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ás many classes, and be occupied in as various pursuits, as the Livery of the city of London. Mr. Ingram is one of the nightmen of theology, and fearches for gold where a plain and modest Christian would not presume' to obtrude his inquiries. He has already published, in the same voluminous ftile, An Explanation of the Sea ven Vials, and the Seven last Plagues, and Observations on the Two Witnesses clothed in fackcloth. * So again,” says our nor, “ by their foutting up the heavens that it rain not, is typified, their being debarred the use of the scriptures, so absolutely necessary for their growth and improvement in all Christian graces and virtues ” After this specimen the reader will not doubt of our author's fkill in developing what is obscure, and elucidating what is unintelligible. Art.33. The Duties of the Parochial Clergy of the Church of England

considered, in a Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Bangor, at the primary Visitation, beld in the Months of Auguf and September, 1784. By John, Lord Bilhop of Bangor. To which is added, an Appendix, containing Directions concerning the Inftruments proper to be brought for obtaining Orders, &c. Together with some other Matters, 4t0. 2s. Davis, 1785.

A plain and useful discourse, worthy of its author. Art. 34. An Elay on the Rewards of Eternity. 4to. 15. Johnson,

London, 178;.

This discourse gained the annual prize which Mr. Norris inftituted in the University of Cambridge. We can say little more in its praise. Art. 35. The Divine Architect, a Sermon, by Dr. Addington,

A wretched piece of human composition.
Art. 36. The Dying Believer, a Funeral Sermon, by the fame.

The title-page of this Sermon is surrounded, as usual, by a large lugubrious margin ; and contains seven-and-twenty lines, which are by much the bes in the performance. Art. 37. Sermons, adapted to the Family and Closet. By the late Rev.

7. Webb. Buckland, London.

In the first of these sermons, which is called “ Christ the Cover nant of the People," our author tells us, that the covenant of grace was made in the council of peace, between the father and the Son, from all eternity, and long before the creation of the world. As there was neither time nor place when this contract was made, its validity may be called in queflion. By making redemption not only prior to the fall of man, but also to the itate of innocence, our author does not advert that he involves the Deity in the origin of moral evil, and makes him resemble a physician, who throws his patients inco a fever, that he may have the honour of curing them. The third and fourch fermons are from this text “ Believe in the lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved." After attempting to explain, in several pages, what faith is not, at lait he informs us what it is, (p. 106).

That it is reling on, trufling in, and believing in the lord jelus Chriit.' This doctrine of recumbency is well expřained by the cele. brated Dr Barrow. • What would we think of a sovereign,' jays that great divine, who, in issuing a declaration to his rebellious subjects, hould tell them, ihat he would receive them to grace od

favour-not provided they would lay down their arms, and return to a sense of their duty-but provided they would come and roll, and lean, and tumble on his Son. The rest of the sermons are in the same ftrain. We are informed in the preface, • that the peculiar mndelig of Mr. Webb prevented him publishing any thing during his lite.' We wish that he had bequeathed a 1mall portion of that feculiar modefly to his friends.


In many

Art. 38. Pi&turesque Poetry, consisting of Poems, Odes, and Elegies, on

various Subjects. By the Rev. 3. Teasdale, Minister of the English Chapel at Dundee. 2s. 6d. Robinson, 1784. The merit of these poems is much above the common of them the author discovers a fertility of genius, rarely to be met with among the poets of the present day; and we will venture to fay the whole will afford entertainment to the reader of taste and feeling. In our opinion, the elegiac poems are by far the best in the col. lection. Art. 39. The pious Incendiaries, or Fanaticism displayed; a Poem. By

a Lady. 8vo. 2s. 6s. Hooper, 1785. The riots in June 1780, and the supposed author of them, are the subjects of this mock heroic poem ; in which there is a pleasant vein of satire, and many good lines. We wish to see the same pen employed on a better subject, for it certainly is not by hudibrastics that the madness of the noted incendiary is to be cured. Amidst four or five hundred lines, it may be expected there are some very indifferent; but, considering this poem as a first attempt, which we understand it is, the authoress is intitled to much indulgence. Art. 40. A Narrative of Facts; supposed to throw Light on the History

of the Bristol Stranger, known by the Name of the Maid of the Hayfiack. Translated from the French. 8vo. Is. 6d. Gardener, 1985.

We must leave this mysterious affair to the determination of some future period. There are some reasons, it is true, for fupposing the Bristol stranger to be the foreign lady described, but there are equally convincing negative proofs that she is not. In the mean time, this pamphlet may be read with pleasure ; and we are sure it will draw the tear of pity for the sufferings of the fair mourner, known by the name of the Maid of the Haystack.


ART. 41. An Account of the Epidemical Catarrhal Fever, commonly

called the Influenza; as it appeared in the City and Environs of Dur. bam, in the Month of June, 1782. To which is prefixed, a Discourss on the Improvement of Medical Knowledge. By P. D. Leslie, M.D. F. R. S. & C. Crowder, 8vo. 2s.

In the preliminary discourse we discover nothing that is particularly worthy of observation. The account of the influenza is accu. rate, and may be useful. Added to it is a Letter, addressed to the author, on the influenza, as it appeared at Newcastle-upon-Tyne,


by John Clark, M. D. by which it appears that the varieties of the disorder were dependent on circumstances of situation so discrepant, that it is only from the united reports of physicians a proper knowledge of the disorder is to be obtained. Art. 42. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Fevers; with a

Review of the several Opinions concerning its proximate Caule, as advanced by several Authors; and particularly as delivered from the Practical Chair in the Univerfity of Edinburgh. Including some observations on the Existence of Putrefaction in the living Body, and the proper Method of Cure to be pursued in Fevers. By Caleb Dickinson, M. D. Elliot, Edinburgh; Robinson, London. 1785.

Our author has collected the bett opinions on the nature of fevers, and has digested them into a regular fyftem, for the use of students; and to such this work may prove of great utility, previous to their entering on a course of inquiry for themselves. The doctrines of the Edinburgh school are principally adhered to, although, in some instances, Dr. Dickinson widely differs from Dr. Cullen, and points out several inaccuracies in the writings of the latter. On the whole, this Inquiry is pursued with spirit and judgment: and if not the best it is at least one of the best views of the prevailing system of Pathon logy in fevers.

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POLITICAL' STATE OF EUROPE EOR THE YEAR 1785. THE year 1785 is, perhaps, the most peaceable year the world has

seen since the age of Augustus. The temple of Janus was fhut; actual war had ceased among all civilized and great nations ; wailike preparations were interrupted by negociations for peace; ambi. tion of conquest seemed loft in a thirst for pecuniary gain ; and the ardour of mens minds have been diverted from military to commercial enterprize.

At what period of time, since the world was reduced under one monarchy by Cæsar, do we find such general tranquillity ? Internal convulsions, occasioned by struggles for the purple, and the revolt of provinces ; the attacks of barbarians on the Roman frontiers; and, beyond these, the fierce conflicts of barbarous nations with one another, agitated the world, in some quarter or other, with never-ceasing hoftilicies and alarms, Then followed inundations of unknown tribes inhabiting the vast, and, at that time, unknown regions beyond the Danube and the Rhine ; thote destroyers of nations ; those scourges of God! To these luccceded all the barbarities and defolations of the

middle ages, in which, the common animofities that divide nations were embittered by religious zeal, and increased by religious pretená fions. Not only were hostilities carried on between Christians and Mahommedans, on the score of religion, but, on the same score, between Christians with one another. The Greek church was animated with mostal hatred against the Latin, and the Latin church acted with equal fury against the Greek. The popes and the emperors divided the western empire under their hostile banners; while the fucceffors of Constantine, in the east, were endeavouring to protract the final dissolution of their government, by stirring up the Saracensagainst the Turks. But, about the middle of the fifteenth century, the race of Othman obtained possession of the throne of Conitanti nople, and retaining, for many years, the spirit and the vigour of coné querors, barrassed and alarmed the Christian princes with constant ino vasions, both by sea and land. And now the Christians were rea duced, forretimes, to the necessity of laying aside animosities among themselves, and uniting in a confederacy against their common enemy.

In the mean time, a new cause of quarrel and contention sprang up among the Christian states and princes, in the envy. with which they beheld the wealth and the proiperity of the republic of Venice, The league of Cambray was no looner dissolved, than the policy, the good forture, and the ambition of one of the principal confederates, baid a foundation for a new series of wars, which disturbed and af ficted Europe for the space of one hundred and thirty years. Ferdinand of Arragon acquired, by arms, the kingdom of Naples and Grenada, and, by marriage, Caftile, and vast treasures and immense dominjons in the new world. To all these acquisitions his successor, Charles V. added Austria and the Netherlands. The ambition of this prince was infamed, not satiated, by so great an inheritance. His ambition and his quarrels were transmitted to his son Philip II. and from him to the ministers and generals, rather than to the mind of Philip III, In the mean time, the reformation spread the zeal of religious controversy over the face of Europe. The house of Austria patronized the ancient faith. The reformers threw themselves, from antipathy as well as for protection, into the arms of its opponents. And thus, from religious controversy, and from Austrian ambition, tew nations, from the Euxine to the Baltic, were free from the cala. mities or alarms of war from the year 1520 to the conclusion of the peace of Muniter in 1648. Other causes, besides these, provoked war between neighbouring princes, which furnished shelter and encou, ragenesit to all who chose to take up arms ander their respective standards.

From the first Cefars, to the famous æra juft mentioned, it will be difficult to find any single year fo generally pacific as the one just elapsed; or the one on which we have entered promises to be. The year that one would fix on, who should be disposed to controvert this pofition, and to disprove it by an example, would probably be the year 1516, when an universal peace prevailed throughout Europe, on the clcle of that war which was excited and carried on by pore, Julius II. agaiast France, immediately after the humiliation of


the Venetian republic by the league of Cambray. But, not to mention the progress of the Spanish arms and massacres then in America, the Turks were, at that period, extending their conquests in Asia ; and, in the year just mentioned, they accomplished, by their invincible àrms, the reduction of Egypt.

The war between the Spaniards and the Seven United Provinces, previous to the general pacification of Munster, was, indeed, interrupted by a truce of twelve years, from 1609 to 1621, But stil ho. stilities were carried on between these two nations beyond the Line. War also continued, during that interval, by the Autrians and Spaniards on the one side, and the Duke of Savoy, asisted by Ven nice and France, on the other. The Uicocchi too, a race of men that had been driven westward by the incumbent arms of the Turks, to the coasts of Istria, and who enjoyed the countenance and protection of the Austrians, carried on a predatory war against the Venetians. A famous war too, of thirty years, was kindled in Germany, by the pretensions of Frederic, Elector Palatine, supported by the proteitant princes of the union, to the crown of Bohemia.

The peace of Muniter did not compose martial ardour; for the inquietude and turbulency of the Poles continued to harrass all their neighbours, until they were humbledat laft, in 1657, when they weie forced to cede Ducal frullia 'to the Elector of Brandenburg, and to inake other concessions to other princes. In 1652 a naval war commenced betwixt Cromwell and Holland. Cromwell also attacked the Spaniards, from whom he wrested the island of Jamaica. In 1654 war also broke out between Denmark and Sweden, which was continued to the death of Charles Guftavus in 1660. This was succeeded by a war between the Emperor Leopold on the one part, and France and the Turks on the other; which was scarcely begun, when a rupture took place between the Dutch and Charles II. of England: nor was this concluded, before the ambition of Lewis XIV. of France, for universal monarchy, plunged him, in 1672, in a war witia almost all the princes of Europe, which lasted till the peace of Utrecht The emperor was glad to accede to this



1714, that he might be at leilure to watch, and to oppose the progress of the Turks ; in which bufiness he was employed till the pacification of Paffarowitz, in 1618. This peace was disgraceful to the Othmans ; but it was necessary; that they might .make resistance, it pollible, to the prevailing power of Nadir-Shah, who, under the name of Thamas Kouli-Khan, had usurped, in 1732, the throne of Persia. Kouli Khan, having humbled the Turks, carried his victorious armis into india, where he made many conquests, and from whence he carried oht, in 1739, immense treasures. Returning from Indoitan, he conquered the Uíbec Tartars ; renewed hoitilities against the Turks ; nor was his fury against his neighbours, and even his own subjects, allayed, but by his death, which happened in 1747. Meanwhile, war had again commenced, after the death of Kouli Khan, between the Turks on one side, and the Imperialists and Ruiñans on the othes, which terminated in a peace very disadvantageous to the former. Esc. Rev. Vol. VI. jan. 1786.


in 1713.

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