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" James's powder was known, and adminiftered in this

country, 120 years ago, but fell into disuse, and was again “ revived as Cornachine's powder about the year 1746. Baron “ Schwanberg, a needy adventurer, communicated the pre“ scription to James, then as needy and obscure as himself, on “ conditions of partnership, which James tried to evade, and

was prosecuted for the fame.” In a word, he defines a quack to be a “ pretender to knowledge of which he is not « poffefsed; and a vender of noftrums, the powers of which he « does not understand. In short, a swindler and a knave in 6 the worst sense of the word."

After speaking thus feverely of empirics, he proceeds to point out the learning, abilities, and qualifications neceffary to constitute a physician ; and next proceeds to censure the lady doctors or lady bountifuls of the age, which he does with fome humour and truth; fhéws how dangerous it is for them, in many cases, to meddle with things beyond their knowledge to judge of; and earnestly recommends

to their confideration whether, in venturing to perform the duties and offices of the physician, they are not in danger of incurring a breach of the sixth com


Upon the whole, however Dr. Adair may differ from others of his profession, and though some of his doctrine, like that of Dr. Cadogan's, may be fanciful and more grounded in imagination than true principle, we think the reader will profit by the perusal, and will find himself agreeably entertained.

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art. VII. Journal and Certificates on the fourth Voyage of Mr.

Blanchard, who afcended from the Royal Military Academy, at Chelsea,
the 16th of O&ober, 1784, and continued his Voyage to Rumsey, in
Hampshire. 4to. 28. 6. Elmley.
HE public is too well acquainted with this voyage of

Mr. Blanchard, to need any further account of it. He here relates every circumstance of his ascent and defcent, at different times, during the course of his progress; the singular sensations he felt at certain elevations; the magnificent prospects he was an eye witness of; the acclamations with which, he was honoured from the several towns he passed over, and the welcome reception he met with from the people on his alighting As it will afford matter of speculation to the philosophic reader, we will gratify him with Mr. Blanchard's account of the inutility of the mariner's compafs, at his greatest elevation from the earth, which he supposes to have been about 4.000 feet perpendicular.

• Elevated,

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<< Elevated, says he, to such an extraordinary height, my compass underwent no apparent variation. As I now perceived nothing but the heavens, and was equally ignorant where I was, and whither I was going, I suffered myself to be carried away, at the mercy of the winds, without making the least attempt to resist

. The observations, relative to the essential immobility of the needle, and the apparent im. mobility of an Aerostat, who is borne along the current of the air, convinced me that, when he has lost fight of the earth, and has no longer any visible points of comparison, the compass becomes totally useless, for the traveller may be carried rapidly or slowly by the wind, in all possible directions, without any variation of the needle, and without perceiving any change in his fituation, since he may advance, retreat, or move obliquely, without being sensible of the tendency of the balloon during each of these motions. The compass, therefore, can be no further useful than where we are enabled to compare the direction of the needle with terrestrial objects ; and to form an idea of the way we are making, by observing the earth, which then appears as retiring on one side, and gives certain data respecting the course we pursue.

• At sea, the direction of the course is determined by the angle made by the needle with the keel of the ship; but in the exalted regions of the air, there are no possible determined points, unless one be within view of the earth. The compass will always want an angle of comparison, when an Aeroftat is above the clouds.'

With fubmiffion to Mr. Blanchard, we do not think he has properly explained himself here, or his translator has not done justice to his account. He

He should have said, without any apparent variations; for the needle might change its direction without his being sensible of such change; for admit the needle pointed to the north, and he was going directly southward, not being sensible of the direction he was going in, for want of some object of comparison, he might conceive he was proceeding on as the needle pointed, though, in fact, he was carried the contrary way. So far, indeed, the compass is useless, when out of sight of the earth ; as, had he been able to have directed his course, he would never have known whether he was right or not. Neither is he able to say, with certainty, whether, at such a distance from the earth, the needle might not have lost its magnetic power in the cold atmosphere ; for that its polar tendency is influenced by cold is well known. Ellis, in his voyage to Hudson's Bay, found, in the latitude of 62° north, that, on failing through the ice, the needles of his compasses lost their magnetic qualities, some acting in one direction, some in another, and not constant to any. He en-' deavoured to remedy this evil, by retouching them with an artificial magnet, but all to no purpose. Now, this he afcribed to the cold, by contracting the pores of the needle, for it was immediately remedied by carrying the compass into a


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warm place. Why might not then the same coldness operate upon the needle in that region of the air, in which Mr. Blanchard was elevated; for, says he, the cold I felt in this lofty region became intolerable ; or the rarity of the air, or the distance of the needle from the center of the earth, might operate so upon it as to effect its magnetic qualities. Therefore it appears as impossible for him to ascertain, whether its polar influence continued true or not.--It is sufficient for an Aerostat to know, that at such a distance from the earth it was useless. Should balloons at any time be rendered useful, we presume it never will be necessary to foar to such a prodigious height, where the compass cannot be made use of.

Mr. Blanchard's account is certainly entertaining and curious; and he has added, by way of appendix, the manner of filling his balloon with inflammable air.

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ART. VIII. Theodofius and Arabella, a Novel, in a Series of Letters.

By the late Mrs. Hampden Pye. 2 vols. 1 2mo. 55. Lane. THIS "HIS novel is rather of the narrative kind, almost devoid of

fable, episode, and character ; but yet fenfibly penned, Thort and concise, and far from being tediously spun out. It is free from that fulsome affected language with which the generality of modern novels is filled, and is dictated with.a degree of plainness and sincerity that must please.

The story is that of a young couple, Theodofius and Arabella, bred up from children in the notion of their being brother and sister, to keep them from encouraging an improper attachment. It does not however prevent it; though, from the supposed tie of consanguinity, they endeavour to conceal it from each other. Arabella is married, and with Theodofius's confent; but the inward Alame destroys his peace of mind, and it goes near to break his heart: and when they are made acquainted that they are only brother's children, it affects them both very sensibly; as, had they known it a little fooner, they might have enjoyed the summit of their wishes, and been closer united. An accident however soon after happens, that puts them both at their ease. Arabella's husband falls in a duel. She is again at liberty, and gives her hand to Theodofius.

The following letter, written by a young lady to Theodofius, with whom she is in love, under an idea that his modesty and flender fortune checked a propofal from bim, is so judiciously written, that we have transcribed it, from an opinion that it must recommend the work.

SIR, • The subject on which I am to address you is of so very extraordi. nary a nature, that I scarce know in what words to clothe it. Yet ENG, Rev. Vol. VI, May 1786.



why fhould I hesitate !-If to distinguish merit, and to value it as it deserves, be a crime, I am indeed highly criminal ; but as I stand acquitted by my own conscience, (that severest of judges) I doubt not but I shall be so by him, whose opinion is of the greatest moment to mę. Know then, Sir, that, accustomed as I have been to the flatteries of your lex, ever since I came into life, you are the only one that ever made an impreffion on my heart. When I firft knew you, I thought you the most amiable and deserving man I had ever met with ; your present fituation of mind, for I have lately feen Mr. Mordaunt) renders you now the most interesting.'

• It will not be accounted vanity, if I say that Augufta Beverly can. not be fupposed to be reduced to the necessity of offering herself; but her knowledge of your character has convinced her, that the only man the can be happy with is perhaps the only one to whom an explicit address would be necessary. To be plain with you, Sir, I am convinced, from what I know of you, that the trifling advantage of fortune on my side would for ever keep you filent, (as it has so many others fpcak) were I not to assure you, that it is of no value to me, than as you consent to share it with me. I offer you with that fortune - friend--a companion, who desires no other happiness in life than that of rendering you so. The only favour I have to request of you is, in case of your declining my offer, that you will not wrong me in your judgment, by withdrawing your esteem from,

SIR, Your most obedient, and

Moft humble servant,

AUGUSTA BEVERLE Y.! There appears 'no impropriety or indecorum in this letter; and for want of that good sense and resolution, apparent in the writer of it, many a young lady has missed an alliance with the object of her affections.

ART. IX. Disertations on the Origin, Nature, and Pursuits of intelligent

Beings, and on Divine Providence, Religion, and religious Worship. In the course of whicb, the Honour and Dignity of the Supreme Being is vindicated from the absurd, if not impious supposition, that by a particular, or partial providence, he interferes, influences and directs the Thoughts and Determinations of Individuals, and the Political Govern. ment, Changes and Events, of States and Kingdoms. To which is added, a neceffary and most equitable Suggestion and Plan for the Relief of the present Exigencies of the State, the Burdens of the People, and a more honourable Mode for supporting the Clergy. Also an essential Sketch for a more rational Form of Worship, a new Liturgy. By J. Z. Holwell, F. R.S. Crutwell, Bath. Cadell, London. 8vo. 25. 60. F the writer of these Differtations be really a Fellow of the Royal Society, he is like a scabby sheep in the flock,

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* In a letter to this gentleman, Theodofius had expressed himself as follows: " Love, which is the source of happiness to others, must now become a source of torments and misery." This the conceives alluded

to her.


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and ought to be expelled; not for wanting parts, for he seems to have his share of them; but for making use of them so improperly, and so inconsistent with a man of understanding and a good citizen. It gives us pleasure to meet with an eccentric genius, and to follow him in his arguments, when those arguments are supported by plausibility and any shadow of reason; but the greater part of the doctrine here advanced is so wild and extravagant, as to tire our patience. He professes himself an Arian, and is apparently tinctured with Deism. The hypotheses on which he grounds his reasoning are as follow:

From these words in Paul's epistle to the Romans, “ And " David says, Lord, thou shalt fave both man and beast,” he infers, that the rebellious angels, who were cast down from heaven, lay some time in a dark abyss,' but that the Supreme Being, relenting from his severity, determined to give them a chance of recovering their former fituation, and therefore created the planetary universe, and placed them here under the forms of men and animals, as in a ftate of probation, and that after a limited period, that is at the consummation of all things, they shall regain their seats in heaven, and be for ever blessed.

He supposes that the apostate {pirits, (who were one third of the angelic body) were not equally guilty, of course were not equally to be punished; that the most atrocious leaders and abettors of the celestial defection were doomed to animate the most ferocious forms, as man, lions, tygers, bears, wolves, and every other species known and Thunned as beasts of prey; that the lefser delinquents animate the less offensive animals, such as the hoofed and horned tribes, &c. and the least offend. ing of the apoftate fpirits, those animals that appear to us the most inoffensive, as the greatest part of the feathered tribe, fith, &c. and in this class, out of compliment to the fair sex, he has placed the women ; that as these spirits existed before their union with their respective bodies, so will they exist after their dissolution, and enter into some other animals of a similar species, till the arrival of the last day. That the spirits of angel, man and brute, being one and the same free agents, they are consequently accountable.

To establish this free agency, he asserts that the Omnipotent never interferes, but leaves these fpirits optional and free ; and endeavours to fhew the absurdity of a contrary fuppofition, by the history of all nations, who have been either openly or covertly the active promoters of persecutions, blood and Naughter, rebellions and murders ; nay, he does not scruple to call such a fuppofition blafphemy.

• Two neighbouring states' says he, proclaim a diabolical war against each othes, founded on ambition, pride, avarice, punctilio,

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