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a part of the system. The whole great ; certainly not greater than aspect of the plan should be such many of the richer dioceses could as comports with a “school of the afford from their present resources ; prophets.” Some of the missionary but it would not be necessary to institutions and academies for train- have such a seminary in every see, ing Dissenting ministers approach for one might serve for two or three very nearly to our idea of the general of the lesser ; though in general we character of such an institution. It should incline to the system of having should be a sort of family, rather than only a small number of pupils in a mere college; and there should not each institution, making it, as we only be public lectures and private have said, a clerical family, and study, but general habits of religious allowing of ample supervision and conversation; and the subjects, even personal knowledge. A large misof table-talk, should be such as be- cellaneous society would defeat the fit a spiritual household. Upon the whole object. The students might character of the studies we shall not pay a considerable portion of their expatiate: they should include what- actual expenses, which need not be ever, under the Divine blessing, may large, as the members of the cathedral conduce to the maturity of the Chris- would, under the system, supply intian student and the well-furnished struction without charge to the stuminister of Christ. The composition dents, being remunerated either geof sermons would be a particular nerally or specifically from the chapter object of attention ; nor would their funds; and some of the prebendal oral delivery, or the public reading houses, or other superfluous chapter of the service of the church by buildings might be devoted to the obthe students, be considered points ject without much immediate outlay unworthy of diligent care. The of capital. Even as things now are, students might also, under proper such a system mightin many instances regulations, visit the sick, converse be carried into effect without much with the poor, and assist in Sunday. difficulty, where the bishop, dean, school instruction, especially if the and chapter should set in earnest children of the city were collected about it. Nor would it be any innofor that purpose in the aisles of the vation, but a restoration ; for in the cathedral. The chancellor or the times of Popery the cathedrals had archdeacon, being resident, might, if their scholastic appendages for the their other duties were not too great, priesthood, and some of the Reformers superintend the seminary; and the recommended similar institutions dean and prebendaries, or a certain under the Protestant establishment, number of them, might give lectures which has grievously suffered for want in theology. A year or two spent thus of them. We must say, that it was not would be of inestimable value through honest to seize the chantry lands and life to the young men; and advantage kindred revenues, and to do so little for would arise from the plan in various the church or the public as has been ways. The talents, capacities, cha- done for the last three hundred years. racters, attainments, and habits of But we must leave our readers to the students would be in general so fill up the rest, our space requiring well known that a bishop or an that we should conclude these exincumbent could without difficulty tended remarks. We would only fix upon the sort of person he again observe, that unless more than wanted for any particular station. the shell of religion, more than the Young men of piety and suitable name and form of piety, pervades the endowments would not beoverlooked; venerable precincts of our cathedrals, and many would be far better quali- all routine, all verbal reformation, is fied for the sacred office than uni- vain. We must have the great versities will ever qualify them. The matters of faith, and conversion, and expense of the plan needs not be the love of Christ, and the power of CHRIST. Observ. No, 362.


the Holy Ghost conspicuous through church. Let but the individuals who every stage of the process, or every fill them, and who enjoy the leisure thing is worthless. How much the and the advantages they include, rebishops might do in this work of member that a reformed cathedral cathedral reform, we have not at- was not intended to harbour idle tempted to point out. We have seculars, or even pious regulars, but been much struck with the proceed- men of intelligence, devotedness, and ings in the conventions (for they zeal; and let those who have the have no cathedrals) of the Protestant power of appointing to them bear in bishops in the United States: and it mind the great ends to which they appears to us that many of their plans may be made conducive, and there might be adopted with great advan- seems little reason to doubt of the retage by our English bishops. We sult. A reformation of our cathehave been particularly impressed with drals may be reasonably pressed by many of their charges, and the na- those who are most anxious for ture of the topics touched upon in their maintenance; and if it is posthem, and with the general character sible so to modify the system as of their questions to their clergy. to meet the exigences of the preAs one instance among many, we sent state of things, it is likecull the following heads from one wise hoped that it will be easy to of Bishop Griswold's episcopal ad- vindicate their value by the benefits dresses :-" The parishes he has which they are thus made to provisited; their condition and pro- duce to the community. If they spects ; candidates for orders; ordi. cannot be made useful in a high nations; changes by deaths and re- and obvious degree, so useful that movals ; religious institutions; new the public at large may see and acchurches; deficiency of clergy; mis- knowledge their utility, their date is sionary zeal; prospects of the sealed, and the best of them is not church; Sunday schools; parochial worth many years' purchase. But reports; importance of much prayer; we hope better things; and we trust union and love ; devotion to God; that, even in this evil day, reformation danger of sectarian spirit ; Evange will prevent spoliation. lical preaching; missions, home and foreign, and the way to apply them.” Each of these heads is filled up with much valuable and useful matter.

But we must pass on and conclude. It must be the desire of every member of the Church of To the Editor of the Christian Observer. England, that the church to which The newspapers lately contained an he belongs should be still seen assi. account of that annual nuisance, the milated as much as possible to the Westminster Latin play, with the church of Christ, of which it forms prologue and epilogue for the occaa part; and like that be found “not sion. How it is that such a prachaving spot or wrinkle, or any such tice can be still continued in a thing.” That our cathedral esta- Christian country, and a professedly blishments, as they exist at present, Christian seminary, from which not can be considered euch, is not to be a few of the future bishops and pastors admitted ; and whether they may of Christ's flock are drafted to the not, in a moment of peculiar diffi- university ? and still more, how is it culty, be shorn of some of their that Christian fathers and mothers splendour in order to relieve a more should allow their sons to be contacrying want, is open to consider- minated by such heathen pollutions ? ation : but sure we are that they What must be the feelings of a boy are capable of being made efficient who has hitherto been trained up in and effective parts of the body of the the nurture and admonition of the,



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Lord, when carried into this digusting either guess, or are expressly taught
scene? The whole is one mass of for the occasion, are the language
corruption ; whether we consider the and demeanour of the most aban-
speeches, the plot, the sentiments, doned men and abandoned women;
the characters, or the very dresses and all the arts of cheating parents,
decorations; boys being clad in the corrupting female innocence—but
attire of women, andacting their parts. I stop ; let the Christian public, let
And what women! What men also ! common decency do the rest.
Men and women whose conduct I feel unwilling to allude to indi-
and occupations cannot be named viduals who are implicated in these
in pages which may be read by the proceedings, lending their sanction
sisters and brothers of these very to them in their manhood and to
young men ; speeches, characters, their grey hairs, because they found
and actions so grossly licentious, them so in the days of their youth ;
that they would not be tolerated on for so, and worse than I have de-
the most profligate London stage. I scribed, they were at the very mo-
have not attended one of these dis- ment when Dr. Vincent was vindi-
graceful exhibitions for many years ; eating Westminster School against
but the very last time I was present the charge of the present venerable
I was pained and disgusted beyond Dean Rennel, that the boys at our
expression by the whole proceeding. public schools are not educated as
I hardly know how to allude to some beseems their baptismal vow. If
of the characters ; but one may suf- proof were wanted of the ill effects
fice :: boys are taught to utter dis- of the whole system, it might be
tressing screams and exclamations found in the annual prologues
behind the scenes ; and what do the and epilogues manufactured for
mothers who read these lines suppose the occasion. Terence is made
their sons are being instructed to imi- to hand; and the sin is only in
tate? Let them imagine the most the adoption of his heathen wick-
tender and anxious hour of domestic edness ; but the prologues and epi-
privacy—but I must refer to that logues are composed expressly for
blessed book which alone can speak the occssion. And of what do they
on all subjects with a majesty which consist ? What are the subjects
makes all subjects holy : let them which these Christian and clerical
turn, for example, to the xxvith instructors teach or allow their pupils
chapter of Isaiah. I have said to write upon, and to spout upon,
enough; and if even a guarded allu- before their reverend, right reverend,
sion, for the purpose of solemn re- noble and plebeian auditors ? On the
prehension and correction, is not late occasion they consisted of flip-
hazarded without pain, what will pant witticisms about the Bristol
Christian mothers think of a public riots ; putting things in “ schedule
representation of such a scene by A ;” and the concerns of the black-
young men and boys, before bishops, guard (I sincerely beg pardon of your
noblemen, and clergymen, including readers, but there is no other word
their own tutors, and amidst the sufficiently expressive) theatres of
laughing and tumultuous clapping of the Adelphi, Sadler's Wells, or
hundreds of thoughtless spectators ? similar places, with the feats of some

But it is not such grosser circum- man of the name, duly latinized, of stances only that are censurable; “ Ducrow;" the bad taste of infor were Terence's plays much more troducing living animals on the Londelicate than they are, it would be a don stage; and similar scholastic and serious evil to keep boys breathing a Christian topics. Yet boys who are theatrical atmosphere for weeks and encouraged to write thus, and are months together; thinking of nothing honoured and rewarded for it, would but spouting, gesticulating, dressing be flogged for a false quantity or in character, and imitating what they lame foot. Is this Christian edu

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84 On the Influence of the Heathen Classics in Christian Education. (Feb, cation? What ought pupils at a is too apt to mislead the mind of seminary of godly and useful learn- youth; and this, with various degrees ing to know of the management of of assent, will be admitted by a great play-houses ? Is it intended by way number of persons. But surely it of contrast to teach them what they cannot but be allowed that the absurd are to avoid, both as Christians and inconsistencies, the palpable contragentlemen, in after-life? Is it fur- dictions contained in the mythology ther meant as a suitable preparation of Greece, are such as could not for to their becoming statesmen, cler- a moment induce the mind even of gymen, or senators ? I blush and a child to consider its characters as grieve while I write : and I write objects of imitation, still less of restrongly because I have seen and spect. Meekness is not so easily known the evil effects of such prac- reconciled with malevolence, or the tices. Into the detail of these I will passions of envy, revenge, and strife, not enter; to the Christian mind no with the truly Christian temperament specification is necessary; and in- which the student knows from his deed even of practices less revolting Bible to be the only standard of imi. it is argument enough to every spi- tation. Such a system, as your corritually-minded man that “these respondent well observes, has been things are not of the Father, but of preserved from decay solely by the the world.”

taste and genius of the writers by whom it has been adopted.

The writer has too, I think, by the introduction of extraneous facts, made out a somewhat stronger case than the question will of itself admit.

For instance, he has mentioned To the Editor of the Christian Observer. the demoralization of our youth.

public schools as a great cause of I READ with much pleasure an in- Now the evils arising from the metelligent and well-intentioned article thod or plan of education should not in one of your late Numbers “ on be confounded with the studies which the Influence of the Heathen Classics form its groundwork. The disadon Christianity.”. I cannot, how- vantages in this case arise undoubtever, but think that the writer has, edly not from the nature of these in his zeal for the Gospel, been led pursuits, but from the natural tento a conclusion which will to many dency of man to evil ; a latent corappear unfounded. He does not, in- ruption which, ever seeking occasion deed, wholly discountenance the study to burst forth, develops itself the of classical writers, but he has attri. more when aided by example and buted to their pursuit many ill effects opportunity. which have unquestionably arisen The question, whether what appears from other sources.

so great a sacrifice of the most valu. The question undoubtedly deserves able period of our lives should be no small share of consideration, devoted to the service of classic lore, whether the present system of public is one which might afford matter for education, which has been so often attentive consideration. severely censured as having derived With regard to the good effects its origin from the blindness of our produced by the study of the writers ancestors, and as being continued by of antiquity, it may not be superfluous those who were interested in its to add a few words. If the cultivapreservation, be so entirely void of tion of our morals were the sole end utility as has been often supposed. of our being, if mental improvement

The writer affirms that heathen were a thing forbidden, then we mythology, by encouraging the worst should indeed do right in bidding passions and the grossest sensuality, farewell to the studies in which our earlier days were employed. But it not superadd any observations, but can hardly be denied that the taste that he has tacked to his argument and the imagination demand some the consideration of the more extendegree of culture. And whatever sively important question of the utiobjections be made to this in theory, lity of the general administration of yet in practice no firmer basis has oaths. been discovered on which to found A bill was lately introduced into the principle of our taste than the parliament having for its object the study of ancient writers. The fact reduction of the number of civil oaths, is, that amidst numerous evils which with reference to those now in practhe casual observer perceives in such tice in the House of Commons; but a system, there is much good that principally those which are required he does not see. To say nothing of in the collection of the excise duties. the knowledge of human nature and Such an alteration will be hailed with the profound philosophy displayed satisfaction by every reflecting, not by the framers of the Greek language, to say religious, man engaged in it is not a small thing if the patient commercial pursuits, who witnesses and steady habit of application ac- their administration on exceedingly quired by its diligent study be carried trivial occasions, and under circumon to the making more important ac- stances least of all calculated to imquisitions, and a calm endurance of press the mind with a sense of the the ills of life.

awful responsibility which is assumed, - Never, however, let the subservi. and ought ever to be considered as ence of intellectual to moral excel. adjoining itself to so serious a matter lence be forgotten; the simple wish as an appeal to the Searcher of all of benefiting a fellow-creature, or hearts and the Judge of all mankind. the expression of thankfulness to a I am inclined, also, to suppose that Divine Preserver, being in itself far in judicial as much as in civil cases more noble than the loftiest flights oaths are neither useful nor necessary of human genius.

R. A. —that they are unnecessary for the

purposes of justice, and useless for the attainment of their original de

sign. ON THE INUTILITY AND EVIL EFFECTS In reasoning this matter, it may OF OATHS.

be well first to draw the attention of To the Editor of the Christian Observer. the nature and origin of oaths.

readers to the consideration of

your A PAPER in your October Number, The definitions which various ausigned An Esoteric,” induces the thors give of the word“ oath " are as attention of your readers to a regu- diversified as language can possibly lation of King's College, London, make them; not so much, however, which requires all its students to in the meaning as in the mode of enter a declaration “ that they will expression : but I take it that the strictly abide by such rules and re- meaning of an oath may be defined gulations as the council shall lay as twofold ; first, as an appeal to the down for the government of the Supreme Being to witness the truth college, so far as the same may affect of what we assert, imprecating mithe students in attendance on the sery in a future state if our assertion regular course or otherwise." is not borne out by the fact; and

The question raised is, Whether secondly, as a method which has it is judicious to require of boys of been for ages adopted to enforce a sixteen years of age such a stipula- reciprocal confidence for the performtion; and your correspondent clearly ance of a promise, and for a strengthshews that it is not. For his argu- ening assurance that the requirements ments I refer your readers back to of any agreement entered into will his communication : and I should be the more faithfully complied with.

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