in the able, and undecided? The regular may Christian Student, and the Christian have been made more regular ; the moral,

the intellectual part of mankind may have Ministry, though this range is less been amused, enlightened, or confirmed learnedly discursive than that which is in the paths they had chosen ; but no often propounded in books on clerical brands have been plucked from the fire,

no sinners have been converted, no instudy, and more directly connected

roads have been made on the kingdom of with practical, devotional, and pas- ignorance and vice ; and Satan may have toral matter, than with critical in- seen with satisfaction the energies of the

Christian world exerted in a form, which like our own truly scriptural Articles, would never endanger the security of his

we agree with our author that there empire.

* But it is otherwise with the word of is danger of the mind becoming God. From that there is no appeal; cramped, if these, instead of the against that there is no resistance to be Scriptures, are made the text, and offered. Men must either be convinced the Bible is only used, as it were, to and believe, or must throw off the self

There is, delusion of religion together with its prove or illustrate them. semblance. In this case they cannot however, no reason why both meprotect their disobedience by a long-pro- thods should not proceed together ; tracted combat ; they cannot be defending there must, indeed, inevitably be their sins by disputing the authority which condemns them. The contest must be

more or less of a system in the mind at once decided : and they must soon be of every person who has heard sermade to feel that the Scriptures are to mons, or read religious books; and them the savour of life unto life, or of the danger hence resulting is, not death unto death.” pp. 61, 62.

in using what light we have already Mr. Raikes proceeds to answer attained, or suppose we have atthe objection, that this method of tained, with a view to gain more, theological study-namely, sending but in so confidently taking for grantthe inquirer to Scripture to form his ed that we are right as to refuse to views, rather than taking a system listen to Scripture against our sysof divinity, say the Thirty-nine Ar- tem; thus bending the text to the ticles of the Anglican Church, as a comment, instead of the comment to centre to set out from in his excur- the text. The plain simple way of sions—is likely to render his reading getting at the water of life is, doubtdesultory, and to lead him into mis- less, to go to the fountain : in the takes which he might have avoided, Bible is all essential religious truth ; had he taken with him a clue to the but since there are many versions general question. There is doubt- and perversions of this truth extant less something to be guarded against, in the world, it becomes necessary, and something to be gained on each it cannot indeed be avoided, to try side. We read the Bible with more what we hear by what we read ; intelligence when we know before- what man tells us is Scripture, by hand, as every person educated in what Scripture itself says ; and in Christian principles does, some of this view it is surely a profitable the chief points to which it relates. study, and conducive to large views This enables even an unlearned man of Christian theology, to take what to appropriate and apply its decla- is called a system of divinity, such rations with comparative facility; as we find in our creeds, articles, and whereas, were it put into his hands catechism, and to try it, point by for the first tii without a word of point, by the word of God. Mr. explanation, he must read the whole Raikes, we are sure, does not mean of it over more than once before he any thing contrary to this; indeed, could be sure that he had grasped so far as we can gather, he expressly the general scope. The great truths intends to urge this mixed view of which enter into all orthodox creeds the subject; but the more general and catechisms are a common stock danger is in beginning with human accumulated by the diligent study, systems rather than with the word meditation, and prayer of many wise of God: and therefore most usefal and holy men; they are results, not and seasonable is his exhortation to authorities; and may be lawfully the religious student to make the and serviceably used as assistances Bible his text-book, and to call no and stepping stones. These, of man master in matters on which the course, Mr. Raikes does not mean inspired record is our only guide. the student to put out of sight. We merely interpose the opposite With regard to more elaborate sys- caution, for the sake of some who tems comprising numerous details, really do verge towards what is lati. tudinarian, and are shaken to and spised, nor is science or elegant fro, by not considering that general literature, or even good taste; and analogy of faith which may be law. Mr. Raikes's own pages and periods fully and usefully employed—not to would loudly reclaim against his par. oppose Scripture, but to elucidate ricidal act, if he affected to overit, by bringing the results of many look their value ; but he evidently plain texts to bear upon any one feels that these things have been too which appears doubtful. Mr. Raikes, often put out of their place; and that, in his cautionary remarks against strange as it may appear in a Promisemploying systems in biblical testant and Apostolical church, it has interpretation, seems particularly to become necessary to vindicate the refer to such questions, for example, claims of the Bible to be the text as the Divine decrees ; and here we book, the manual, and the oracle, of heartily agree with him, for if a man the Christian and clerical student. come to the Bible, determined to Every man who is anxious for pracstrain every thing to a preconceived tical spiritual usefulness, will feel the notion on points like these, he must force of our author's arguments. In procrustianize not a few texts in the so saying, we do not diminish from operation.

the claims of our universities, which The word of God, then, is the give that basis of general education proper subject for the minister's stu- which is desirable for the members dies; a sentiment most religious and of every liberal profession. But here Protestant, and which we the more their present system stops ; they do rejoice to see so directly and zeal- not profess to make lawyers, or phyously advocated by a clergyman fill. sicians, or divines. The lawyers and ing the responsible office of a bishop's physicians are formed elsewhere; but examining chaplain, because we have where are the divines formed ? What thought that the wish to secure moral hospitals are open for them to clerical competency is not always walk? What spiritual inns of court duly regulated by a just consider- invite them to sacred studies? Where ation of what that competency are they taught the statute law of mainly consists in. The examina- Heaven, and the forms and precedents tions of candidates for holy orders of pastoral theology and practice ? were too often, a few years since, The nearest resemblance to the disgracefully lax and perfunctory; kind of theological institution which to remedy which, some prelates have we think the exigencies of the instituted examinations, strict in- times and the church demand, deed, and requiring much informa- may be found in some of the Distion and effort, but often, as to the senting and Missionary establishmost essential points, of compara- ments, and in the theological semitively little practical value. Too naries in the United States and else. much has been expected from what where. The Church Missionary Sois barely technical; from the tools ciety's Institution at Islington, with and implements of the profession, such alterations as might be' necesconsidered in the hard dry character sary from the difference between a of “ a profession." Mr. Raikes missionary and an ordinary pastor, would go far beyond this; and quite would furnish an excellent model. sure we are that an examination for What is wanted is an institution in orders conducted upon the principles which not so much literature (even adverted to in this book, would be sacred literature) is the great object a far more effectual guarantee for of pursuit, as religion, and the means pastoral and pulpit efficiercy, than and habits under the blessing of God the most rigid inquisition conducted of diffusing it. We do not ask for upon a mere scholastic plan, whe- a college, but for a clerical family. ther classical, critical, or historical. The daily prayers, the lectures, the Scholarship is not indeed to be de- public services, the social recrea

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