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pieces, well dressed and stuffed, and mixed with proper fauce. Hence, every thing being prepared, no one at the table has the trouble of cutting large slices and distributing them among the other guests. At the time of eating each person fets himself down on the soft mat in the usual manner. Before each person is placed a little square table, on which are set the things that are before-hand destined in the kitchen for each guest, on the cleanest veffel of porcelain or japanned wood. These vessels are tolerably large balons, and always provided with a cover. The first dish is fish and fish-soup. The soup is drank out of cups, but the bits of meat are taken up with two lackered skewers, which they hold between the fingers of the right hand, and use fo dexterously, that they can take up the smallest grain of rice with them, and they serve instead of knife and fork. As soon as one thing is finished, the dish is removed and another fet in its place. The last thing is brought in in a blue porcelain cup, which is provided. The servant who carries in the meat falls upon his knees when he sets it down, and also when he removes it. When a number eat in company, they make each other profound bows before they begin. Women do not eat with the men, but by themselves. Between every remove they drink facki, or oil of rice, which is poured out of a tea-kettle into a saucer of varnished wood. At this time they eat sometimes a quarter of a hard boiled egg and with this they empty several faucers. They commonly eat three times a day, about eight in the morning, two in the afternoon, and again at eight. Some eat without any regular order, just as they are bungry, so that the meat must stand ready alí day. Rice, which is of a very white colour and excellent taste, supplies the Japanese with bread; it is dressed with the other meat. Miso-foup, boiled with fish and onions, is universally eaten and commonly at each meal. Miso is like lintseed, it is the small beans of the dolichos foia.

Tea and oil of sacki are the only liquors of the Japanese, à much smaller number than the thirsty Europeans can produce. They never use wine or fpirits, and will scarce taste them when they are offered by the Dutch. The taste of coffee is unknown but to a few interpreters, and brandy is not among them a necessary of life. They have not yet allowed themfelves to be corrupted by the Europeans who visit them. Rather than take from others what may be useful or convenient, they have preferved in its purity an ancient mode of living, left they should unawares introduce practices that may in time become hurtful.

Sacki is a kind of oil which they prepare from rice. It is tolerably clear and not unlike wine, but has a peculiar tafte, which can scarce be accounted very agreeable. When the


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liquor is very fresh it is whitish ; but when it is put into a small wooden veffel it becomes very brown. This drink is kept in all the inns, as wine in the taverns of Europe. It conftitutes their entertainment at festivals and times of rejoicing, and it is used as wine by persons of distinction at their meals. The Japanese never drink it cold, but, heating it in common tea-kettles, pour it out into shailow cups of varnished wood, and take it very warm. They very soon become intoxicated; but this paffes off in a few minutes, leaving behind a severe head-ach. Sacki is imported to Batavia, where it is drarik before meals to whet the appetite ; the white fort, on account of its less disagreeable taste, is preferred. Tea is used over all the country to allay thirst. Hence a kettle with boiling water and pulverized tea is kept over the fire in every house, and more efpecially in every inn. The brown decoction is diluted and cooled with cold water.

Smoking of tobacco was not an ancient practice in Japan, it was probably introduced by the Portuguese. The Japanese have no other name for this plant; both sexes smoke. The quantity consumed is all reared in the country, and is the common sort. It is divided into filaments almost as fine as hair. The pipes are small, scarce more than fix inches long; they are of varnished bamboos, with head and mouth-piece of copper. The head is fo small, that scarce the third of a can be put in, which is done with the finger. A pipe is finished at a few draughts ; it is then emptied of the ashes, and filled again. The smoke is blown out through both the noftrils and mouth. Persons of distinction use the following apparatus : An oblong box, nine inches long, fix broad, and three fingers high, is set before every guest. In this are laid pipes and tobacco; and three cups are set at the same time, all of which are used in smoking. One of these cups, which are generally of thick porcelain, is filled with ashes, on which a live coal is placed to light the pipe: the second serves to receive the ashes, which are struck out of the pipe when it is finished ; it is usual to extinguish them by spitting upon them: the third cup is used as a spitting-box. " When visits are made, this apparatus is the first thing which is presented. A box of this kind is sometimes provided with a cover, which is faftened on with a ribband, and carried by a fervant, when they go to places where they do not expect to be treated with tobacco. The common people generally carry both pipes and tobacco with them when they go out. The pipe is put into a case, which is stuck in the girdle on the right fide. The.purses for holding tobacco are scarce a hand in length or breadth; they are provided with a Nap, which is fastened with

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an ivory hook. These purses are suspended at the girdle by a filken string, and a cornelian, or a piece of agate. They are generally made of a peculiar sort of filk, with interwoven flowers of gold and silver.

The sciences are very far from having arrived at the same height in Japan as in Europe. The history of the country is, notwithstanding, more authentic, perhaps, than that of any other country, and it is studied, without distinction, by all. Agriculture, which is considered as the art moft neceffary, and most conducive to the support and prosperity of the kingdom, is no where in the world brought to such perfection as here, where neither civil nor foreign war, nor emigration, diminifres population; and where a thought is never entertained, either of getting poffeffion of other countries, or to import the useless, and often hurtful productions of foreign lands; but where the utmost care is taken that no turf lies uncultivated, and no produce of the earth unemployed. Astronomy is pursued and respected; but the natives are unable, without the aid of Chinese, and sometimes of Dutch almanacks, to form a true calendar, or calculate an eclipse of the sun or moon within minutes and seconds. Medicine has neither arrived, nor is it likely to arrive at any degree of perfection... Anatomy is totally unknown; the knowledge of diseases imperfect, intricate, and often fabulous. Botany, and the knowledge of medicines, constitute the whole of their skill. They use only simples; and these generally in diuretic and diaphoretic decoctions. They are unacquainted with compound medicines. Their physicians always, indeed, feel the pulse; but they are yery tedious, not quitting for a quarter of an hour; besides, they examine first one, and then the other arm, as if the blood was not driven by the same heart to both pulses. Besides those diseases which they have in common with other countries, or peculiar to themselves, the venereal disease is very frequent, which they have only as yet understood how to alleviate by decoctions, thought to purify the blood. Salivation, which their physicians have heard mentioned by the Dutch surgeons, appears to them extremely formidable, both to conduct and to undergo; but they received, with gratitude and joy, the method of cure by aqua mercurialis, which I had the satisfaction first to instruct them in. Different interpreters used this method as early as the year 1775 or 1776, and perfectly restored, under my direction, many, both in Nogasaki and out of it. Jurisprudence is not an extensive study in Japan, No country has thinner law-books, or fewer judges. Explanations of the laws, and advocates, are things altogether unknown ; but no where, perhaps, are the laws more certainly put in force, without respect to persons, without partiality or


violence. They are very strict, and law-suits very short. The Japanese know little more of physics or chemistry, than what they have learned of late years of the Europeans.

Manufactures are much practised through the whole country. In some cases they are inferior, in others they are superior, to the best-wrought articles of European industry. They work very well in copper and iron. Their filks and cottons equal, and sometimes exceed, those wrought in India. Their varnished wood-ware, especially the old, exceed every thing of the kind which other countries have produced.

Agriculture is in the highest repute. Notwithstanding the wildness of the mountains, the soil, even of the mountains themselves, as well as the hills, is cultivated up to the very top. They need not there premiums and encouragement; since, in that country, the farmer is considered as the inost useful citizen; nor is he oppressed by those numerous burdens which, in other countries, prevent, and at all times will prevent, the improvement of his árt. He is subject to none of those various services which, in many countries of Europe, consume so much of his time and his labour. His whole ob.. ligation consists in the necessity of cultivating his land. If a farmer does not, every year, employ a certain part of his land, he loses it, and another, who is able, may take it. Thus he may employ his whole study and time in the care of his land, affifted in it by his wife and children. There are no meadows in the whole country, but the whole land is either ploughed or planted ; and, no space being loft in extensive meadows, for the support of cattle, nor in large and useless plantations of tobacco, nor in rearing grain of secondary use, the whole country is covered with habitations and people, and is able to maintain, in plenty, its innumerable inhabitants. In no part is manure collected with greater industry; so that nothing, which can be employed for this purpose, is loft. The cattle are fed at home all the year, that every thing which falls from them may remain in the yard ; and horses upon the road are followed by old men and children, for the sake of their dung; nay, even urine itself, which fo seldom is used to fera tilize the fields of Europe, is carefully collected in earthen pitchers, which are buried in the ground, not only in the vilJages, but here and there by the lide of the high road. The manure, thus scrupulously collected, is used in a manner wery different from that of any other country. The Japanese does not carry out his dunghill, either in winter or in summer, into his fallows, to be dried by a burning fun, and to lose strength by the evaporation of the volatile salt and oils, but he submits to the disagreeable task of mixing various forts of dung, and the refuse of the kitchen, with urine and water, till it fo:ms an uniform thin paste, which he carries out in two large buckets to his field, and waters the plant, now grown to the height of a few inches, by means of a ladle, taking care that the moisture fhall penetrate to the root. By this method of manuring, and by affiduous weeding, the fields are kept fo perfectly free of weeds, that the most sharp-fighted will scarce be able to discover, in a journey of several days, a strange plant among the crops. The pains taken by the farmer, to till even the parched fides of the mountains, exceeds belief. Though the spot should not be above a yard square, he will raise a stonewall in the declivity, fill it within with earth, and manure and sow rice, or plant fome vegetable.

A thousand such beds adorn almost every hill, and give them an appearance which surprises the spectator. Rice is the principal grain. Buck-wheat, rye, barley, and wheat, are seldom used. The batata is the most abundant and agreeable root. Several forts of beans and peas are planted in great quantities; as alto mustard, from the seeds of which they express oil for lamps ; its yellow flowers constitute the ornament of whole fields.

Their computation of time takes its rise from Min-o, or 660 years befo e Christ. The year is divided according to the changes of the moon; so that some years confitt of twclve, and others of thirteen months; and the beginning of the year falls out in February or March. They have no weeks consisting of seven days, or of fix working days and a holiday; but the first and fifteenth day of the month serve for a holiday. On these days no work is done. On new-year'sday they go round to with one another a new year, with their whole families, clad in white and blue checquered, their holiday dress; and they rest almost the whole of the first month. The day is divided only into twelve hours; and in this division they are directed the whole year by the riling and setting of the fun. They reckon fix o'clock at the rifing, and fix likewise at the setting of the sun. Midday and midnight are always at nine. Time is not measured by clocks, or hour-glaffes, but with burning matches, which are twisted together like ropes, and divided by knots. When the match is burnt to a knot, which indicates a certain portion of time elapsed, notice is given, during the day, by striking the bells of the temples, and in the night, by the watchmen striking two boards against one another. A child is always reckoned a year old at the end of the year of his birth, whether this happen at the beginning or the close. A few days after the beginning of the year, is performed the horrid ceremony of trampling on images representing the cross, and the Virgin Mary with her child. The images are of melted copper, and


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