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in general are neither greedy, nor eager after riches, while at the same time they seem to avoid gluttony and drunkeness.
Haughtiness is among the chief failings of the nation. They believe themselves to be the sacred offspring of the gods, heaven, sun and moon ; an origin which many of the Asiatic nations, with equal confidence, arrogate to themselves. They also believe themselves to be superior to other men. If a Japanese should bear with patience all other injuries, the pride of other men would be totally insupportable to him. The haughtiness of the Portuguese drove them from this country, and this alone would be sufficient to ruin the trade of the Dutch,
Justice is much regarded by them ; the monarch never exceeds his bounds ; nor is there, either in ancient or modern history, that he has extended his ambition or his demands, to the territories of other people. Their history abounds with heroic atchievements exerted in defending their country against external violence, and internal fedition, but not a single inva. fion of other countries, or other men's property, occurs.
Voltaire fays, that whoever shall desire that his country fhall be neither greater nor less, neither richer nor poorers may justly be called a citizen of the world. Sich are the Japanefe : they with not to acquire the territories of others, nor will they suffer any diminution of their own. They follow the usages of their forefathers, and never adopt the manners of other countries. Justice is always seen in their courts ; their suits are always finished speedily, and without intrigue ; equity is observed even towards the Europeans; so that the contract entered into is neither anulled, nor is it misinterpreted or altered in a single letter, provided the Europeans themselves do not give occasion to such practices.
Liberty is the life of the Japanese ; not indeed fuch a kind of liberty as often degenerates into violence and licentious ness, but a liberty secured and limited by law. I cannot comprehend how it has happened, that some historians have confidered the common people in Japan as floves. A. fervant, who hires himself for a year, is not on that account a slave. A soldier, subject to still more severe discipline, enfiited for a certain, often a confiderable term of years, is not on this: account a flave, though he is content to obey the strictest commands of his officer. The Japanese speak with horror of the Dutch Nave trade. The liberty, both of high and low, is protected by laws; and the uncommon severity of those laws, together with their certain execution, keeps every one within his proper limits. With respect to foreign nations, there is no people, in all the extent of India, fo vigilant over their freedom, and none more exempt fron foreign invasion
oppreffion or fraud. The precautions used for this purpose are without parellel throughout the whole globe ; for, since all the natives who were abroad were recalled, none can leave the coasts of the empire, under the penalty of death; and no foreigner approach them, except a few Dutch and Chinese, who, during the whole time of their stay, are watched like prisoners of state.
Almost every person in Japan has a servant, who waits upon him in the house ; and, when he goes but, carries after him a cap, fhoes, umbrella, a light, or any thing of this kind which he needs.
This nation has never been subdued by any foreign power, not even in the most remote periods; their chronicles contain fuch accounts of their valour, as one would rather incline to consider as fabulous inventions, than actual occurrences, if later ages had not furnished equal striking proofs of it. When the Tartars, for the first time, in 799, had overrun part of Japan, and when, after a considerable time had elapsed, their Heet was destroyed by a violent storm, in the course of a single night, the Japanese general attacked, and so totally defeated, his numerous and brave enemies, that not a single person furs yived to return and carry the tidings of such an unparalleled defeat. In like manner, when the Japanese were again, in 1281, invaded by the warlike Tartars, to the number of 240,000 fighting men, they gained a victory equally complete. The extirpation of the Portuguese, and, with them, of the Christian religion, towards the beginning of the 17th century, was so complete, that scarce a veltige can now be discerned of its ever having exifted there. Many thousands of men were sacrificed; and, at the last fiege alone, not less than 37,000. Nor are these victories, however fignal, the only ones which display the courage of the Japanese. Another instance, which occurred in 1630, is à further proof of it. The governor of Formosa, which then belonged to the Dutch company, thought fit to treat, with ill-advited insolence and injuftice, the master of a small Japanese vessel, who came thither to traffic. The Afiatic, on his return, complained to the enperor of his ill-treatment, as well as of the affront which w offered to the sovereign. His anger being the more roused, as the insult proceeded from despised foreigners, and as he was incapable of avenging it, his life-guard addressed him in the following manner : “ We will no longer guard your person, “ if we are not able to protect your honour: nothing but the « blood of the offender can wash away this stain: command, " and we will either cut off his head, or bring him hithet 66 alive, that you may inflict punishment according to your “good pleasure, and his deferts : fevea of us are enough;
“ neither the danger of navigation, the strength of the fort,
nor the number of his guard, shall free him from our ven“ geance.” After receiving orders, and taking prudent meafures, they arrive at Formosa. Being admitted to an audience by the governor, they draw their fabres, take him prisoner, and carry
him off to their vefiel. This audacious deed was atchieved at mid-day, in the presence of the guard and domestics, none of whom, astonished and dismayed as they were, durst move a step to the assistance of their master, whose head was cleft in the same instant by the adventurers. (Kæmpfer, p. 479.)
He who shall consider the haughtiness, spirit, equity, and courage, will not be surprised at finding them implacable to wards their enemies. They are not less resentful and inexorable than intrepid and high-minded. Their hatred never appears in acts of violence, but is concealed under the utmost coolness, till an occasion of vengeance offers itself. I have seen no people fo little subject to vehement.emotions. You may abuse and insult them as much as you please, they make no reply, but merely shew their surprise, by coolly exclaiming, ha! ha! they conceive, however, in filence, the most deadly hatred, which neither satisfaction of any kind, length of time, nor change of circumstances, can appease. They omit no mark of politeness, either in addressing, or on meeting their adversary, but they counterfeit as great regard for him as for others, till an opportunity of doing hiin some effential damage occurs.
The names of families, and of single persons, are under very different regulations from ours. The family name is never changed, but is never used in ordinary conversation, and only when they sign somne writing; to which they also, for the most part, affix their seal. There is also this peculiarity, that the surname is always placed first; just as, in botanical books, the generic name is always placed before the specific name.
The prænomen is always used in addressing a person ; and it is changed several times in the course of life. A child receives, at birth, from its parents, a name, which is retained will it has itself a son arrived at maturity. A person again changes his name, when he is invested with any office; as also when he is advanced to an higher truft: fome, as empe rors and princes, acquire a new name after death. The names of women are less variable; they are, in general, borrowed from the most beautiful flowers.
The dress of the Japanese deferves, more than that of any other people, the name of national ; fince they are not only different from that of all other men, but are also of the fame form in all ranks, from the monarch to his meanest subject, as well as in both sexes; and, what exceeds all credibility, they have not been altered for at least 2444 years. They univerfally consist of night-gowns, made long and wide, of which several are worn at once, by all ranks and all ages. The more distinguished, and the rich, have them of the finest filk; the poorer sort, of cotton. Those of the women reach down, to the ground, and sometimes have a train; in the men, they Teach down to che heeis : travellers, foldiers, and labourers, either tuck them up, or wear them only down to the knees. The habit of the men is generally of one colour; the women have theirs variegated, and frequently with flowers of gold interwoven. In summer, they are either without lining, or bave but a thin one ; in winter, they are stuffed to a great thickness with cotton or silk. The men seldom wear a great number, but the women thirty, fifty, or more, all so thin, that they scarce together amount to five pounds. The undermoft ferves for a shirt, and is, therefore, either white or blue, and, for the most part, thin and transparent. All these gowns are fastened round the waist with a belt, which, in the men, are about a hand's-breadth; in the women, about a foot; of such a length that they go twice round the waist, and afterwards are tied in a knot, with many ends and bows. The knot, particularly among the fair sex, is very conspicuous, and immediately informs the spectator whether they are married or not. The unmarried have it behind, on their back; the married, before. In this belt the men fix their fabres, fans, pipe, tobacco, and medicine boxes. In the neck the gowns are always cut round, without a collar; they, therefore, leave the neck bare ; nor is it covered with cravat, cloth, or any thing else. The Neeves are always ill-made, and out of all proportion wide : at the opening before, they are half sewed up, so that they form a fack, in which the hands can be put in cold weather; they also serve for a pocket. Girls, in particular, have their Neeves so long, that they reach down to the ground. Such is the simplicity of their habit, that they are soon dressed ; and to undress, they need only open their girdle, and draw in their arms. There is, however, some small variation in these gowns, according to the sex, age, condition, and The very lower forts, as labourers, fishermen, and sailors, have, at their work, in summer, either the upper part of the body naked, so that the gown is fastened only by the girdle ; or they have only, a girdle, which passes between their legs, and is fastened behind.
Men of better condition have a short gown also, which reaches down to the waist, and a sort of breeches. The short gown is sometimes green, but generally black; when they return home, or enter their office, they take it off, and fold it carefully, if no fuperior be present.
A dress, which is only used on particular occafionis, is called the compliment-dress; in this the inferior fort wait on the superior, and go to court. It is worn on the long gowns, which constitute the general dress of the nation. It confifts of two pieces, made of the same kind of cloth. The lowermost piece is the long breeches just mentioned, which, for this purpose, are made of white stuff, adorned with blue flowers. The upper piece is not very unlike the short gown lately described ; it differs only in being widened behind, between the shoulders, and makes the wearer appear very broad-shouldered.
Thefe dreffes are partly of filk, partly of cotton, partly of finen, which is procured from a species of nettle.
The higher fort wear the finest filk, which, in thinness and fineness, exceeds every thing produced by Europe, or other parts of Afia. But as this cloth is feldom a foot in breadth, it is seldom Brought to Europe as an article of commerce. The lower ranks wear cotton, which is produced and manufactured here in the greatest abundance.
Sometimes, though indeed only as a rarity, the Japanese make a cloth from the morus papyriferus, which is either prepared in the fame way as paper, or else spun or woven. The Jatter, which is very fine, white, and like cotton, is fometimes used for women's dress. The former, with Aowers printed on it, makes long gowns, which are worn only by people advanced in life, luch as old dignitaries, and that only in winter.
In general, it may be faid of the Japanese dress, that it is very large and warm ; that it is easily put on and off; that it constrains no limb; that the same habit suits all; that there is no loss of cloth; and that it may be made with little árt and trouble; but that it is inconvenient in moving, and ill adapted for the execution of most things which occur to be done.
As the gowns, from their length, keep the thighs and legs 'Warm, there is no occasion for stockings ; ' nor do they use them in all the empire. Among poorer persons on a journey, and amor g soldiers, which have not such long gowns, one fecs buskins of cotton. I have seen poor people, at Nagafaki, with focks of hempen cloth, with foles of cotton, for keeping the feet warm in the sévéreft weather of winter.
Shoes, or, more properly speaking, flippers, aré, of all that is worn by the Japanese, ihe simpleit, the meanest, and the moit miserable, though in general use among high and low, rich and poor. They are made of interwoven rice-straw
§ and sometimes, for persons of distinction, of reeds split very