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his hands into their bosoms ; expressed his sense of its being comfortable ; and slept, when he was not roused to take nourishment. · In this situation he remained several hours, till they had compleated a road for his conveyance out of the pit. Whilst they were carrying him, he had a motion to make water and to go to stool, but had not fufficient power to accomplish either. At one o'clock on Sunday morning, he was brought to his own house ; put into bed, well co. vered, and fed with chicken broth. But his weakness rendered him indifferent to nourishment. He continued to doze and sleep; and, note withstanding his pulse seemed at first to increase in vigour, it becaine quick about five o'clock, when he warned them of his approaching end, and expired, without a struggle, in a few minutes. Though Travis had been asthmatic for many years, his respiration was remarked to be clear and easy, under the circumstances above described. He remained perfectly sensible till his death ; but had no accurate idea of the duration of his confinement in the pit; for, on being interrogated concerning this point, he estimated the time to have been only two days; yet added, that he thought those days were very long.'
Several other particulars are added to this affecting narrative ; various phyfical observations are made on it; and certain portable compofitions are prescribed for alleviating the effects of famine. This paper, or memoir, by the excellent Dr. Percival, is an happy example of that union of philosophy with the practical purposes of life, which is the great end of the Manchester Institution.
* Result of some Observations made by Benjamin Rush,M.D, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Philadelphia, during his Attendance as Physician-General of the Military Hofpitals of the United States, in the late War. Communicated by Mr. Thomas Henry, F. R. S. Read Oct. 5, 17850" These observations are objects of great curiosity and utility.
Thus we have laid before our readers a fuccinct view of the first-fruits of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. This Society is evidently adorned with many men of great learning, of high genius, and, what is of much importance in giving the proper direction and application to literary investigation, of candid minds, and benevolent hearts. While the natural sublimity of their genius carries them onward to the most abstracted speculation, the GENIUS of the place, the busy spirit of Manchester, seems, amidst all their views, ever and anon to remind them of the interests of mankind. It is their glorious object to subdue Naturé by knowing, and yielding to her laws ; from the stores of science, to increase the resources, and to guide the hand of art; and, by the combined aid of both, to alleviate the miséries, and to multiply the enjoyments of human life.
Art. III. A short Address to the Public ; containing some Thoughts how
the National Debt may be reduced, and all Home Taxes, including Land Tax, abolished. By William, Lord Newhaven. 8vo. Debrett. London. 1786.
LORD Newhaven, after a few pertinent observations on the
present state of this nation, the commercial spirit of the age, and the discouraging effects of taxes on manufactures and trade, quotes the reports of the commissioners of the public accounts, in order to impress, on the minds of his readers, a just sense of the enormous magnitude of the national debt, and the necessity of the most serious and vigorous efforts for its reduction. He then proceeds to propose two schemes, either of which he thinks fitted for paying off the national debt, in the course of a very few years.
First, he estimates the annual income of Great-Britain, in land, houses, and personal property, at one hundred millions ; which, valued at the moderate rate of twenty years purchase, will make a principal of two thousand millions, on which he supposes one per cent. to be charged annually, till the national debt be paid. This would afford a revenue of twenty millions yearly; the surplus of which, after all necessary deductions for the annual interest on the funded debt, on the unfunded debt, and the annual charges of management at the Bank and South-Sea House, amounting to 11,301,0361. 55. uid. would pay off the national debt in a very short time; all internal taxes, including land-tax, to be abolished after the first payment of one per cent. made at the receipt of his majesty's exchequer.
Secondly, Lord Newhaven supposes, that
• There is to be found in Great Britain the following number of perfons, one with another, capable of paying the following annual sates, in consideration of which to abolish a certain part of the most burthenfome taxes every year, in proportion to the money paid into the exchequer, such as those on soap, candles, leather, salt, window lights, land-tax, and housęs, &c. viz.
· Two millions of persons, at 121. 10s, would raise 25 millions per annum.
• One million of persons, t 251. would raise 25 millions per
• Five hundred thousand persons, at 50l. would raise 25 millions per annum.
• Two hundred and fifty thousand persons, at 100l. would raise 25 millions per annum.
• One hundred and twenty-five thousand persons, at 2001. would raise
culate with certainty upon the operation of these plans, and to pro-
• The rental of lands.
• The amount of personal property to be calculated from the rentof the houses each perfon occupies; and to come at as competent a knowledge of this as can be obtained, copies of the commissioners of the land tax, and the receivers of the house-tax books, by'which the fame is collected, may be laid before the House of Commons, from the King's Remembrancer's Office of the Exchequer, into which, by the 30th Geo. Il, the commilioners of the land-tax are obliged, every year, to deliver a schedule or duplicate in parchment, under their hands and seals, containing the whole fum affefied upon each parish or place respectively, in England and Wales, and Berwick upon Tweed.
• It will, no doubt, be said, but how is the army, navy, and the other branches of the civil government, to be provided for, if the home, taxes are abolished ? To this I answer, that, as I conclude foreign nations will not take off the duty on our commodities imported into their respective countries, I propose ftill to continue the duty on goods imported, which I conceive will be nearly adequate to defray all expences, civil and military, in time of peace.'
After this statement, it appears that there would be a small deficiency, which a variety of other savings would easily provide for.
To give some idea of the value of houses, he takes notice that their rental, in the single hundred of Offulston, in the county of Middlesex, on which a three-penny rate was laid, to make good the damage done by the riots in 1780, amounted to the enormous sum of 1,605,0541. and this not above two-thirds of their value.
Lord Newhaven proceeds to fhew the proper mode of carrying these schemes into execution, to obviate objections to their novelty, and to specify the principal advantages that would arise, from the arrangements proposed to the nation.
What the author has suggested, doubtless, merits attention. It must however occur to every person, who attends to the fchemes proposed, that the mode of estimating the wealth of individuals that compose the British nation, by the rentals of land and houses, is extremely imperfect, and therefore unjust. Nor is it certain but the sudden transference of fo high a proportion of men's annnal income to the hands of government, would be attended with enormous public frauds, and private inconveniencies. So sudden and great a shock to the usual course of industry of every kind, it might not perhaps be safe Lo hazard, especially as many of the richest, the most penu
rious, the most selfish and odious part of fociety, according to the schemes propofed, would be exempted from paying their share of the public debt.
Art. IV. A Description, with Notes, of certain Methods of plant
ing, training, and managing all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines, &c. for which his Majesty's Letters Patent have been granted to the Reverend Philip le Brocq, M. A. 8vo. is. 60. Printed for the Author. Sold by Shepherson and Reynolds, 1786.
ments in horticulture, which appear to be founded on folid principles, and some of which, he assures us, have been made with effect. The walls of a garden, he says, ought to be built in such a form, that the angles, not the broadsides, of the walls, be exactly oppofite to the four cardinal points. The two diagonal lines ought to be exactly from north to south, and from east to west. Let any person delineate this plan, and compare it with the usual method of making the walls face the four cardinal points, and let him observe in what manner the rays of the fun, from its rising to its setting, fall on the walls of each, externally and internally, and he will soon perceive, as our author observes, that when the angles are opposite to the four cardinal points, each of the walls will receive, more or less, within and without, the diurnal influence of the fun, and much more equally than according to the prevailing custom.
But our author is no friend to garden walls in any direction, Infiead of elevating trees and shrubs by the aid of walls, he would make them stoop to conquer, as it were, by training them un banks or beds, on horizontal or inclined planes ; thus nourishing them with the genial heat of the sun, reflected by the kindly earth. This is the general principal of his improvements, which he judges, and indeed we are apt to think rightly, is a more effečtual, as well as a more ceconomical mode of raising fruit trees than that of poles and walls. He thinks that vineyards may most certainly be made in various parts of this island with success; and that, in particular, there are eftates in the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Wilts, Dorfet, Hants, Suflex and Kent, which, by plantations of vines, would be doubled in value in a few years. And he hopes to live to see the day, when it will be as common to call for a bottle of true west-country, 'as it is now to ask for real or home, brewed porter: of this he says he has as full a conviction, as if he had already drank of it. In these expectations our author is certainly too fanguine. However, his improvements merit
very serious attention : for, although the culture of vines in this country cannot be expected to become so general in fo short a time ; yet, when we refect that there was a time when it was imagined that vines could not be raised with any advantage, even in Gaul and Germany, on the flow and gradual introduction of the beft fruits, from the warmer into the colder climates, and on the melioration of climates themselves, by the progressive cultivation of the soil, it appears not improbable, that the vine may be one day cultivated with success in England; although not with such rapidity, as would in the least influence the commercial treaty now on foot between this. country and France.
In the laying out ground, and the whole scenery of nature as susceptible of art, our author shews judgment and taste.
In literary composition, particularly in his introduction, and conclufion, he is florid, light and absurd. We have fine moral digreffion, as well as introductions and conclusions in Virgil's Georgics : and digression to human life from the culture of the earth is natural and pleasing ; but, to invoke the fpirit of Yorick, father of digreffions, in one paragraph ; and after starting aside, in his own phraseology, like a broken bow, this way, that way, and every way, to lift up in the next his to heaven in devout contemplation, and in the same breath to talk of tutelar Gods, and the comfort of having a wife : all this, is incongruous and offensive. But invention, genius, and knowledge, are not seldom found in conjuction with even a monstrous depravity of taste; the latter being formed only by an early and habitual conversation with the best models of compofition, especially the Greek and Latin writers.
Art. V. The present Politics of Ireland: confifting of 1. The Right
Honcurable Mr. Hutchinson's Letter to his Constituents at Cork. II. Parliamentary Discussions of the Irish Arrangements; by Melrs. Connolly, Grattan, and Flood, against them ; Fitzgibbon, Mason, Forster, Hutchinfon, for them. II. Mr. Laffan's Observations on the relative Situation of Great Britain and Ireland: with Notes thereon, by an English Editor. 8vo. 25. Ed. Stockdale, London, 1786. THE Subject of Mr. Hutchinson’s letter to his constituents
of Cork is of great importance, to both Great Britain and Ireland : and the matters in dispute between the sister kingdoms are treated by that gentleman with much ability. The objections to the bill for effecting a commercial intera course between Great Britain and Ireland, were, Mr. Hutchinfon observes, partly of a constitutional, and partly of a commercial nature. The introduction of the bill was opposed, prin